bergamot oil turkey
volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, turkey
 
Notes:
This oil should not be used anywhere on the body because of its phototoxic effects. from citrus bergamia; used in perfume; some of its constituents contribute to its photosensitization. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. citrus bergamia, citrus.
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Name: citrus × bergamia peel oil
CAS Number: 8007-75-8 
ECHA EC Number: 296-429-8
CoE Number: 137
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FEMA Number: 2153  bergamot oil turkey
FDA Mainterm: BERGAMOT, OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM L. SUBSP. BERGAMIA WRIGHT ET ARN.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: golden yellow amber clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity: 0.87600 to 0.88400 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.289 to  7.356
Refractive Index: 1.46400 to 1.46600 @  20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation: +8.00 to +24.00
Flash Point: 108.00 °F. TCC ( 42.22 °C. )
Soluble in:
 alcohol
Insoluble in:
 water
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength: medium
 citrus  woody  orange  orange peel  floral  
Odor Description:
citrus woody orange linalyl acetate
 bergamot  
Taste Description:
bergamot
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
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Suppliers:
 None found
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  11520 mg/kg
Pharmazie. Vol. 14, Pg. 435, 1959.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Phototoxicity
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Where the bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) content of all relevant oils present in a compound has been determined, it is recommended that for applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, the total level of bergapten in the consumer products should not exceed 0.0015% (15 ppm). This is equivalent to 0.0075% (75 ppm) in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product. Where the level of bergapten has not been determined by appropriate methods, the limits specified in the guidelines on individual oils should apply. In those cases, where such oils are used in combination with other phototoxic ingredients, the additive effect has to be taken into consideration and the use levels have to be reduced accordingly. The sum of the concentrations of all phototoxic fragrance ingredients, expressed in % of their recommended maximum level in the consumer product, shall not exceed 100.
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
citral Max. Found: <0.70 % and Reason: Sensitization
geraniol Max. Found: <0.10 % and Reason: Sensitization
(E)-2-hexen-1-al Max. Found: <0.10 % and Reason: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.4000 % Restriction.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -29.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -8.90000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -43.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 1.00000130.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -7.90000
fruit ices: -7.90000
gelatins / puddings: 5.3000090.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -27.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 8007-75-8
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 citrus × bergamia peel oil
Chemidplus: 0008007758
RTECS: DS0500000 for cas# 8007-75-8
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References:
 citrus × bergamia peel oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 8007-75-8
Pubchem (sid): 135289949
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Export Tariff Code: 3301.11.0000
Typical G.C.
Wikipedia: View
FAO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 wasabi root 
aldehydic
isobutyraldehydeFL/FR
 decanal (aldehyde C-10)FL/FR
6,7,8-decen-1-olFR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 mandarine undecenalFL/FR
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
3-methyl-4-hexyl oxybutyraldehydeFR
 muguet undecadienalFR
 octanal (aldehyde C-8)FL/FR
 TMH aldehydeFR
 undecanalFL/FR
amber
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
anisic
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
 estragoleFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum herb oilFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum herb oil egyptFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil americaFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil indiaFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
(E)-cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cinnamyl formateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 guaiyl acetateFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
 terpinyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
citronella
4,8-dimethyl-7-nonen-2-olFR
citrus
 acetaldehyde citronellyl methyl acetalFR
 bergamot acetoacetateFR
 bergamot fragranceFR
 bergamot oilFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 bergamot oil decolorizedFL/FR
 bergamot oil foldedFL/FR
 bergamot oil italyFL/FR
 bergamot oil ivory coastFL/FR
