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carum carvi fruit oil
caraway seed oil

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:carum carvi l. seed oil
CAS Number: 8000-42-8
FDA UNII:C2J9B08Q3I
MDL:MFCD00146295
CoE Number:112
Also Contains:carum carvi seed extract
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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NCBI:Search
FEMA Number:2238 caraway seed oil
FDA Mainterm: CARAWAY, OIL (CARUM CARVI L.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow, darkens clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.90000 to 0.91000 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.489 to 7.572
Refractive Index:1.47900 to 1.49520 @ 20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:+70.00 to +80.00
Boiling Point: 193.00 to 231.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 134.00 °F. TCC ( 56.67 °C. )
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 367.1 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
Stability:
 bath foam
 detergent
 non-discoloring in most media
 shampoo
 soap
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:20 hour(s) at 100.00 %
fresh caraway seedy carrot carvone
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. fresh caraway seedy carrot carvones
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
Odor sample from: CA Aromatics Company Inc.
Flavor Type: herbal
">caraway
Taste Description: caraway
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
A. Fakhry
Caraway Oil
Albert Vieille SAS
Caraway Essential oil Finland
Odor: spicy and fresh
Use: Caraway is a small umbellifer resembling wild carrot. The lacey leaves are on hollow, branching stems and the small, white flowers are clustered in light, airy umbels. This biennial plant only begins blooming in its second year, from May to July. The fruits follow and are harvested in August. When the stems turn brown, the caraway plants are harvested. They must be cut before the fruit is fully mature to avoid the seeds dropping from the umbels. In days of old, harvesting was done manually, using a sickle. Nowadays, it is performed mechanically, which reduces raw-material losses. Harvesting is best done on sunny days when the seeds contain more essential oil. The caraway essential oil obtained through steam distillation of the dried seeds is spicy and fresh.
Harvest Calendar
Aromatic and Allied Chemicals
Caraway Oil
Artiste
Caraway Seed Oil
Astral Extracts
Caraway Seed Oil
Augustus Oils
Caraway Seed Oil
Services
Berjé
Caraway Oil
Happening at Berje
Blue Pacific Flavors
Caraway Oil
Odor: fresh caraway seedy carrot carvones
Bristol Botanicals
Caraway essential oil Carum carvi
Charabot
Caraway oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, minty, zesty, orris-like
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Caraway (european distilled) FCC
Market Report
Diffusions Aromatiques
CARVI HUILE ESSENTIELLE
El Malek
Caraway Oil
100% natural and pure. EU, FDA
Excellentia International
Caraway Oil
Fleurchem
caraway oil
George Uhe Company
Caraway Oil
Available in FCC
Global Essence
Caraway Seed Oil Organic
Global Essence
Caraway Seed Oil
Indenta Group
Caraway Oil
Indukern F&F
CARAWAY OIL EGYPT
Odor: FRESH, HERBAL
Indukern F&F
CARAWAY OIL HUNGARY
Odor: FRESH, HERBAL
Kanta Enterprises
Caraway Egypt Oil
Kanta Enterprises
Caraway Hungary Oil
Liberty Natural Products
CARAWAY SEED HUNGARY
Lionel Hitchen
Caraway Seed Oil
Lluch Essence
CARAWAY EGYPT OIL
Lluch Essence
CARAWAY HUNGARY OIL
Moellhausen
CARAWAY BALKANS EO
Odor: fresh, herbaceous, characteristic of carvone
Flavor: aromatic
Moellhausen
CARAWAY EGYPT OE
Moellhausen
CARAWAY EO-HIXFORM
Naturex
Caraway Seed Oil
NAT arom®, in Ez-Caps™, AquaReady™ or Classic forms
Noble Molecular Research
For experimental / research use only.
Caraway Oil
Payand Betrand
Caraway Oil Finland
Penta International
CARAWAY SEED OIL, NATURAL, Kosher, Halal
PerfumersWorld
Caraway Seed Oil
Odor: fresh caraway caraway-seed-cake dill rye bread sweet-herbal-spicy warm harsh spicy
Use: Blends-well-with - +Clove Bud jasmine cinnamon cassia and other spices; however it is very overpowering.
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Caraway Oil F.C.C.
