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spruce needle oil canada
tsuga canadensis leaf oil canada

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Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:tsuga canadensis l. leaf oil
CAS Number: 8008-80-8
FDA UNII:Q1J49L1A5O
CoE Number:461
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FEMA Number:3034 spruce oil canada
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):8008-93-3 ; SPRUCE NEEDLES AND TWIGS, OIL (PICEA SPP.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.90000 to 0.91500 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.489 to 7.614
Refractive Index:1.46700 to 1.46720 @ 20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:-26.00 to -18.00
Acid Value: 2.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure:0.680000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 108.00 °F. TCC ( 42.22 °C. )
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 7.061 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: woody
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:24 hour(s) at 100.00 %
fir needle woody thujonic herbal terpenic aldehydic amber
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. fir needle woody thujone herbal terpenic aldehydic amber
Luebke, William tgsc, (1988)
Odor sample from: Ungerer & Company, Inc.
Flavor Type: woody
woody herbal green aromatic terpenic thujonic minty amber
Taste Description: woody herbal green aromatic terpenic thujonic minty amber
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Berjé
Spruce Oil Canadian
Happening at Berje
Bontoux
SPRUCE OIL CANANDIAN
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Spruce essential oil
Odor: characteristic
Use: This is not Black Spruce (Picea mariana). Fresh pine, bitter orange peel aroma. Recommended for relief of stress and anxiety. Also recommended for muscle aches and pains, aching joints, poor circulation, muscle spasms. Inhaled for the respiratory system, helpful for bronchitis or asthma. Blends well with Orange, Lavender and Clary sage.
Excellentia International
Spruce Oil
Fleurchem
spruce oil
Global Essence
Spruce Oil
Hermitage Oils
Hemlock Fir Essential Oil
Odor: characteristic
Use: Mark Evans has this to say “Also known as Hemlock Spruce, this is an incredibly bright, full bodied and complex fir oil from Canada. Smelling this oil is a truly invigorating and elevating experience and yet at the same time you are left feeling warm, comforted and enveloped. You feel as though the mythical green man has wrapped his arms around you for a comforting hug. After a few minutes of smelling I find myself mentally alert and physically relaxed with a huge smile on my face. Hemlock Fir Essential Oil is a true joy to smell on the test strip and the notes that wash over me are fir needles, pine, eucalyptus, some juniper berry fruitiness and also a good dose of artemisia herbaceous aromatics. With incredible performance as a top note, this oil will blend well with Lavender, Lavandin, Rosemary, Galbanum, Pine oils and Cedarwood oils. The major components are Bornyl acetate, alpha-Pinene, Camphene, Tricyclene, Limonene, Myrcene.
The Vault
Liberty Natural Products
SPRUCE ∼ EASTERN HEMLOCK CANADA
Penta International
SPRUCE OIL
PerfumersWorld
Spruce Oil
Odor: fresh pine fir needle woody herbal
Use: Blends-well-with - +Rosemary +Pine Needle +Benzoin +Galbanum +Oakmoss
Reincke & Fichtner
Spruce Needle Oil organic NOP
Reincke & Fichtner
Spruce Needle Oil
The Good Scents Company
spruce oil canada
Ungerer & Company
Spruce Oil
Vigon International
Spruce Oil Type
White Lotus Aromatics
Spruce, Blue Hemlock essential oil
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 3), H226
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Chronic aquatic toxicity (Category 2), H411
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramflame.jpgexclamation-mark.jpgenvironment.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H411 - Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 - Keep container tightly closed.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242 - Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 - Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303 + P361 + P353 - IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P362 - Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use appropriate media to extinguish.
P391 - Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 - Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 30, Pg. 117S, 1992.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 30, Pg. 117S, 1992.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for spruce needle oil canada usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 2.000004.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -6.20000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -44.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -15.00000
fruit ices: -15.00000
gelatins / puddings: -1.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -11.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8008-80-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 1197
WGK Germany:2
tsuga canadensis l. leaf oil
Chemidplus:0008008808
 
References:
 tsuga canadensis l. leaf oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8008-80-8
Pubchem (sid):135328653
 