 bergamot oil replacerFR
 bergamot oil terpenelessFL/FR
 bergamot oil terpenless replacerFL/FR
 bergamot specialtyFR
beta-bisabololFL/FR
 citralFL/FR
 citral diethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral ethylene glycol acetalFR
 citronella oil ceylonFL/FR
 citronellal oximeFR
 citrus floral green fragranceFR
 citrus ocimenolFR
 citrus specialtyFR
 cranberry orange spice fragranceFR
 dihydromyrcenolFL/FR
 dihydromyrcenyl acetateFR
2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetateFR
 dodecane nitrileFR
2-dodecanoneFL/FR
citrus floral fragranceFR
 grapefruit pentanolFR
 lemon oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 lime octadienalFR
 lime oil distilled mexicoFL/FR
(Z)-linalool oxide (pyranoid)FL/FR
 mandarin oilFL/FR
 mandarin oil italyFL/FR
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
3-methyl-4-(2-methyl butyl oxy) butyraldehydeFR
alpha-methylene citronellalFR
 myrcenyl acetateFL/FR
 neroli ketoneFR
 nonanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 orange nitrileFR
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl methyl etherFL/FR
2-tetradecenalFL/FR
(E)-2-tetradecenalFL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-trimethyl-7-nonen-2-olFL/FR
 verbena fragranceFR
earthy
2-octanone oxime 
 octyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
fatty
2-decenalFL/FR
(R)-gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
floral
 acetaldehyde dibutyl acetalFL/FR
 amyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyl salicylateFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 anisyl propanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 boronia concreteFL/FR
alpha-butyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 cassis specialtyFR
 cilantro herb oil egyptFL/FR
 citronellalFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
(S)-citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 citronellyl butyrateFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 citronellyl propionateFL/FR
 citrus bergamia risso leaf oilFR
 clary propionateFR
 coranol (Firmenich)FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 coriander seed oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 cumin carbinolFR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 dictamnus hispanicus oilFR
 dihydrocarvyl acetateFL/FR
 dihydrocitronellyl ethyl etherFR
(±)-2,3-dihydrofarnesolFL/FR
 dihydroisojasmonate methyl esterFR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dihydrolinaloolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
6,8-dimethyl-2-nonanolFR
3,6-dimethyl-3-octanolFL/FR
 epoxylinalyl acetate 
 ethyl linaloolFR
 ethyl linalyl acetalFR
 ethyl linalyl acetateFR
 ethyl linalyl etherFL/FR
 ethyl phenoxyacetateFR
 farnesolFL/FR
 farnesyl acetateFL/FR
 floral butanalFR
 floral pyranolFR
 floral undecenoneFR
 gardenia absoluteFR
 gardenia acetalFR
 gardenia concreteFR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oilFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
 geranyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 geranyl nonanoateCS
 geranyl propionateFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 heliotropyl diethyl acetalFR
(Z)-4-hepten-2-yl salicylateFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hexyl lactateFL/FR
 ho leaf oilFR
 ho wood oilFR
 hyacinth oilFR
 hydrangea fragranceFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetalFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellolFL/FR
beta-iononeFL/FR
 jasmin cyclopentanolFR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
 jonquil absoluteFR
 jonquil absolute replacerFR
abrialis lavandin oilFL/FR
 lilac absoluteFR
 lily fragranceFR
 lily propanolFR
 linaloolFL/FR
dextro-linaloolFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 linalyl anthranilateFL/FR
 linalyl benzoateFL/FR
 linalyl butyrateFL/FR
 linalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl propionateFL/FR
 lotus fragranceFR
 magnolia indeneFR
(2-methoxy-1-methyl propyl) benzeneFR
(3-methoxy-2-methyl propyl) benzeneFR
ortho-methoxybenzyl ethyl etherFR
1-(2-methyl allyl oxy)-2-methyl butaneFR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 mimosa absoluteFL/FR
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 mimosa absolute indiaFL/FR
 mimosa absolute moroccoFL/FR
 muguet nitrileFR
 nerolFL/FR
 neroli oil bigardeFL/FR
 neroli oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 neroli oil tunisiaFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
(E)-nerolidolFL/FR
 nerolidyl acetateFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 neryl isovalerateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
(S)-ocean propanal 
 ocean propanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
beta-ocimeneFL/FR
 orange leaf absoluteFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute tunisiaFL/FR
 orchid specialtyFR
 palmarosa oilFL/FR
 papaya isobutyrateFL/FR
 peony acetonitrileFR
 petitgrain absolute moroccoFL/FR
 petitgrain bergamot oilFL/FR
 petitgrain bergamot oil (citrus bergamia melarosa)FR
 petitgrain concreteFR
 petitgrain lemon oilFL/FR
 petitgrain oil moroccoFL/FR