Reincke & Fichtner
Caraway Oil organic + NOP
Reincke & Fichtner
Caraway Oil
Robertet
Caraway oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, minty, zesty, orris-like
Sakkara Essential Oils
EgyptianCaraway Seed Oil
The John D. Walsh Company
Caraway Oil
The Lebermuth Company
Caraway Oil
Odor: Strong, warm, sweet - spicy
Treatt
Caraway Oil
Ungerer & Company
Caraway Seed Oil FCC
Vigon International
Caraway Oil Natural
White Lotus Aromatics
Caraway Seed essential oil
Odor: warm, sweet, spicy-minty aroma with a soft balsamic undertone
Use: In natural perfumery is used in ayurvedic creations, apothecary perfumes, culinary notes, spice accords, resinous notes. It would be an interesting accent material used in trace amounts it floral perfumes if used with great discretion.
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 25 - Avoid contact with eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 4), H227
Acute toxicity, dermal (Category 4), H312
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H227 - Combustible liquid
H312 - Harmful in contact with skin
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P312 - Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P363 - Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3500 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 11, Pg. 1051, 1973.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 1780 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 11, Pg. 1051, 1973.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Other Specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
citronellol Max. Found: trace to <0.10 % and Reason: Sensitization
carvone Max. Found: <50.00 % and Reason: Sensitization
Recommendation for carum carvi fruit oil usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -150.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -29.00000
beverages(alcoholic): -140.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -0.80000
condiments / relishes: -38.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -49.00000
fruit ices: -49.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -86.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -34.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of carvone, considering all sources of exposure
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8000-42-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2319
WGK Germany:3
carum carvi l. seed oil
Chemidplus:0008000428
RTECS:EY6300000 for cas# 8000-42-8
 
References:
 carum carvi l. seed oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8000-42-8
Pubchem (sid):135313272
 
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.29.5005
Typical G.C.
Wikipedia:View
FAO:BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
agrumen nitrile
FR
animal
costus valerolactone
FR
anise
anise seed oil colombia
FL/FR
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
balsamic
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir balsam absolute
FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
chocolate
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
citrus
crithmum maritimum oil
FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
coconut
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
earthy
3-
octen-2-one
FL/FR
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
perillaldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
cassie absolute replacer
FL/FR
coranol (Firmenich)
FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
ethyl linalool
FR
ethyl linalyl acetal
FR
ethyl linalyl acetate
FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
gardenia oxide
FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
ho wood oil
FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
(Z)-
rose oxide
FL/FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from pommade)
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower oil
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
1,4-
diethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octane
FR
green acetate
FR
herbanate (Givaudan)
FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
sec-
butyl-3-methyl but-2-ene thioate
FL/FR
3-
hepten-2-one
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde
FL/FR
privet dioxane
FR
2-
propenyl-para-cymene
FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
violet leaf absolute
FL/FR
herbal
agate fragrance
FR
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
caraway oil terpenes
FR
caraway seed absolute
FL/FR
terpeneless
caraway seed oil
FL/FR
caraway seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. maximus (desf.) ball)
FR
carum carvi fruit extract
FL/FR
carum carvi fruit tincture
FL/FR
carum carvi seed extract
FL/FR
carvacryl methyl ether
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed concrete
FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
dill seed oil CO2 extract indian
FL/FR
dill seed oil indian
FL/FR
elder flower absolute (sambucus canadensis and s. nigra)
FR
herbal acetal
FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
1-para-
menthen-9-yl acetate
FL/FR
T-
muurolol
FL/FR
3-
nonanol
FL/FR
3-
octanon-1-ol
FL/FR
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
perilla leaf oil
FL/FR
saffron indenone
FL/FR
safranal
FL/FR
thymyl methyl ether
FL/FR
melon
melon heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
minty
betula lenta bark oil america
FL/FR
laevo-
carveol
FL/FR
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
laevo-
carvone
FL/FR
cis-
carvone-5,6-oxide
FL/FR
trans-para-
menthan-2-one
FL/FR
mossy
veramoss (IFF)
FR
powdery
