EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

alpha-pinene
DL-pin-2(3)-ene

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene
CAS Number: 80-56-8Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:2437-95-8
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-291-9
FDA UNII:JPF3YI7O34
Nikkaji Web:J3.210G
Beilstein Number:3194807
MDL:MFCD00001339
CoE Number:2113
XlogP3-AA:2.80 (est)
Molecular Weight:136.23752000
Formula:C10 H16
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Also(can) Contains:L-(-)-alpha-pinene
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
JECFA name: alpha-Pinene. EFSA conclusion: additional data required (EFSA, 2009j). Racemate. According to the JECFA: "Min. assay value may include traces of limonene, beta pinene and other common C10H16 terpenes". Composition of mixture to be specified.
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1329 alpha-pinene
FLAVIS Number:01.004 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:01.004 DL-pin-2(3)-ene
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:DL-pin-2(3)-ene
FEMA Number:2902 alpha-pinene
FDA Mainterm: ALPHA-PINENE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00 sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.85300 to 0.86100 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.098 to 7.164
Specific Gravity:0.85400 to 0.86200 @ 20.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - est.: 7.114 to 7.181
Refractive Index:1.46300 to 1.46700 @ 20.00 °C.
Refractive Index:1.46400 @ 25.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:-35.00 to -40.00
Melting Point: -64.00 to -62.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 155.00 to 156.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 72.00 to 73.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:4.750000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 90.00 °F. TCC ( 32.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): 4.830
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 water, 2.49 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:4 hour(s) at 100.00 %
fresh camphoreous sweet pine earthy woody
Odor Description:at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. fresh camphor sweet pine earthy woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1986)
Odor sample from: Berje Inc.
woody pine terpenic cooling camphoreous fresh herbal
Odor Description:at 10.00 %. Woody, piney and turpentine-like, with a slight cooling camphoraceous nuance and a fresh herbal lift
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 25, No. 6, 26, (2000)
Flavor Type: woody
woody pine terpenic camphoreous herbal spicy tropical
Taste Description: at 5.00 - 100.00 ppm. Intense woody, piney and terpy with camphoraceous and turpentine note. It has herbal, spicy and slightly tropical nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 25, No. 6, 26, (2000)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Takasago
Pinene Alpha Biobased 100%
Odor Description:Dry.woody, resinous-piney
For use in flavor, fragrance, and in essential oil imitations.
Pell Wall Perfumes
Pinene alpha
Odor Description:Warm-woody, fresh-pine, resinous
According to Arctander “alpa-Pinene is one of the lowest boiling of all Monoterpenes, and has therefore the most diffusive odor and poorest tenacity. It is also one of the purest commercially available Monoterpenes, the chief impurities being beta-Pinene and Camphene.”
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data2
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
ALPHA PINENE NATURAL
98% min.
Odor: Pine
Aromatic and Allied Chemicals
a-Pinene
Arora Aromatics
Alpha Pinene
Augustus Oils
Pinene Alpha
Services
Berjé
alpha-Pinene P & F
Happening at Berje
Blue Marble Biomaterials
Alpha-Pinene
CG Herbals
a-Pinene
CG Herbals
alpha-Pinene Ex Euts
Odor: Warm- Resinous Refreshing Pine
CG Herbals
alpha-Pinene ex mint
Odor: Harsh, Terpene-Like, Minty
Citrus and Allied Essences
alpha-Pinene (refined) (natural)
Odor: warm-resinous pine-like odor or turpentine
Market Report
Creatingperfume.com
alpha-Pinene Natural
De Monchy Aromatics
alpha-Pinene, Natural
Odor: sweet, fresh, camphor, woody, pine, earthy
Diffusions Aromatiques
alpha-PINENE NATUREL
Diffusions Aromatiques
alpha-PINENE
DRT Terpenes
alpha-PINENE PF
≥ 98%
Ernesto Ventós
PINENE ALPHA NATURAL
Odor: PINE, CAMPHORACEOUS, EARTHY
Excellentia International
alpha-Pinene Natural
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
(+/-)-alpha-Pinene (GC) ≥98%
Fleurchem
alpha-pinene
Florida Chemical
a-Pinene
Foreverest Resources
alpha-Pinene 95%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Alpha-Pinene is a monoterpene, is obtained by the fractionation of gum turpentine oil which is tapped from living pine tree it is largely used as starting material for the synthesis of terpineol, camphor, borneol and terpene resin, synthetic perfumes and resins, medicines and other synthetic organic chemicals. Alpha pinene is used in flavors and fragrances, alpha pinene can be used as raw material in optical active pharmaceutical intermediate and aroma chemicals industries.
Fuzhou Farwell
Alpha Pinene 95%
Indukern F&F
ALPHA PINENE LAEVO NATURAL
Kraton
SYLVAPINE® 402
Odor: characteristic
Use: SYLVAPINE® 402 is an alpha-pinene used as an intermediate for making camphor, perfumes, terpineol, resins and insecticides. SYLVAPINE® 402 can also be used as a cleaner, solvent and a disinfectant.
Kraton
SYLVAPINE® 402SF
M&U International
alpha-PINENE
Mentha & Allied Products
alpha-Pinene
80% to 95%
Nectar Lifesciences
Alpha Pinene
Nippon Terpene Chemicals
alpha-Pinene 95% up
Pell Wall Perfumes
Pinene alpha
Odor: Warm-woody, fresh-pine, resinous
Use: According to Arctander “alpa-Pinene is one of the lowest boiling of all Monoterpenes, and has therefore the most diffusive odor and poorest tenacity. It is also one of the purest commercially available Monoterpenes, the chief impurities being beta-Pinene and Camphene.”
Penta International
alpha-PINENE, Kosher
Penta International
alpha-PINENE, NATURAL, Kosher
Reincke & Fichtner
alpha-Pinene
Reincke & Fichtner
L-alpha-Pinene natural
Robertet
Pinene alpha naturel
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
a-Pinene
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
a-Pinene 98%
SRS Aromatics
alpha-PINENE
Odor: Sweet, Woody, Pine, Earthy
Takasago
Pinene Alpha
Biobased 100%
Odor: Dry.woody, resinous-piney
Use: For use in flavor, fragrance, and in essential oil imitations.
The Fragrance Museum
The John D. Walsh Company
alpha-Pinene 99% Natural
Treatt
alpha-Pinene
Vigon International
Pinene Alpha PF
Vigon International
Pinene Alpha
Zanos
Alpha Pinene
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn N - Harmful, Dangerous for the environment.