 petitgrain oil paraguayFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl butyrateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dicitronellyl acetalFR
 phenyl acetaldehyde diisobutyl acetalFL/FR
2-phenyl propionaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
2-phenyl propionaldehyde ethylene glycol acetalFR
 phenyl propyl phenyl acetateFR
 rhodinyl formateFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgariaFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
 rose pyranFR
 styralyl formateFL/FR
 sweet pea absoluteFR
 tagetes erecta flower oleoresin 
 terpinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinalyl acetateFR
5-tricyclodecenyl acetateFR
(S)-2,5,6-trimethyl-2-heptanol 
(S,E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-6,10-dienalFR
 undecanal dimethyl acetalFR
 verdyl acetateFR
 violet methyl carbonateFR
 ylang ylang flower oil IIIFL/FR
fresh
3-(3-propen-2-yl phenyl) butanalFR
fruity
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
para-anisyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
 benzyl methyl etherFL/FR
 bisaboleneFL/FR
 cinnamyl hexanoateFL/FR
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl crotonateFR
 decen-1-yl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
 dimethyl succinateFL/FR
2-ethyl butyl 2-butenoate 
 ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidateFL/FR
 geranyl butyrateFL/FR
 green acetateFR
 linalyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 methyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 methyl anthranilateFL/FR
 nerolidyl isobutyrateFR
 ocimen-1-yl acetateFR
 peach pivalateFR
 prenyl acetateFL/FR
 tropical iononeFL/FR
fungal
 jasmin nonaneFR
green
alpha-allyl-4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate 
alpha-allyl-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate 
isoamyl 3-(2-furan) propionateFL/FR
 biphenyl 
isobutyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
2-butyl-4-methyl-1,3-oxathiane 
 chrysanthemum oxideFL/FR
3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoic acidFL/FR
 earthy acetalFL/FR
 ethylene glycol diacetate 
2-ethylidene-6-methyl-cis-3-heptenal 
(Z)-beta-farnesene 
 flower hexeneFR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
 green carboxylateFR
 green cyclopropionateFR
2-heptyl pyridine 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetoacetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl angelateFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
 hexen-1-yl oxypropane nitrileFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 hexyl (Z)-tiglateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hop oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 hyacinth absoluteFL/FR
2,4-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 ivy dioxolaneFR
laevo-linalyl acetateFL/FR
dextro-linalyl acetateFL/FR
 marigold pot absoluteFL/FR
(2-methoxy-1-methyl butyl) benzeneFR
[(4E,4Z)-5-methoxy-3-methyl-4-penten-1-yl] benzeneFR
 methyl cyclocitrone (IFF)FR
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
4-methyl-4-phenyl pentanoneFR
 murraya koenigii leaf oil indiaFL/FR
2-nonanone oxime 
1-(octahydro-4,7-methanoinden-5-yl)-propan-2-ol 
 octanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 octyl oxyacetaldehydeFR
 pelargonium graveolens stem leaf extractFR
 perilla alcoholFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde solutionFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 terpinyl propionateFL/FR
hay
 hay absoluteFR
herbal
 anethum graveolens herb oilFL/FR
 anethum graveolens herb tinctureFL/FR
 anthemis nobilis flower oil romanFL/FR
 bergamot mint herb oilFR
 camphene carbinyl acetateFR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. gummifer hook. fil.) spainFR
 carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. maximus (desf.) ball)FR
wild carrot seed oil terpenelessFL/FR
 celery ketoneFL/FR
 chrysanthemum ketoneFR
 clary octenoneFR
 clary sage absoluteFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander oleoresinFL/FR
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 dihexyl (E)-fumarateFR
 dihydroterpinyl acetateFL/FR
 dill weed oil cubaFL/FR
 dill weed oil reunionFL/FR
 hop absoluteFL/FR
 hop oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
spike lavender oilFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl formateFL/FR
 linalyl isovalerateFL/FR
2-methyl butyl salicylateFL/FR
(1S,5R)-myrtenyl acetateFL/FR
 myrtle oilFL/FR
 nopyl acetateFR
3-octyl acetateFL/FR
curled parsley seed oilFL/FR
 perilla leaf oilFL/FR
 petitgrain heptaneFR
 petroselinum crispum seed oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde diisoamyl acetalFR
 rosmarinus officinalis extractFL/FR
 terpineol acetateFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl acetateFL/FR
 thyme absoluteFL/FR
licorice
 ocimum basilicum herb oil vietnamFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil terpenelessFL/FR
medicinal
 kunzea ericoides leaf oilFR
melon
 melon heptenalFL/FR
 watermelon ketoneFR
minty
dextro-dihydrocarvoneFL/FR
musty
ketoisophoroneFL/FR
powdery
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
spicy
alpha-amyl cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
isobutyl angelateFL/FR
 cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 cinnamyl propionateFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 cubeb oilFL/FR
 cumin seed absoluteFL/FR
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
isocyclogeraniol (IFF)FR
 elettaria cardamomum seed oilFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 gingergrass oilFR
2-octanolFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
 spicy carbonateFR
 turmeric root oil chinaFL/FR
annus wormwood oil vietnamFL/FR
 zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extractFL/FR
sulfurous
 lychee mercaptan acetateFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
tea
 camellia oleifera leaf extractFL/FR
terpenic
(E,E)-2,6-alloocimeneFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 coumarinFR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
waxy
 decanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-decanoneFL/FR
1,8-octane dinitrile 
 orris rhizome oil CO2 extractFL/FR
1-undecanolFL/FR
woody
 campheneFL/FR
 dalbergia sissoo leaf oilFR
alpha-farneseneFL/FR
alpha-farnesene isomerFL/FR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 santallFR
 woody acetateFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 acetaldehyde dibutyl acetalFL/FR
alpha-allyl-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate 
 amyl benzoateFL/FR
 boronia concreteFL/FR
2-butyl-4-methyl-1,3-oxathiane 
(E)-cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cinnamyl hexanoateFL/FR
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 decanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-decanoneFL/FR
(±)-2,3-dihydrofarnesolFL/FR
 dihydroterpinyl acetateFL/FR
 earthy acetalFL/FR
 epoxylinalyl acetate 
2-ethyl butyl 2-butenoate 
 ethyl linalyl etherFL/FR
 ethylene glycol diacetate 
2-ethylidene-6-methyl-cis-3-heptenal 
(Z)-beta-farnesene 
 guaiyl acetateFL/FR
2-heptyl pyridine 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetoacetateFL/FR
 hexyl (Z)-tiglateFL/FR
 hyacinth absoluteFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
dextro-linaloolFL/FR
(Z)-linalool oxide (pyranoid)FL/FR
laevo-linalyl acetateFL/FR
dextro-linalyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl formateFL/FR
 linalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 mandarine undecenalFL/FR
 methyl acetoacetateFL/FR
2-methyl butyl salicylateFL/FR
 nerolidyl acetateFL/FR
2-nonanone oxime 
(S)-ocean propanal 
(E,E)-2,6-alloocimeneFL/FR
1-(octahydro-4,7-methanoinden-5-yl)-propan-2-ol 
(R)-gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
1,8-octane dinitrile 
2-octanone oxime 
 octyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 perilla leaf oilFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde solutionFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgariaFL/FR
 styralyl formateFL/FR
 tagetes erecta flower oleoresin 
 terpineol acetateFL/FR
 terpinyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
2-tetradecenalFL/FR
4,4'-thiobis-2-butanoneFL
(S)-2,5,6-trimethyl-2-heptanol 
 zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extractFL/FR
isoamyl 3-(2-furan) propionateFL/FR
alpha-butyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
aldehydic
isobutyraldehydeFL/FR
 octanal (aldehyde C-8)FL/FR
1-undecanolFL/FR
amber
isobutyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
anisic
 ocimum basilicum herb oil egyptFL/FR
aromatic
 amyl salicylateFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
berry
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
camphoreous
 campheneFL/FR
cherry
 heliotropinFL/FR
citrus
 bergamot flavorFL
 bergamot oilFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 bergamot oil decolorizedFL/FR
 bergamot oil foldedFL/FR
 bergamot oil italyFL/FR
 bergamot oil ivory coastFL/FR
 bergamot oil terpenelessFL/FR
 bergamot oil terpenless replacerFL/FR
 bergamot orange lime flavorFL
 bisaboleneFL/FR
beta-bisabololFL/FR
 citralFL/FR
 citral diethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 citronella oil ceylonFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 lime oil distilled mexicoFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 mandarin oilFL/FR
 mandarin oil italyFL/FR
 myrcenyl acetateFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
 neroli oil tunisiaFL/FR
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
 petitgrain bergamot oilFL/FR
 petitgrain lemon oilFL/FR
 petitgrain oil moroccoFL/FR
 petitgrain oil paraguayFL/FR
ketoisophoroneFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-trimethyl-7-nonen-2-olFL/FR
cooling
spike lavender oilFL/FR
creamy
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
ethereal
4-hexen-3-oneFL
fatty
2-decenalFL/FR
2-dodecanoneFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
floral
 biphenyl 
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 cinnamyl propionateFL/FR
 citronellalFL/FR
(S)-citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 citronellyl propionateFL/FR
 dihydrocarvyl acetateFL/FR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dihydrolinaloolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoic acidFL/FR
 farnesolFL/FR
 farnesyl acetateFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oilFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 geranyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl isobutyrateFL/FR