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
spicy
iso
butyl angelate
FL/FR
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
carrot weed oil
FL/FR
carvacryl ethyl ether
FL/FR
cis-
carveol
FL/FR
trans-
carveol
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
(-)-
cubenol
FL/FR
cuminyl alcohol
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
ginger root absolute
FL/FR
hollyberry fragrance
FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
ocimum gratissimum herb oil india
FR
origanum majorana oil
FL/FR
origanum majorana oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
outdoors specialty
FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
saffron oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
terpenic
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
tonka
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
woody
bornyl valerate
FL/FR
cedarwood oil himalaya
FR
cedrela wood oil
FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
gurjun balsam oil
FR
patchouli absolute
FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
santall
FR
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
sec-
butyl-3-methyl but-2-ene thioate
FL/FR
carvacryl ethyl ether
FL/FR
carvacryl methyl ether
FL/FR
cis-
carveol
FL/FR
trans-
carveol
FL/FR
laevo-
carveol
FL/FR
cassie absolute replacer
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
(±)-(cis+trans)-1,2-
dihydroperillaldehyde
FL
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
fleabane oil (erigeron canadensis)
FL
2-
heptyl cyclopropane carboxylic acid
FL
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
T-
muurolol
FL/FR
3-
nonanol
FL/FR
3-
octanon-1-ol
FL/FR
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
perilla leaf oil
FL/FR
perillaldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
hexyl 3-mercaptobutanoate
FL
anise
anise
anise seed oil colombia
FL/FR
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
buttery
bovolide
FL
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
citrus
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
creamy
3-
hepten-2-one
FL/FR
3-
octen-2-one
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
floral
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from pommade)
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower oil
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
1-para-
menthen-9-yl acetate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
iso
butyl angelate
FL/FR
carrot weed oil
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal diethyl acetal
FL
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
melon heptenal
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
(Z)-
rose oxide
FL/FR
violet leaf absolute
FL/FR
herbal
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
caraway flavor
FL
caraway oleoresin
FL
caraway seed absolute
FL/FR
terpeneless
caraway seed oil
FL/FR
caraway seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
carum carvi fruit
FL
carum carvi fruit extract
FL/FR
carum carvi fruit tincture
FL/FR
carum carvi seed extract
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
origanum majorana oil
FL/FR
origanum majorana oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
saffron indenone
FL/FR
honey
phenyl acetaldehyde
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
minty
betula lenta bark oil america
FL/FR
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
laevo-
carvone
FL/FR
cis-
carvone-5,6-oxide
FL/FR
trans-para-
menthan-2-one
FL/FR
musty
thymyl methyl ether
FL/FR
spicy
sweet
bay oleoresin
FL
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
(-)-
cubenol
FL/FR
cuminyl alcohol
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
dill seed oil CO2 extract indian
FL/FR
dill seed oil indian
FL/FR
ginger root absolute
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
saffron oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
terpenic
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
tropical
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
woody
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
bornyl valerate
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
safranal
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRacacia cassie farnesiana
 agate
FRallspice
FRalmond
FRamber
FRapple blossom
FRbaby powder
FRbalsam
FRbay rum
FRbouquet
 bread rye bread
FL/FRcaraway
FRcarnation dianthus oeillet
FRcedarwood
FRchristmas blends
FRcinnamon
FRcitrus
FL/FRfennel
FRfig
 fir
FRfir balsam
FRfloral
FRfrangipanni plumeria
FRheather
FRherbal
FRhollyberry
FRjasmin
FRjuniper berry
FRlavender
FRlotus
FRmelon
FRmusk
 ocean sea
FRoriental
FRpassion fruit
FRplum
FRrose tea rose
FRspice
FRtobacco
FRtuberose
FRviolet
 windsor soap
FRyew
FRylang ylang
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 caraway seed
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 caraway balkans EO
 caraway EO
 caraway EO-hiXform
 caraway oil hungary
 caraway seed essential oil
 caraway seed oil
 caraway seed oil FCC
 caraway seed oil natural
 carum carvi fo. rubriflorum fruit oil
 carum carvi seed oil
 carum carvi var. gracile fruit oil
 carum gracile fruit oil
 carum rosellum fruit oil
 oil caraway (european distilled) FCC
 volatile oil distilled from the dried, ripe fruit of the caraway, carum carvi l., apiaceae
 
 
Notes:
Steam distilled from the dried, crushed, ripe fruit of Carum Carvi, a small shrub which grows wild in Asia, Europe, North Africa and in northwestern United States. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. carum carvi, umbelliferae.
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