R 10 - Flammable.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
S 62 - If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 3), H226
Aspiration hazard (Category 1), H304
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Skin sensitisation (Category 1), H317
Acute aquatic toxicity (Category 3), H402
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramflame.jpghealth-hazard.jpgexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour
H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction
H402 - Harmful to aquatic life
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 - Keep container tightly closed.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242 - Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 - Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P261 - Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P272 - Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P310 - IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303 + P361 + P353 - IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P331 - Do NOT induce vomiting.
P333 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P362 - Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Human Experience:
1 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: M,F] 3700 mg/kg
Identity of compound not stated
(Moreno, 1972n)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD > 500 mg/kg
"Summary Tables of Biological Tests," National Research Council Chemical-Biological Coordination Center. Vol. 4, Pg. 232, 1952.

oral-rat LD50 3700 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: RECORDINGS FROM SPECIFIC AREAS OF CNS LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 853, 1978.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 853, 1978.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-guinea pig LCLo 572 ug/m3
BRAIN AND COVERINGS: RECORDINGS FROM SPECIFIC AREAS OF CNS LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 853, 1978.

inhalation-rat TCLo 625 ug/m3
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BRAIN AND COVERINGS: RECORDINGS FROM SPECIFIC AREAS OF CNS SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 853, 1978.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Other Specification: < 10 mmoles / liter peroxides
Recommendation for alpha-pinene usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 1800.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 2444.00 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -160.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 16.0000054.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 2.60000150.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -64.00000
fruit ices: -64.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -48.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, (FGE.25)[1] - Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25Rev1: Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf
Statement on List of Representative Substances for Testing. The current Statement lays down a list of substances in sub-groups with representative substances for which additional data are required prior to their evaluation through the Procedure (Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000).
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (chemical group 31) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev3
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of eight compounds belonging to chemical group 31 (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) when used as flavourings for all animal species and categories
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):80-56-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6654
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2368
WGK Germany:1
4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene
Chemidplus:0000080568
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:DT7000000 for cas# 80-56-8
 
References:
Leffingwell:Chirality or Article
 4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:80-56-8
Pubchem (cid):6654
Pubchem (sid):134972323
Flavornet:80-56-8
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C09880
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB06525
FooDB:FDB014366
Export Tariff Code:2902.19.0000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
amber
ambroxan
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
angelica root oil
FL/FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
animal
1-oxa
spiro-4,7-dodecane
FR
anise
anise seed oil colombia
FL/FR
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
anisic
ambrette seed oil
FL/FR
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
abies alba cone oil
FR
abies alba needle oil
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
dextro-
borneol
FL/FR
laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-iso
borneol
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl methyl ether
FL/FR
iso
bornyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cedar forest fragrance
FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
clover nitrile
FR
conifer acetate
FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
dextro-
fenchone
FL/FR
fir balsam absolute
FR
frankincense absolute
FL/FR
gurjun balsam
FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
(Z)-
pinane
FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
camphoreous
dextro-
camphor
FL/FR
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
fenchol
FL/FR
laevo-
fenchone
FL/FR
hinoki leaf oil
FR
citrus
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
neroli ketone
FR
earthy
2-
octanone
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil estonia
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil yugoslavia
FL/FR
fatty
decanol
FL/FR
floral
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
bigarade oxide
FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
iso
butyl salicylate
FL/FR
cilantro herb oil egypt
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hyacinth ether
FR
karo karounde absolute
FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
leerall
FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
orris pyridine 25% IPM
FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
sambucus nigra flower oil CO2 extract
FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
5-
tricyclodecenyl acetate
FR
verdyl acetate
FR
fresh
10-
undecen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl amyl glycolate
FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
iso
butyl furyl propionate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
iso
cyclocitral (IFF)
FL/FR
dicyclopentadiene propionate
FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl tiglate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FR
hexyl tiglate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
(Z)-
leaf acetal
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
tobacco leaf absolute
FL/FR
herbal
1-
allyl-2,2,7,7-tetramethyl cycloheptanol
FR
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
angelica archangelica seed extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
artemisia vestita wall. leaf oil
FR
sweet
basil absolute
FL/FR
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
calamintha clinopodium oil
FR
cardamom liquid resin
FR
carum carvi fruit oil
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
alpha-
dihydroterpineol
FL/FR
dill seed oil
FL/FR
dill seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
herbal specialty
FR
herbal undecanone
FR
6-
hydroxydihydrotheaspirane (mixture of isomers)
FL/FR
hyssop oil
FL/FR
hyssopus officinalis extract
FL/FR
hyssopus officinalis leaf tincture
FL/FR
immortelle flower oil
FL/FR
lavandin water absolute
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
spike
lavender oil
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl salicylate
FL/FR
myrtenol
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
nopyl acetate
FR
origanum oil greece
FL/FR
pine hexanol
FR
laevo-beta-
pinene
FL/FR
beta-
pinene
FL/FR
L-(-)-alpha-
pinene
FL/FR
pinocarveol
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
sage oleoresin
FL/FR
terpineols (unspec.) (mixed isomers)
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
theaspirane
FL/FR
thyme oil wild or creeping
FL/FR
marine
marine pyridine
FR
minty
dihydrocarveol
FL/FR
pennyroyal oil
FL/FR
mossy
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
treemoss absolute
FR
veramoss (IFF)
FR
musk
angelica root absolute
FL/FR
orris
para-iso
propyl acetophenone
FL/FR
phenolic
methyl benzoate
FL/FR
pine
dipentene terpene hydrocarbon byproducts
FR
evergreen fragrance
FR
white
pine bark oil
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
ayou wood oil
FR
bayberry fragrance
FR
carvacrol
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon acrolein
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
eugenol
FL/FR
ginger oleoresin africa
FL/FR
ginger root absolute
FL/FR
ginger root oil cochin
FL/FR
laurus nobilis leaf oil
FL/FR
methyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
myrcene
FL/FR
myrtenal
FL/FR
nutmeg oil
FL/FR
2-
octanol
FL/FR
outdoors specialty
FR
black
pepper absolute
FL/FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
tea tree oil
FR
terpenic
cypress leaf oil
FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
laevo-
limonene
FL/FR
pine needle oil dwarf
FL/FR
D-(+)-beta-
pinene
FL/FR
pinus nigra twig leaf oil
FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
thujonic
armoise oil
FR
cedarleaf oil western red
FR
sage oil dalmatian
FL/FR
common
tansy flower oil argentina
FL/FR
thuja occidentalis leaf oil
FL/FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
tonka
flouve absolute
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
decyl acetate
FL/FR
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
woody
angelica archangelica root extract
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root tincture
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root water
FL/FR
iso
bornyl isovalerate
FL/FR
cadinene
FL/FR
(+)-
camphene
FL/FR
camphene
FL/FR
cedarwood oil port orford
FR
cedrela wood oil
FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
cypress essence
FR
dalbergia sissoo leaf oil
FR
dihydro-alpha-terpinyl acetate
FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
fougere woody fragrance
FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
laitone
FR
manevoro oil
FR
marine formate
FR
melaleuca bracteata leaf oil
FR
para-
menth-3-en-1-ol
FL/FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
myoporum crassifolium wood oil
FR
myrtenyl formate
FL/FR
nopyl aldehyde
FR
orris hexanone
FR
patchouli alcohol
FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
cis-2-
pinanol
FR
polylimonene
FL/FR
santall
FR
santol pentenol
FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinene
FL/FR
tetrahydromugol
FR
3(or 2),4,5-
trimethyl octahydro-4,7-methanoinden-5-ol
FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody propanol
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
ambrette seed oil
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root extract