pseudoiononeFL
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl anthranilateFL/FR
 linalyl benzoateFL/FR
 linalyl butyrateFL/FR
 linalyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 mimosa absolute moroccoFL/FR
 neroli oil bigardeFL/FR
 neroli oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orange leaf absoluteFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute tunisiaFL/FR
 palmarosa oilFL/FR
 petitgrain absolute moroccoFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 tropical iononeFL/FR
 ylang ylang flower oil IIIFL/FR
fruity
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 benzyl methyl etherFL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 citronellyl butyrateFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 decen-1-yl cyclopentanoneFL/FR
 dimethyl succinateFL/FR
 ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidateFL/FR
 geranyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl lactateFL/FR
 linalyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl anthranilateFL/FR
(E,E)-methyl sorbateFL
 neryl isovalerateFL/FR
 phenethyl butyrateFL/FR
2-phenyl propionaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 prenyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinyl formateFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
green
alpha-allyl-4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate 
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 anethum graveolens herb tinctureFL/FR
isobutyl angelateFL/FR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 celery ketoneFL/FR
 chrysanthemum oxideFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 clary sage absoluteFL/FR
 coriander oleoresinFL/FR
 cucumber distillatesFL
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
dextro-dihydrocarvoneFL/FR
 dihydromyrcenolFL/FR
3,4-dimethoxystyreneFL
alpha-farneseneFL/FR
alpha-farnesene isomerFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hibiscus distillatesFL
2,4-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 marigold pot absoluteFL/FR
 melon heptenalFL/FR
 methyl 2-undecynoateFL
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
(E)-nerolidolFL/FR
(E,E)-2,6-nonadienalFL
 nonanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
beta-ocimeneFL/FR
 octanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-octyl acetateFL/FR
 papaya isobutyrateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde diisobutyl acetalFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
 terpinyl propionateFL/FR
 wasabi root 
herbal
 anethum graveolens herb oilFL/FR
 anthemis nobilis flower oil romanFL/FR
wild carrot seed oil terpenelessFL/FR
 cilantro herb oil egyptFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 coriander seed oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 dill weed oil cubaFL/FR
 dill weed oil reunionFL/FR
3,6-dimethyl-3-octanolFL/FR
 hop absoluteFL/FR
 hop oilFL/FR
abrialis lavandin oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 linalyl propionateFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum herb oilFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil americaFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil indiaFL/FR
curled parsley seed oilFL/FR
 petroselinum crispum seed oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 rosmarinus officinalis extractFL/FR
 thyme absoluteFL/FR
honey
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
juicy
 lychee mercaptan acetateFL/FR
licorice
 estragoleFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum herb oil vietnamFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum leaf oil terpenelessFL/FR
medicinal
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
melon
 hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetalFL/FR
powdery
 hydroxycitronellolFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
spicy
alpha-amyl cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
para-anisyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 cinnamyl formateFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 cubeb oilFL/FR
 cumin seed absoluteFL/FR
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
 elettaria cardamomum seed oilFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 hop oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 murraya koenigii leaf oil indiaFL/FR
 myrtle oilFL/FR
2-octanolFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
 turmeric root oil chinaFL/FR
annus wormwood oil vietnamFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
tea
 camellia oleifera leaf extractFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
waxy
 decanal (aldehyde C-10)FL/FR
 geranyl propionateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
 mimosa absoluteFL/FR
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 mimosa absolute indiaFL/FR
(E)-2-tetradecenalFL/FR
 undecanalFL/FR
woody
beta-iononeFL/FR
(Z)-jasmoneFL/FR
(1S,5R)-myrtenyl acetateFL/FR
 orris rhizome oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 perilla alcoholFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl acetateFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl methyl etherFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 abroniaFR
