cassia bark oil china
cinnamomum cassia bark oil china
 
Notes:
Use with Caution and in only very small quantites. Will irritate skin. Cassia Oil is steam distilled from the leaves of Cinnamomum Cassia, large slender trees which grow in the southeastern parts of China and, to a minor extent, in Viet-Nam and India. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. cinnamomum cassia, lauraceae. the tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. the oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% eugenol and many terpenes.
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Name: cinnamomum cassia blume bark oil
CAS Number: 8007-80-5 
FDA UNII: A4WO0626T5
MDL: MFCD00130805
CoE Number: 131
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FEMA Number: 2258  cassia bark oil china
FDA Mainterm: CINNAMON BARK, OIL (CINNAMOMUM SPP.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: yellow to yellow brown clear oily liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.04500 to 1.06300 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.695 to  8.845
Refractive Index: 1.60200 to 1.61400 @  20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation: -1.00 to +1.00
Boiling Point: 266.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: > 200.00 °F. TCC ( > 93.33 °C. )
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 water, 2150 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: spicy
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
 woody  sweet  cinnamon  spicy  cassia  
Odor Description:
at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
woody sweet cinnamon spicy
Luebke, William tgsc, (1991)
 cassia  cinnamon  
Taste Description:
cinnamon
Substantivity: 160 Hour(s)
  
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
Astral Extracts
Cassia Bark Oil Chinese
Charabot
Cassia oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, woody, powdery
Charabot
Cinnamon low coumarin oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, cinnamic, “embellished” with almond and gourmand notes
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Cassia Chinese Natural 85%
Market Report
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Cassia Chinese redistilled FCC
Diffusions Aromatiques
CANNELLE CHINE HE (cassia feuilles)
Elixens America
Cassia Essential Oil China
100% Pure and Natural
Indukern F&F
CASSIA OIL RECTIFIED
Odor: CHARACTERISTIC, SWEET, SPICY, CINNAMON
CROP CALENDAR
Indukern F&F
CASSIA OIL
Odor: WOODY, SWEET, SPICY, CINNAMON
Lluch Essence
CINNAMON CHINA (CASSIA) OIL
Payand Betrand
Cassia Oil China
Robertet
Cassia oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, woody, powdery
Robertet
Cinnamon Bark China Ess. oil (for fragrance)
Robertet
Cinnamon low coumarin oil
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Spicy, cinnamic, “embellished” with almond and gourmand notes
Use: The process allows to reduce the coumarin content (<400 ppm).
Synthite Industries
Cinnamon bark Oil
E-books and Brochures
The Good Scents Company
cassia bark oil china
Odor: woody sweet cinnamon spicy
Ultra International
Cassia Oil Chinese
Crop Calendar
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 21 - Harmful in contact with skin.
R 24 - Toxic in contact with skin.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 4), H227
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Eye irritation (Category 2A), H319
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramskull.jpg
 
Signal word Danger
Hazard statement(s)
H227 - Combustible liquid
H311 - Toxic in contact with skin
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H319 - Causes serious eye irritation
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P312 - Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P337 + P313 - IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P361 - Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  2800 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, Pg. 109, 1975.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  500 mg/kg
VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Pharmacologist. Vol. 3, Pg. 62, 1961.