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root tincture
FL/FR
angelica archangelica root water
FL/FR
dextro-
borneol
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl methyl ether
FL/FR
(+)-
camphene
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
laurus nobilis leaf oil
FL/FR
para-
menth-3-en-1-ol
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl salicylate
FL/FR
1-
methyl pyrrole
FL
myrtenyl formate
FL/FR
white
pine bark oil
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil estonia
FL/FR
scotch
pine needle oil yugoslavia
FL/FR
D-(+)-beta-
pinene
FL/FR
L-(-)-alpha-
pinene
FL/FR
laevo-beta-
pinene
FL/FR
polylimonene
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
terpineols (unspec.) (mixed isomers)
FL/FR
thuja occidentalis leaf oil
FL/FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
iso
butyl furyl propionate
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
anise
anise seed oil colombia
FL/FR
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
camphoreous
laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-iso
borneol
FL/FR
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
camphene
FL/FR
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
fenchol
FL/FR
laevo-
fenchone
FL/FR
6-
hydroxydihydrotheaspirane (mixture of isomers)
FL/FR
pinocarveol
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
cooling
iso
butyl salicylate
FL/FR
dextro-
fenchone
FL/FR
spike
lavender oil
FL/FR
theaspirane
FL/FR
creamy
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
dairy
2-
octanone
FL/FR
fatty
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))
FL/FR
grassy
tobacco leaf absolute
FL/FR
greasy
10-
undecen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
angelica root oil
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
iso
cyclocitral (IFF)
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
dihydrocarveol
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl tiglate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
(Z)-
leaf acetal
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
herbal
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
angelica archangelica seed extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
sweet
basil absolute
FL/FR
carum carvi fruit oil
FL/FR
cilantro herb oil egypt
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
dill seed oil
FL/FR
dill seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
hyssop oil
FL/FR
hyssopus officinalis extract
FL/FR
hyssopus officinalis leaf tincture
FL/FR
immortelle flower oil
FL/FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavandin water absolute
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
origanum oil greece
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
sage oleoresin
FL/FR
tarragon oleoresin
FL
thyme oil wild or creeping
FL/FR
honey
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
medicinal
dextro-
camphor
FL/FR
frankincense absolute
FL/FR
minty
(1R)-(-)-
myrtenal
FL
myrtenal
FL/FR
myrtenol
FL/FR
pennyroyal oil
FL/FR
musk
angelica root absolute
FL/FR
phenolic
methyl benzoate
FL/FR
pine
pine needle oil dwarf
FL/FR
beta-
pinene
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
carvacrol
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon acrolein
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
eugenol
FL/FR
ginger oleoresin africa
FL/FR
ginger root absolute
FL/FR
ginger root oil cochin
FL/FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
methyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
nutmeg oil
FL/FR
2-
octanol
FL/FR
black
pepper absolute
FL/FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
white
pepper oleoresin
FL
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
para-iso
propyl acetophenone
FL/FR
terpenic
abies alba needle oil
FL/FR
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
laevo-
limonene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinene
FL/FR
thujonic
sage oil dalmatian
FL/FR
common
tansy flower oil argentina
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
decanol
FL/FR
decyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
woody
ambroxan
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl isovalerate
FL/FR
cadinene
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
alpha-
dihydroterpineol
FL/FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
myrcene
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FL/FRcoriander
FL/FRcumin
 fir
FRherbal
FL/FRlabdanum
FRlavender
FRlemon
FL/FRlitsea cubeba
FRmango
FRneroli
FRnutmeg
 pepper
FRpine
FRrosemary
FL/FRthyme
FRwitch hazel
FRwoody
FRylang ylang
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 abies holophylla
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 achillea tenuifolia lam. flower oil iran @ 7.70%
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 agathosma crenulata oil @ 0.73%
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 ajowan seed oil turkey @ 0.32%
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 allspice fruit
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 allspice leaf
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 allspice leaf oil
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 alpinia galanga oil @ 10.20%
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 amomum testaceum ridl. fruit oil malaysia @ 3.20%
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 angelica root oil @ 32.19%
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 angelica seed oil @ 5.20%
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 angelica seed oil CO2 extract @ 11.80%
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 anise oil
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 anise seed
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 anise seed oil star china @ 0.49%
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 anise star anise fruit
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 apple custard apple plant
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 apple fruit
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 armoise oil morocco @ 1.5%
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 artemisia campestris spp. glutinosa flower oil italy @ 2.60%
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 artemisia diffusa krasch. ex poljak oil iran @ 0.40%
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 artemisia santolina schrenk oil iran @ 0.70%
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 artemisia variabilis flower oil italy @ 0.80%
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 ayou wood oil @ 2.80%
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 basil flower oil sweet @ 0.04%
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 basil leaf oil
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 basil leaf oil sweet (ocimum basilicum) @ 0.13%
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 basil oil
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 basil oil CO2 sweet @ trace%
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 basil oil sweet @ 0.16%
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 basil oil sweet egypt @ 0.28%
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 basil oil sweet poland @ 0.83%
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 basil oil var. glabratum turkey @ 0.43%
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 basil plant
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 basil shoot oil
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 basswood flower
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 bay laurel bark
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 bay laurel flower
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 bay laurel fruit oil
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 bay laurel leaf
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 bay laurel leaf oil
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 bay laurel wood
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 bay leaf oil @ 0.46-0.47%
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 bay leaf oil anise @ 0.2%
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 bay leaf oil lemon @ 0.5%
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 bergamot mint oil @ 0.0-0.1%
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 bergamot oil @ 0.720-1.844%
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 bergamot oil @ 2.2%
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 bergamot oil turkey @ 0.81%
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 bergamot plant wild
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 blackberry fruit
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 blood orange oil (citrus sinensis l. var. sanguinello) italy @ 0.502%
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 blood orange oil (citrus sinensis l. var. tarocco) italy @ 0.478%
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 blood orange oil italy @ 0.480%
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 blueberry fruit
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 boldo leaf oil italy @ 0.02%
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 boldus leaf oil chile @ 0.01%
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 bombycilaena erecta oil greece @ 0.40%
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 buchu leaf oil @ 0.37%
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 cabocla flower oil brazil @ 0.90%
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 cajuput oil @ 1.0%
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 cajuput oil vietnam @ 3.2%
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 calamintha nepeta (l.) savi subsp. glandulosa oil greece @ 0.70%
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 calamus root oil mongolia @ 0.70%
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 cananga fruit oil @ 11.1%
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 cananga leaf oil @ 14.0%
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 cananga odorata oil java @ 0.06%
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 caraway plant
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 caraway seed
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 caraway seed oil @ 0.05%
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 cardamom fruit
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 cardamom fruit oil
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 cardamom oil CO2 extract guatemala @ 0.70%
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 cardamom root oil
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 cardamom seed oil
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 cardamom seed oil @ 2.30%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 carqueja oil @ 6.40%
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 carrot leaf oil @ trace%
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 carrot root
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 carrot seed
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 carrot seed oil @ 9.09%
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 carrot seed oil @ trace%