 acacia cassie farnesianaFR
 agate 
 amber 
 ambrene 
 balsam 
 bergamotFL
 blue grass 
 bouquet 
 broom genet genista 
 cassie acacia farnesiana 
 cedratFL/FR
 chypre 
 cinnamonFL
 citrusFL
 clover trefle le'trefle incarnat 
 cologne 
 colonia 
 dillenia 
 elder blossom 
 fern fougere 
 fetes 
 floral 
 florida breeze 
 florida soap 
 forest 
 freesia 
 gardenia 
 jasminFL
 juniperberry 
 lavender 
 leather 
 lemonFL
 millefleurs 
 mimosaFL
 muguet lily of the valley 
 neroli 
 opoponaxFL/FR
 orange blossomFL
 oriental 
 patchouliFL/FR
 pearFL
 rain spring 
 reseda mignonette 
 rose white rose 
 sandalwood 
 sweet pea pois de senteur 
 violetFL
 wallflower giroflee 
 windsor soap 
 wistaria wisteria glycine 
 woody 
 ylang ylang cananga 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 bergamot peel
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 bergamot oil turkey
 citrus aurantium bergamia peel oil turkey
 citrus aurantium var. bergamia peel oil turkey
 citrus bergamia peel oil turkey
 citrus x bergamia peel oil turkey
 volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, turkey
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) Flavonoids and Their Potential Benefits in Human Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis: an Overview.
PubMed: The essential oil of Citrus bergamia Risso induces vasorelaxation of the mouse aorta by activating K(+) channels and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx.
PubMed: In vitro effect of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) juice against cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed: Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females.
PubMed: Effect of Citrus bergamia juice on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in metastatic xenograft models.
PubMed: Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap TOF-MS for the fast characterization of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed: Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia Risso Elevates Intracellular Ca (2+) in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells due to Release of Ca (2+) from Primary Intracellular Stores.
PubMed: In vitro activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) oil against clinical isolates of dermatophytes.
PubMed: Protective effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia against inflammatory injury in interferon-γ and histamine exposed human keratinocytes.
PubMed: In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Citrus bergamia essential oil and its major components.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.
PubMed: Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.
PubMed: Antiviral activity of seed extract from Citrus bergamia towards human retroviruses.
PubMed: Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.
PubMed: Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.
PubMed: In vitro photo-induced cytotoxic activity of Citrus bergamia and C. medica L. cv. Diamante peel essential oils and identified active coumarins.
PubMed: Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed: Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.
PubMed: Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.
PubMed: Bergamot essential oil differentially modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: a new finding seen with fura-2.
PubMed: Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.
PubMed: [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].
PubMed: Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.
PubMed: Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.
PubMed: Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.
PubMed: High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.
PubMed: [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].
PubMed: Evaluation of phototoxic and photogenotoxic risk associated with the use of photosensitizers in suntan preparations: application to tanning preparations containing bergamot oil.
PubMed: Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Pectin methylesterase in Citrus bergamia R.: purification, biochemical characterisation and sequence of the exon related to the enzyme active site.
PubMed: Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.
PubMed: The photochemistry and photobiology of bergamot oil as a perfume ingredient: an overview.
PubMed: Local sensitization of the skin to Grenz rays by bergamot oil.
PubMed: The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation.
PubMed: Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.
PubMed: Toxic profile of bergamot essential oil on survival and proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Hypolipidemic effects of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau juice in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
PubMed: Distribution of flavonoids and furocoumarins in juices from cultivars of Citrus bergamia Risso.
PubMed: Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.
PubMed: A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. II. Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives.