oral-mouse LD50  2670 mg/kg
Tokishikoroji Foramu. Toxicology Forum. Vol. 8, Pg. 91, 1985.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 320 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, Pg. 109, 1975.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA fragrance material specification:
  prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde. The concentration of Cinnamic aldehyde in the finished cosmetic product should not exceed 0.1%.The
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
cinnamyl alcohol Max. Found: <0.20 % and Reason: Sensitization
benzyl benzoate Max. Found: <2.50 % and Reason: Sensitization
methyl eugenol Max. Found: <0.10 % and Reason: Potential carcinogenic activity in animals
benzaldehyde Max. Found: <2.10 % and Reason: Sensitization
eugenol Max. Found: <4.00 % and Reason: Sensitization
cinnamaldehyde Max. Found: <90.00 % and Reason: Sensitization
Recommendation for cassia bark oil china usage levels up to:
  1.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -73.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -3.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -1900.00000
condiments / relishes: -140.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -11.00000
fruit ices: -11.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -150.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -290.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 8007-80-5
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 2810
WGK Germany: 3
 cinnamomum cassia blume bark oil
Chemidplus: 0008007805
RTECS: FI4050000 for cas# 8007-80-5
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References:
 cinnamomum cassia blume bark oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 8007-80-5
Pubchem (sid): 135352886
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Export Tariff Code: 3301.29.6000
Household Products: Search
 Typical G.C.
Wikipedia: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
FAO: CINNAMOMUM OILS (INCLUDING CINNAMON AND CASSIA)
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
aldehydic
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
amber
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
anisic
ortho-anisaldehydeFL/FR
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl cinnamateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir balsam absoluteFR
buttery
 acetoinFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
chocolate
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
citrus
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
coconut
gamma-nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))FL/FR
floral
 acetophenoneFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 palmarosa oilFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
minty
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
mossy
 veramoss (IFF)FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
alpha-methyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
terpenic
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
tonka
 tonka bean absoluteFR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillinFL/FR
woody
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 santallFR
 woody acetateFR
 