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 carrot seed oil spain @ 0.50-1.73%
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 carrot shoot
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 carrot weed oil @ 1.42%
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 cascarilla bark oil @ 2.59%
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 cassia bark
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 cassia bark oil china @ 3.47%
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 cassia leaf oil china @ 3.47%
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 cassinia laevis flower oil australia @ 13.60%
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 cassinia laevis leaf oil australia @ 9.80%
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 cassis bud oil @ 1.30-9.23%
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 cedarleaf oil canada @ 0.55-1.31%
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 celery leaf oil
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 celery leaf oil @ 0.20%
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 celery seed
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 celery seed oil
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 celery seed oil egypt @ 0.14%
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 celery seed oil india @ 0.05%
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 celery stem oil
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 chamomile flower oil germany @ trace%
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 chamomile garden chamomile plant
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 chamomile oil @ 1.05%
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 chamomile oil morocco @ 15.00%
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 champaca concrete @ 0.12%
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 champaca concrete @ trace%
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 chenopodium ambrosioides oil @ 10.0%
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 cinnamomum fragrans baillon leaf oil madagascar @ 4.80%
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 cinnamomum fragrans baillon leaf oil madagascar @ 8.00%
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 cinnamon bark oil (cinnamomum zeylanicum blume) india @ 0.18%
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 cinnamon bark oil (cinnamomum zeylanicum blume) sri lauka @ 0.04-0.07%
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 cinnamon bark oil ceylon @ 3.47%
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon bark
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon bark oil
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon leaf
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon leaf oil
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon root bark
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon stem bark
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 cinnamon fruit oil india @ 0.1-1.6%
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 cinnamon leaf oil ceylon @ 0.33%
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 cinnamon oil CO2 extract @ 0.06-0.21%
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 cinnamon twig oil @ 0.21%
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 citronella oil ceylon @ 1.87%
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 citronella oil china @ 0.01%
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 citronella oil java @ 0.05%
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 citronella oil zimbabwe @ 0.32%
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 clary sage oil france @ 0.10-0.20%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 clary sage oil greece @ 0.10%
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 clary sage oil sardinia @ 0.10%
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 clary sage oil spain @ 0.30%
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 clove bud oil @ 0.02%
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 clove leaf oil @ 0.03%
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 clove stem oil india @ 0.03%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 coriander fruit
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 coriander oil
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 coriander seed oil
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 coriander seed oil @ 1.80%
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 coriander seed oil cuba @ 1.14%
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 corn husk oil
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 cornmint oil india @ 0.15%
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 cornmint plant
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 costmary oil @ 0.04%
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 cotton plant
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 crithmum maritimum l. oil turkey @ 0.70%
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 croton cajucara benth. leaf oil brazil @ 0.60%
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 croton flavens l. (welensali) leaf oil curacao @ 16.00%
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 cubeb oil @ 5.44%
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 cumin
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 cumin seed
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 cumin seed oil
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 cumin seed oil egypt @ 0.78%
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 cumin seed oil turkey @ 1.2%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 curcuma amada roxb. rhizome oil india @ 0.40%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 currant black currant fruit
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 currant black currant leaf
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 curry fruit oil india @ 48.10%
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 curry leaf oil india @ 9.00%
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 curry wood leaf oil australia @ 0.30%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf. oil cuba @ 0.10%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cypress cone oil egypt @ 48.2%
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 cypress oil @ 47.00-52.76%
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 dill leaf
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 dill oil
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 dill seed
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 dill seed oil
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 dill shoot oil
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 dill weed oil cuba @ 3.17%
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 dill weed oil reunion @ 1.70%
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 echinophora cinerea oil iran @ 9.60%
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 elemi oil @ 5.40%
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 elyonurus muticus (sprengel) o.kuntze leaf oil brazil @ 0.90%
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 erigeron graveolens l. oil iran @ 0.20%
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 eriocephalus punctulatus oil @ 6.00%
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 eucalyptus camaldulensis dehn. leaf oil jerusalem @ 0.70%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus camaldulensis dehnh. leaf oil ethiopia @ 0.80%
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 eucalyptus citriodora oil @ 0.14%
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 eucalyptus dalrympleana maiden leaf oil ethiopia @ 26.20%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus deaneti maiden leaf oil ethiopia @ 0.90%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus delegatensis r. baker leaf oil ethiopia @ 28.30%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus bicostata oil @ 1.90%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus fruit oil @ 3.61%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus maidenii f. muell oil @ 3.65%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil @ 12.49%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil burundia @ 8.80%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil pakistan @ 0.30%
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 eucalyptus globulus oil rwanda @ 6.23%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil zambia @ 14.00%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus pseudoglobulus oil @ 12.27%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden leaf oil ethiopia @ 44.70%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus nitens (deane et maiden) maiden leaf oil ethiopia @ 21.70%
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 eucalyptus saligna smith leaf oil ethiopia @ 38.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus tereticornis smith leaf oil ethiopia @ 24.40%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus urophylla s.t. blake leaf oil ethiopia @ 13.30%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus viminalis labill. leaf oil ethiopia @ 28.20%
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 featherfew leaf oil @ 1.65%
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 fennel flower oil bitter lithuania @ 4.08%
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 fennel oil
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 fennel plant
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 fennel root oil
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 fennel seed
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 fennel seed oil
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 fennel seed oil bitter lithuania @ 19.50%
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 fennel seed oil bitter spain @ 0.20%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 fennel seed oil sweet @ 0.25%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 feverfew flower oil @ 0.2%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 feverfew leaf oil belgium @ 1.0%
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 fig leaf oil
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 fir korean fir
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 fir needle oil canada @ 6.18-14.29%
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 fir needle oil siberia @ 13.74%
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 fleabane oil @ 0.20%
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 foeniculum vulgare piperitum oil @ 0.60%
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 frankincense oil somalia @ 3.50%
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 galangal root oil @ 5.80%
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 geranium leaf oil india @ 0.20%
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 geranium oil bourbon @ 0.24%
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 geranium oil rwanda @ 0.03%