PubMed: Study of the extraction procedure by experimental design and validation of a LC method for determination of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed: [Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].
PubMed: Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth.
PubMed: Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.
PubMed: [Chemical composition of the endocarpus of the fruit of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso)].
PubMed: [The zinc oxide and bergamot oil gingival dressing and rationale of its preparation].
PubMed: [EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GINGIVAL DRESSING WITH BERGAMOT OIL].
PubMed: Evaluation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins from Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) juice and identification of new compounds.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.
PubMed: Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.
PubMed: Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).
PubMed: Rodenticidal activity of two natural coumarines from ether extract of Citrus bergamia.
PubMed: [Accidents due to tanning cosmetics with a base of bergamot oil].
PubMed: [Simplified method of preparation of the zinc oxide-bergamot oil gingival dressing].
PubMed: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of bergamot juice extract (BJe) in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed: Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.
PubMed: In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.
PubMed: A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.
PubMed: TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE MODULATION BY BERGAMOT POLYPHENOLIC FRACTION IN EXPERIMENTAL PHOTOAGEING IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.
PubMed: Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.
PubMed: Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils.
PubMed: The use of aromasticks at a cancer centre: a retrospective audit.
PubMed: The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
PubMed: Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis.
PubMed: Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.
PubMed: Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
PubMed: Magnetically recoverable, thermostable, hydrophobic DNA/silica encapsulates and their application as invisible oil tags.
PubMed: Role of D-Limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.
PubMed: The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.
PubMed: Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.
PubMed: The mechanism of action of a citrus oil blend against Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed: Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.
PubMed: Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.
PubMed: Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.
PubMed: Occurrence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) in Citrus genus plants.
PubMed: [Analysis of 14 elements for Jinhua bergamot by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and elemental analyser].
PubMed: Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro.
PubMed: The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems.
PubMed: Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.
PubMed: Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.
PubMed: Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils.
PubMed: Update of the toxicological assessment of furanocoumarins in foodstuffs (Update of the SKLM statement of 23/24 September 2004)--Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
PubMed: Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.
PubMed: UVB phototherapeutic modalities. Comparison of two treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.
PubMed: Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.
PubMed: Effects of music and essential oil inhalation on cardiac autonomic balance in healthy individuals.
PubMed: [Not Available].
PubMed: In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
PubMed: New asymmetrical per-substituted cyclodextrins (2-O-methyl-3-O-ethyl- and 2-O-ethyl-3-O-methyl-6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-derivatives) as chiral selectors for enantioselective gas chromatography in the flavour and fragrance field.
PubMed: [Purely natural: phototoxic dermatitis].
PubMed: Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.
PubMed: In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates.
PubMed: Inhibition of bergaptene toxicity by UV-A filters.
PubMed: Determination of 5-methoxypsoralen in human serum.
PubMed: [The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents].
PubMed: In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.
PubMed: Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.
PubMed: Further insights into the floral character of Touriga Nacional wines.
PubMed: Phytophotodermatitis.
PubMed: The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.
PubMed: Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed: Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.
PubMed: Dangers of the intake of psoralens and subsequent UV exposure producing significant burns.
PubMed: Quantitative assessment of epidermal melanogenesis in C3H/Tif hr/hr mice treated with topical furocoumarins and UVA radiation.
PubMed: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of citropten and bergapten in suction blister fluid after solar product application in humans.
PubMed: [Vitamin content of bergamot].
PubMed: Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.
PubMed: Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).
PubMed: Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.
PubMed: [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].
PubMed: Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances.
PubMed: [The effects of the inhalation method using essential oils on blood pressure and stress responses of clients with essential hypertension].
PubMed: The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons.
PubMed: High-throughput analysis of bergamot essential oil by fast solid-phase microextraction-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.
PubMed: Determination of some heavy metals and selenium in Sicilian and Calabrian citrus essential oils using derivative stripping chronopotentiometry.
PubMed: Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).
PubMed: Earl Grey, in excess.
PubMed: Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.
PubMed: How big is a drop? A volumetric assay of essential oils.
PubMed: Photoreactivity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and lack of photoreaction with DNA.
PubMed: Citropten and bergapten suction blister fluid concentrations after solar product application in man.
PubMed: A quantitative in vitro assay for the evaluation of phototoxic potential of topically applied materials.
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