For Flavor
 
anisic
anisic
ortho-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
caramellic
 caramel furanoneFL
 cycloteneFL/FR
citrus
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
corn chip
2-acetyl-2-thiazolineFL
creamy
 acetoinFL/FR
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
gamma-nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))FL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
floral
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 palmarosa oilFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
green
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
honey
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
minty
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
powdery
 acetophenoneFL/FR
spicy
 benzyl cinnamateFL/FR
 benzylidene acetoneFL
 clove bud oilFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
alpha-methyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
sweet
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
terpenic
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillinFL/FR
waxy
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
woody
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 
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Potential Uses:
 agate 
 allspiceFR
 almondFR
 amberFR
 balsamFR
 bayberryFR
 benzoin 
 bouquetFR
 carnation dianthus oeilletFR
 cassiaFR
 cherry blossomFR
 chypreFR
 cinnamonFR
 forest pine forestFR
 gingerbreadFR
 grass sweetFR
 herbalFR
 lycheeFR
 mimosaFR
 muskFR
 patchouliFR
 pina coladaFR
 pineFR
 powderFR
 pumpkin pieFR
 roseFR
 rose dog roseFR
 sandalwoodFR
 spiceFR
 vanillaFR
 verbenaFR
 wallflowerFR
 windsor soap 
 woodyFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 cassia
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 camphorina cassia bark oil china
 cassia bark oil chinese
 cassia oil rectified china
 cinnamomum aromaticum bark oil china
 cinnamomum cassia bark oil china
 cinnamomum longifolium bark oil china
 cinnamomum medium bark oil china
 cinnamomum nitidum bark oil china
 cinnamon bark china ess. oil (for fragrance) (Robertet)
 cinnamon bark oil (cinnamomum cassia) china
 cinnamon china low coumarin EO
 laurus cassia bark oil china
 persea cassia bark oil china
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Articles:
PubMed: Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells.
PubMed: Cinnamaldehyde affects the biological behavior of human colorectal cancer cells and induces apoptosis via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
PubMed: In vitro antiviral activity of Cinnamomum cassia and its nanopartilces against H7N3 influenza A virus.
PubMed: Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.
PubMed: Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.
PubMed: Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.
PubMed: Anti-diabetic nephropathy compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala.
PubMed: Cinnamomum cassia bark produced by solid-state fermentation with Phellinus baumii has the potential to alleviate atopic dermatitis-related symptoms.
PubMed: A new phenolic glycoside from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Diterpenoids with Immunosuppressive Activities from Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Traditional formula, modern application: chinese medicine formula sini tang improves early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rats.
PubMed: Effect of Cinnamomum cassia methanol extract and sildenafil on arginase and sexual function of young male Wistar rats.
PubMed: Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.
PubMed: Interaction of gypsum and the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides plays an important role in anti-allergic effects of byakkokakeishito in mice.
PubMed: Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer.
PubMed: Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.
PubMed: A novel concept for detoxification: complexation between aconitine and liquiritin in a Chinese herbal formula ('Sini Tang').
PubMed: Antitumor activity of 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde for human colon cancer cells through suppression of β-catenin signaling.
PubMed: Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of various parts of Cinnamomum cassia extracted with different extraction methods.
PubMed: Bioactive A-type proanthocyanidins from Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Differential antiproliferation effect of 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde in K-ras-transformed cells via downregulation of thiol antioxidants.
PubMed: 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde targets low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation.
PubMed: Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.
PubMed: Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils and their constituents from different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves.
PubMed: The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.
PubMed: Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFkappaB and AP1.
PubMed: Aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.
PubMed: Selective stimulation by cinnamaldehyde of progesterone secretion in human adrenal cells.
PubMed: Cinnamomum cassia bark in two herbal formulas increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans via insulin signaling and stress response pathways.
PubMed: Cinnamic acid, from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, regulates glucose transport via activation of GLUT4 on L6 myotubes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent manner.
PubMed: [Analysis on the chemical compositions of the volatile oil from ultramicro-powder and common grinding powder of Cinnamomum cassia].
PubMed: Quality assessment of cortex cinnamomi by HPLC chemical fingerprint, principle component analysis and cluster analysis.
PubMed: Apoptosis induction of 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde as a proteasome inhibitor is associated with ER stress and mitochondrial perturbation in cancer cells.
PubMed: Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).
PubMed: Stimulatory effects of extract prepared from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia blume on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
PubMed: Repellency of Cinnamomum cassia bark compounds and cream containing cassia oil to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and indoor conditions.
PubMed: In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against Aspergillus niger.
PubMed: Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
PubMed: Delayed occurrence of H-ras12V-induced hepatocellular carcinoma with long-term treatment with cinnamaldehydes.
PubMed: Effects of cassia oil on serum and hepatic uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver.
PubMed: Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed: Authentication and quantitative analysis on the chemical profile of cassia bark (cortex cinnamomi) by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde on nitric oxide production through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in RAW 264.7 cells.
PubMed: Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.
PubMed: Cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as NF-kappaB inhibitors from Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: [Isolation of genomic DNA from Cinnamomum cassia Presl].
PubMed: Repellency of aromatic medicinal plant extracts and a steam distillate to Aedes aegypti.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of Sihoga-Yonggol-Moryo-Tang on matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and invasiveness potential of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Cinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis by ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
PubMed: Measurement of plasma procyanidin B-2 and procyanidin B-3 levels after oral administration in rat.
PubMed: [Comparison studies on chemical constituents of essential oil from Ramulus Cinnamomi and Cortex Cinnamomi by GC-MS].
PubMed: Inhibitory activity of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived component against rat lens aldose reductase.
PubMed: Suppression effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived component on nitric oxide synthase.
PubMed: Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the biological properties.
PubMed: Growth-Inhibiting Effects of Cinnamomum cassia Bark-Derived Materials on Human Intestinal Bacteria.
PubMed: A survey of some Indian medicinal plants for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity.
PubMed: Extract prepared from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume prevents glutamate-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells.
PubMed: Insecticidal and fumigant activities of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived materials against Mechoris ursulus (Coleoptera: attelabidae).
PubMed: Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of cinnamaldehydes to human solid tumor cells.
PubMed: Cinnamaldehyde inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and modulates T-cell differentiation.
PubMed: 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde from stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Pharmacotherapeutic effects of kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (keishi-bukuryo-gan) on human uterine myomas.
PubMed: A reticuloendothelial system-activating arabinoxylan from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia.
PubMed: Antiulcerogenic compounds isolated from Chinese cinnamon.
PubMed: Effects of a Chinese herbal medicine, keishi-bukuryo-gan, on the gonadal system of rats.
PubMed: [Pharmacological studies of Cinnamomum cassia bark. Part I. Effects on the blood and cardiovascular system (author's transl)].
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