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 geranium petiole oil india @ 0.13%
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 geranium stem oil india @ 0.10%
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 ginger
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 ginger rhizome
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 ginger rhizome oil
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 ginger root oil brazil @ 2.30%
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 ginger root oil china @ 1.04%
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 gingergrass oil @ 0.02%
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 glycosmis pentaphylla (cor.) seed oil india @ 2.10%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.50%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.51%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.52%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. italy @ 0.42%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.74%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.74%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.78%
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 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 1.76%
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 grapefruit oil california @ 0.45%
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 grapefruit oil CO2 extract @ 0.21%
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 guava fruit
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 guava leaf oil
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 guava oil
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 guava pericarp oil
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 helichrysum italicum oil america @ 3.41%
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 heracleum candolleanum rhizome oil india @ 18.90%
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 heracleum paphlagonicum czeczott fruit oil turkey @ 0.10%
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 herniaria incana lam. oil greece @ trace%
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 hinoki leaf oil @ 1.01%
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 hinoki root oil @ 0.73%
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 hinoki wood oil @ 0.44%
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 ho leaf oil @ 0.12%
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 horsemint shoot
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 hypericum dogonbadanicum assadi oil iran @ 34.70%
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 hyptis spicigera lam. oil mali @ 6.00-14.00%
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 hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit. oil mali @ 1.80-2.60%
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 hyssop leaf
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 hyssop oil
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 hyssop oil @ trace%
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 hyssop oil CO2 extract @ trace%
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 hyssop shoot
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 jambu flower oil brazil @ 2.10%
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 juniper berry oil @ 33.60%
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 juniper berry oil CO2 extract @ 14.10%
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 juniper branch oil @ 18.70%
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 juniper needle oil @ 33.70%
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 kachur oil @ 1.30%
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 kewda oil @ 0.30-0.40%
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 labdanum leaf oil @ 39.00%
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 labdanum oil @ 0.37%
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 laurel bark oil @ 4.0%
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 laurel berry oil @ 2.1%
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 laurel leaf oil @ 5.8%
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 laurel leaf oil turkey @ 4.60%
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 laurel stem oil @ 3.5%
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 laurel wood oil @ 1.0%
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 lavandin oil abrialis @ 0.89%
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 lavandin oil china @ 7.91%
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 lavandin oil grosso @ 0.61%
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 lavandula officinalis flower oil @ 0.80%
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 lavender oil CO2 extract france @ 0.27%
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 lavender oil france @ 0.14%
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 lavender oil greece @ 0.58%
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 lavender oil spike @ 1.80%
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 lavender oil spike france @ 4.77%
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 lavender oil spike spain @ 1.11%
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 lemon
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 lemon fruit oil
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 lemon leaf oil
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 lemon oil
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 lemon oil california @ 1.75%
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 lemon oil expressed italy @ 1.90%
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 lemon pericarp
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 lemon pericarp oil
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 lemon petiole
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 lemon verbena oil morocco @ 1.4%
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 lemon verbena oil turkey @ 1.42%
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 lemongrass oil @ 0.06%
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 lemongrass oil @ 5.40%
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 lemongrass oil egypt @ 0.73%
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 lemongrass oil morocco @ 0.40%
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 lemongrass plant
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 levisticum officinale flower oil @ 1.01%
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 levisticum officinale seed oil @ 1.47%
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 lime
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 lime fruit
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 lime oil CO2 extract mexico @ 0.03%
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 lime oil distilled mexico @ 1.02%
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 lime oil distilled peru @ 0.99%
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 lime oil expressed florida @ 3.2%
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 lippia aff. gracillis h.b.k. leaf oil brazil @ 0.60%
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 litsea cubeba oil china @ 1.43%
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 lovage flower oil @ 1.20%
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 lovage leaf oil @ 0.70%
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 lovage root
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 lovage root oil @ 0.65%
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 lovage seed oil @ 1.90%
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 mace oil @ 1.30%
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 mace oil CO2 extract @ 6.60%
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 mace oil east india @ 15.24%
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 mandarin
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 mandarin fruit
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 mandarin oil @ 2.29%
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 mandarin oil avana @ 1.78%
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 mandarin oil avana @ 1.79%
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 mandarin oil italy @ 2.29%
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 mandarin oil italy @ 2.36%
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 mandarin oil japan @ 1.20%
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 mandarin oil uruguay @ 0.48-0.50%
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 mango flower
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 manuka var. eximium oil australia @ 18.10%
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 manuka var. rotundifolium oil australia @ 30.80%
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 manuka var. scoparium oil new zealand @ 1.31%
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 marjoram oil
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 marjoram oil @ 2.63%
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 marjoram oil spain @ 2.00%
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 marjoram oil sweet cuba @ 0.64%
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 marjoram oil sweet cyprus @ 1.00-1.90%
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 marjoram oil sweet iran @ 0.80%
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 marjoram oil sweet morocco @ 0.39%
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 marjoram oil sweet turkey @ 1.66-1.76%
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 marjoram plant
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 marjoram pot oil turkey @ 0.78-2.69%
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 marsypianthes chamaedrys (vahl) kuntze oil brazil @ 0.70%
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 mastic fruit oil @ 0.21%
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 mastic leaf oil @ 0.47%
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 mastic oil @ 78.61%
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 mayur pankh fruit oil himalaya @ 67.80%
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 melissa oil @ 0.05%
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 melissa oil slovak republic @ 0.15%
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 michelia alba flower absolute @ 0.17%
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 microstrobos fitzgeraldii leaf oil australia @ 22.70%
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 microstrobos niphophilus leaf oil australia @ 26.90%
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 mikan peel oil @ 0.64%
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 mikania cordata (burm. f.) b.l. robinson var. cordata leaf oil france @ 9.60%
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 mugwort plant
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 myristica fragrans fruit oil @ 13.60%
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 myrrhinium atropurpureum schott leaf oil brazil @ 12.20%
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 myrtle lemon scented leaf oil australia @ 7.80%
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 myrtle oil @ 35.20%
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 narcissus absolute @ 2.39%
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 narcissus absolute @ 6.07%
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 nepeta cephalotes boiss. oil iran @ 2.10%
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 nepeta denudata benth. oil iran @ 1.70%
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 nepeta racemosa lam. oil iran @ 0.40%
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 neroli bigarde oil france @ 0.28%
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 neroli oil CO2 extract @ 0.46%
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 niaouli oil egypt @ 6.20%
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 nutmeg extract CO2 west indian @ 6.40%
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 nutmeg flower oil @ 9.51%
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 nutmeg leaf oil
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 nutmeg leaf oil @ 8.62-34.64%
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 nutmeg oil
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 nutmeg oil hydrodistilled india @ 13.6%
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 nutmeg oil india @ 22.00%
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 nutmeg seed
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 nutmeg seed oil
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 ocimum gratissimum l. oil brazil @ 0.27%
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 orange
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 orange bigarade oil @ 0.11%
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 orange fruit
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 orange fruit juice
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 orange oil c.p. brazil @ 0.89-0.95%
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 orange peel oil bitter brazil @ 0.89%
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 orange peel oil bitter china @ 1.17%
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 orange peel oil bitter italy @ 0.40%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.471%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.475%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.475%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.482%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.534%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. egypt @ 0.68%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. florida @ 0.43%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. valencia @ 0.42%
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 oregano oil
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 oregano oil mexico @ 0.56%
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 oregano plant
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 oregano plant
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 oregano shoot
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 oregano shoot oil
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 origanum oil greece @ 0.69%
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 osmanthus absolute @ trace%
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 otanthus maritimus (l.) hoffmans oil greece @ 0.20%
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 parsley fruit
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 parsley fruit oil
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 parsley leaf
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 parsley leaf oil @ 0.25%
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 parsley leaf oil cuba @ 0.03%
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 parsley leaf oil egypt @ 6.94%
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 parsley root
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 parsley seed
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 parsley seed oil
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 parsley seed oil @ 22.28%
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 patchouli oil china @ 0.09%
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 pennyroyal oil @ 0.40%
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 pennyroyal oil cuba @ 0.35%
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 pennyroyal oil spain @ 1.50%
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 pennyroyal oil uruguay @ trace-0.40%
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper fruit oil
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 pepper black pepper oil
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 pepper black pepper seed oil
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 pepper oil black india @ 7.80%
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 pepper tree berry oil @ 2.66%
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 pepper tree leaf oil @ 1.46%
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 peppermint leaf
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 peppermint oil america @ 1.34%
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 peppermint oil CO2 extract @ 0.20%
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 peppermint oil russia @ 0.80%
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 persea americana mill. fruit oil cuba @ 5.20%
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 petitgrain bergamot oil @ 0.09%
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 petitgrain bigarade oil @ 0.20%
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 petitgrain combava oil @ 0.06%
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 petitgrain grapefruit oil @ 2.40%
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 petitgrain lemon oil @ 0.15%
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 petitgrain lime oil @ 0.30%
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 petitgrain mandarin oil @ 0.98%
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 petitgrain oil @ 0.20%
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 petitgrain sweet oil @ 0.95%
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 phlomis fruticosa l. flower oil greece @ 8.90%
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 phoebe oil brazil @ 1.29%
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 pimenta leaf oil @ 0.56%
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 pimenta racemosa leaf oil lemon @ 0.19%
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 pimento berry oil @ trace%
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 pimento berry oil CO2 extract jamaica @ trace%
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 pine needle oil dwarf @ 9.95%
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 pine needle oil scotch siberia @ 29.2-36.6%
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 pinus laricio poiret branch oil italy @ 89.20%
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 pinus laricio poiret cone oil italy @ 68.60%
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 pinus laricio poiret leaf oil italy @ 53.40%
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 pinus sylvestris l. needle oil estonia @ 28.10%
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 pinus sylvestris l. needle oil yugoslavia @ 40.30%
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 piper cernum vell. var. cernum yuncker leaf oil brazil @ 10.20%
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 pittosporum spp. fruit oil malaysia @ 60.20%
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 plectranthus glandulosus hook f. leaf oil cameroon @ 0.60%
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 plum fruit
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 plumcot fruit
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 pomelo
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 prangos uechtritzii boiss. et hausskn. fruit oil turkey @ 6.10%
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 prangos uloptera dc. oil iran @ 1.30%
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 prangos uloptera dc. seed oil iran @ 41.90%
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 protium heptaphyllum (aubl.) march fruit oil brazil @ 71.20%
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 protium heptaphyllum (aubl.) march leaf oil brazil @ 1.60%
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 protium heptaphyllum (aubl.) march resin oil brazil @ 10.50%
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 pteronia oil @ 18.60%
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 ravintsara leaf oil @ 5.55%%
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 rose oil otto bulgaria @ 0.38%
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 rosemary
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 rosemary leaf
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 rosemary leaf oil
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 rosemary oil
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 rosemary oil china @ 8.53%
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 rosemary oil CO2 extract @ 8.30%
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 rosemary oil corsica @ 22.00%
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 rosemary oil egypt @ 2.46%
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 rosemary oil france @ 19.91-35.08%
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 rosemary oil morocco @ 9.56-12.72%
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 rosemary oil spain @ 4.4%
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 rosemary oil turkey @ 0.44%
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 rosemary plant
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 rosemary sap
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 rosemary shoot
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 rosemary shoot oil
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 rue oil china @ 0.02%
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 saffron stigma
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 sage
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 sage leaf oil
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 sage oil
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 sage oil albania @ 1.10%
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 sage oil cuba @ 0.81%
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 sage oil dalmatian @ 0.20%
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 sage oil dalmatian @ 1.10%
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 sage oil dalmatian @ 3.69%
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 sage oil england @ 3.70%
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 sage oil france @ 0.70%
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 sage oil germany @ 4.08%
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 sage oil hydrodistillation france @ 5.90%
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 sage oil lithuania @ 6.05%
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 sage oil reunion @ 5.40%
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 sage oil sardinia @ 3.70%
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 sage oil spain @ 4.5%
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 sage oil spain @ 4.7-10.9%
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 sage oil spain @ 4.80%
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 sage plant
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 salvia atropatana bunge oil iran @ 0.10%
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 salvia lavandulifolia vahl. leaf oil @ 0.50%
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 salvia lavandulifolia vahl. leaf oil spain @ 2.70%
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 salvia officinalis oil cuba @ 0.81%
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 salvia officinalis oil reunion @ 2.71%
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 salvia officinalis seed oil tunisia @ 1.26%
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 salvia sclarea oil @ 4.57%
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 salvia sclarea seed oil tunisia @ 0.27%
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 salvia verbenaca seed oil tunisia @ 0.44%
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 santolina oil @ 0.23%
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 satureja khuzistanica jamzad oil iran @ 0.30%
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 satureja viminea l. oil costa rica @ 0.40%
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 savin oil @ 1.60%
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 savin oil @ 69.00%
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 savory oil summer @ 2.35-3.83%
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 savory oil winter @ 3.60%
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 savory oleoresin winter @ 3.60%
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 savory summer savory plant
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 savory winter savory oil
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 savory winter savory plant
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 sideritis scardica l. oil bulgaria @ 1.40%
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 sideritis syriaca l. oil bulgaria @ 18.20%
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 skimmia laureola oil @ 0.2%
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 snake root oil canada @ 0.90%
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 spearmint leaf
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 spearmint oil
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 spearmint oil america @ 0.51-0.72%
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 spikenard oil @ 0.10%
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 stachys recta l. oil serbia @ 0.50%
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 strawberry wild strawberry fruit
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 sugandha kokila berry oil @ 1.20%
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 sunflower plant
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 tagete flower oil rwanda @ trace%
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 tagete oil egypt @ 0.12%
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 tagete oil rwanda @ 0.03%
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 tagete oil turkey @ 0.06%
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 tamarind fruit oil
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 tamarind seed oil
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 tanacetum annum l. oil marocco @ 4.90%
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 tangerine oil america @ 1.41%
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 tansy flower oil canada @ 1.34%
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 tansy flower oil dutch @ 0.20%
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 tansy leaf oil dutch @ 0.30%
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 tansy oil argentina @ trace%
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 tansy oil canada @ 0.20%
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 tansy oil marocco @ 1.30%
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 tarragon leaf oil
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 tarragon oil
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 tarragon oil @ trace%
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 tarragon root oil
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 tarragon shoot
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 taxodium distichum (l.) richard branch oil italy @ 53.70%
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 taxodium distichum (l.) richard cone oil italy @ 71.30%
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 taxodium distichum (l.) richard leaf oil italy @ 79.70%
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 tea leaf
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 tejpat oil @ 1.50%
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 thevetia peruviana (pers.) k. schum. flower oil brazil @ 0.50%
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 thyme absolute @ trace%
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 thyme oil
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 thyme oil portuguese @ 0.7%
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 thyme oil red CO2 extract @ 0.01%
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 thyme oil red india @ 0.4%
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 thyme oil red spain @ 0.49-1.34%
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 thyme oil spain @ 0.04%
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 thyme oil spain @ 2.28%
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 thyme oil wild or creeping finland @ 1.90%
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 thyme oil wild or creeping france @ 0.08%
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 thyme oil wild or creeping pakistan @ 0.27%
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 thyme plant
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 thymus richardii pers. subsp. nitidus (guss.) jalas oil italy @ 0.70%
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 tomato
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 tomato fruit
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 trachyspermum roxburghianum benth. ex. kurz. seed oil india @ 0.30%
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 turmeric leaf
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 turmeric oil china @ 0.53%
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 turmeric rhizome
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 turmeric rhizome oil
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 turmeric root oil CO2 extract @ 1.25%
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 turmeric root oil hydrodistilled @ 0.25%
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 turmeric tuber
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 valerian root oil @ 0.1-0.2%
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 valerian root oil china @ 5.46%
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 valerian root oil CO2 extract china @ 0.60%
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 vassoura oil @ 2.90%
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 verbena oil france @ 0.60%
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 walnut black walnut fruit
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut black walnut oil
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 water mint leaf
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 water mint shoot
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 wormseed oil america @ 0.82%
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 wormseed oil spain @ 0.09%
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 wormwood flower oil annus america @ 0.24%
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 wormwood leaf oil annus america @ 0.40-0.50%
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 wormwood oil america @ 0.69%
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 wormwood oil annus france @ 4.20-15.66%
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 wormwood oil annus vietnam @ 0.74%
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 wormwood oil cuba @ 1.24%
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 wormwood oil italy @ 0.3%
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 wormwood oil poland @ 3.23%
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 xylopia aromatica (lam.) mart. leaf oil cuba @ 0.20%
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 yarrow leaf oil @ 0.80%
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 yarrow oil @ 4.20%
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 yarrow oil greece @ 0.40%
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 yarrow oil hungary @ 4.10%
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 ylang ylang
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 ylang ylang oil @ 1.87%
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 ylang ylang oil CO2 extract @ 0.19%
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 ylang ylang oil I (cananga odorata hook. f. and thomas.) @ 0.16%
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 ylang ylang oil II (cananga odorata hook. f. and thomas.) @ 0.13%
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 ylang ylang oil III @ 0.08%
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 yuzu leaf oil @ 0.68-1.62%
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 yuzu peel oil c.p. @ 0.95-1.11%
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 yuzu peel oil CO2 extract @ 0.64-0.90%
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 zanthoxylum bracchyacanthum l. leaf oil australia @ 46.00%
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 zanthoxylum ovalifolium l. leaf oil australia @ 31.60%
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 zingiber officinale root oil china @ 0.69%
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 zinnia elegans jacq. flower oil brazil @ 0.90%
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Synonyms:
DL-pin-2(3)-ene
dextro,laevo-pin-2(3)-ene
.alpha.-pinene
2-pinene
a-pinene
alpha-pinene (natural)
alpha-pinene (refined) (natural)
 pinene alpha
 pinene alpha naturel
 pinene alpha PF
alpha-pinene natural
alpha-pinene P & F
alpha-pinene P and F
alpha-pinene PF
alpha-pinene, natural
2,6,6-trimethyl bicyclo-3,1,1-2-heptene
2,6,6-trimethyl bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-ene
4,7,7-trimethyl bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-3-ene
4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene
 

Articles:

PubMed:Chemical description and essential oil yield variability of different accessions of Salvia lavandulifolia.
PubMed:Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of fruit flavors on methane production during anaerobic digestion.
PubMed:Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.
PubMed:The compositions of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in dried omija fruits (Schisandra chinensis Baillon) according to the cultivation areas.
PubMed:Microbial oxidation of (-)-α-pinene to verbenol production by newly isolated strains.
PubMed:Comparative analysis of essential oils from eight herbal medicines with pungent flavor and cool nature by GC-MS and chemometric resolution methods.
PubMed:Evaluation of aroma-active compounds in Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. Var. microcarpa Hassk.) by gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma reconstitution, and omission test.
PubMed:Comparison of sugar, acids, and volatile composition in raspberry bushy dwarf virus-resistant transgenic raspberries and the wild type 'meeker' (rubus idaeus L.).
PubMed:Chemical composition of volatile extract and biological activities of volatile and less-volatile extracts of juniper berry (Juniperus drupacea L.) fruit.
PubMed:Application of biotransformation in flavor and fragrance industry.
PubMed:Volatile organic compounds of Angelica gigas Nakai, Korean medicinal herb.
PubMed:Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.
PubMed:Effect of different locations on the chemical composition of essential oils of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves growing wild in Turkey.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:Gain and loss of fruit flavor compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species.
PubMed:Volatile constituents and key odorants in leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of Laurus nobilis L.
PubMed:Characterization of volatiles in bullock's heart (Annona reticulata L.) fruit cultivars from Cuba.
PubMed:Effects of pulsed electric field processing and storage on the quality and stability of single-strength orange juice.
PubMed:Characterization of volatiles in Costa Rican guava [Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg) Niedenzu] fruit.
PubMed:Characterization of volatiles in strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) fruit.
PubMed:Characterization of the odor-active volatiles in citrus Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka).
PubMed:Development of rancidity in wheat germ analyzed by headspace gas chromatography and sensory analysis.
PubMed:Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea.
PubMed:Encapsulation of lemon oil by paste method using beta-cyclodextrin: encapsulation efficiency and profile of oil volatiles.
PubMed:High-temperature forced-air treatment alters the quantity of flavor-related, volatile constituents present in navel and Valencia oranges.
PubMed:Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.
PubMed:Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of the volatile oil from the wild pepper Piper capense used in Cameroon as a culinary spice.
PubMed:Gaseous pollutants emitted from a mechanical biological treatment plant for municipal solid waste: odor assessment and photochemical reactivity.
PubMed:Comparative assessment of a biofilter, a biotrickling filter and a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor for odor treatment in wastewater treatment plants.
PubMed:Characterization of olfactory sensilla of the olive fly: behavioral and electrophysiological responses to volatile organic compounds from the host plant and bacterial filtrate.
PubMed:Effects of starvation on the olfactory responses of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.
PubMed:Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers.
PubMed:Odor abatement in biotrickling filters: effect of the EBRT on methyl mercaptan and hydrophobic VOCs removal.
PubMed:Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.
PubMed:Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.
PubMed:Effect of volatile emissions, especially alpha-pinene, from persimmon trees infested by Japanese wax scales or treated with methyl jasmonate on recruitment of ladybeetle predators.
PubMed:Specificity and redundancy in the olfactory system of the bark beetle Ips typographus: single-cell responses to ecologically relevant odors.
PubMed:Relationship between sick building syndrome and indoor environmental factors in newly built Japanese dwellings.
PubMed:Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), the vector of laurel wilt.
PubMed:Beetle visitations, and associations with quantitative variation of attractants in floral odors of Homalomena propinqua (Araceae).
PubMed:Evaluation of aroma-active compounds in Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. Var. microcarpa Hassk.) by gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma reconstitution, and omission test.
PubMed:Responses of the Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens (Wollaston) to pine shoot and bark volatiles.
PubMed:Evaluation of characteristic aroma compounds of Citrus natsudaidai Hayata (Natsudaidai) cold-pressed peel oil.
PubMed:Application of two-stage biofilter system for the removal of odorous compounds.
PubMed:Defensive secretion components of the host Parastizopus armaticeps as kairomones for the cleptoparasite Eremostibes opacus.
PubMed:Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:Volatile constituents and key odorants in leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of Laurus nobilis L.
PubMed:Effects of alpha-pinene odor in different concentrations on stress-induced hyperthermia in rats.
PubMed:Phytochemistry of the mopane, Colophospermum mopane.
PubMed:Changes in volatile compounds of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during refrigerated and frozen storage.
PubMed:Odor compound detection in male euglossine bees.
PubMed:Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.
PubMed:Alleviating effects of plant-derived fragrances on stress-induced hyperthermia in rats.
PubMed:Exogenous methyl jasmonate induces volatile emissions in cotton plants.
PubMed:Characterization of the odor-active volatiles in citrus Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka).
PubMed:Effect of in situ composting on reducing offensive odors and volatile organic compounds in swineries.
PubMed:Dynamic deadspace-gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of different anatomical parts of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) at eight growing stages.
PubMed:Development of rancidity in wheat germ analyzed by headspace gas chromatography and sensory analysis.
PubMed:Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.
PubMed:Enantioselectivity of odor perception in squirrel monkeys and humans.
PubMed:Olfactory discrimination ability of human subjects for ten pairs of enantiomers.
 
Notes:
beta-pinene is also available; used in manufacture of camphor, insecticides, solvents, plasticizers, perfume bases, synthetic pine oil; can be irritating to skin, mucous membranes; an insect attractants. V. widely distributed in plants; reported in over 400 essential oils. Flavouring ingredient alpha-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). Both enantiomers are known in nature; 1S,5S- or (-)-alpha-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the 1R,5R- or (+)-alpha-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil. (Wikipedia)
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