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.29.6000
Wikipedia:View
FAO:BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
cedarleaf oil replacer
FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
amber
(Z)-
abienol
FL/FR
ambroxan
FL/FR
angelica root oil
FL/FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
anise
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
anisic
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil america
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
balsamic
abies alba cone oil
FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
balsam fir needle oil america
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
bornyl formate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir balsam absolute
FR
fir needle oil siberia
FL/FR
fir tree fragrance
FR
frankincense absolute
FL/FR
juniper berry oil terpeneless
FL/FR
khella oil
FR
mastic oil
FL/FR
mastic oil replacer
FR
mastic resinoid
FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
christmas
pine fragrance
FR
spruce needle absolute
FL/FR
red
spruce oil
FR
camphoreous
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
caramellic
helichrysum italicum flower absolute
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
tetrahydromyrcenol
FR
fatty
decanol
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
dodecadienal
FL/FR
floral
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
benzyl acetone
FL/FR
benzyl alcohol
FL/FR
blue mist fragrance
FR
bois de rose fragrance
FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
bois de rose oil replacer
FR
cassie absolute
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
ho wood oil
FR
hyacinth ether
FR
leerall
FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalool oxide (furanoid)
FL/FR
magnolia flower oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute morocco
FL/FR
muguet carboxaldehyde
FR
nerol
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
prenyl salicylate
FL/FR
2-iso
propoxyethyl salicylate
FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
green acetate
FR
green
holy
basil leaf oil
FL/FR
boxwood berry fragrance
FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
heptyl benzoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
3-
hexenal
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
melon acetal
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
picea abies leaf oil
FR
picea mariana leaf oil
FR
3,5,5-
trimethyl hexanol
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
herbal
angelica archangelica seed extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
apium graveolens seed oil
FL/FR
sweet
basil absolute
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
chamomile oil morocco
FR
1,4-
cineole
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
iso
dihydrolavandulal
FL/FR
geranium cyclohexane
FR
glyceryl tribenzoate
CS
herbal undecane
FR
hexyl salicylate
FL/FR
hyssop oil
FL/FR
juniper berry fragrance
FR
juniper carboxaldehyde
FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
spike
lavender oil
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
matricaria chamomilla flower oil
FL/FR
nopyl acetate
FR
ormenis multicaulis flower oil morocco
FR
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
curled
parsley seed oil
FL/FR
rhododendron anthopogon leaf oil
FR
rosemary oil africa
FL/FR
rosemary oil corsica
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
rosemary oil tunisia
FL/FR
rosmarinus officinalis extract
FL/FR
rosmarinus officinalis tincture
FL/FR
salvia officinalis lavandulifolia extract
FL/FR
salvia sclarea oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
yerba mate absolute
FL/FR
minty
trans-para-
menthan-2-one
FL/FR
(-)-
menthone
FL/FR
mossy
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
oakmoss distillates
FL/FR
veramoss (IFF)
FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
spicy
benzyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
cuminaldehyde
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
ginger root oil cochin
FL/FR
nutmeg oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
walnut leaf oil
FR
terpenic
cypress leaf oil
FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
juniper berry oil replacer
FR
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
pinus nigra twig leaf oil
FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
turpentine oil
FL/FR
thujonic
armoise oil
FR
cedarleaf oil western red
FR
sage oil albania
FL/FR
common
tansy leaf oil dutch
FR
common
tansy oil canada
FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
tonka
tonka bean absolute
FR
tropical
genet absolute
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
woody
abies alba cone extract
FL/FR
abies lasiocarpa oil canada
FR
amber carbinol
FR
callitris intratropica wood oil australia
FR
(-)-
camphene
FL/FR
cedarwood oil lebanon
FR
cedrol
FL/FR
cedryl acetate
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf absolute
FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
douglas
fir oil
FR
frankincense resinoid
FL/FR
frankincense resinoid replacer
FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
gurjun balsam oil
FR
iso
longifolene epoxide
FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
cis-2-
pinanol
FR
redwood fragrance
FR
sandalwood specialty
FR
santall
FR
spruce fragrance
FR
thuja occidentalis leaf extract
FR
thuja occidentalis leaf oil
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody propanol
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
abies alba cone extract
FL/FR
balsam fir needle oil america
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
holy
basil leaf oil
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
bornyl formate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
(-)-
camphene
FL/FR
heptyl benzoate
FL/FR
linalool oxide (furanoid)
FL/FR
magnolia flower oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
iso
quinoline
FL
turpentine oil
FL/FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
absinthe
absinthe
absinthe flavor
FL
aldehydic
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
anise
sweet
fennel seed oil
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir needle oil siberia
FL/FR
mastic oil
FL/FR
spruce needle absolute
FL/FR
camphoreous
laevo-
borneol
FL/FR
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
rosemary oil tunisia
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
cooling
1,4-
cineole
FL/FR
spike
lavender oil
FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute morocco
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
benzyl acetone
FL/FR
benzyl alcohol
FL/FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
green
aloe vera flavor
FL
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
angelica root oil
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
dodecadienal
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
helichrysum italicum flower absolute
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
3-
hexenal
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
lettuce flavor
FL
linalool oxide
FL/FR
melon acetal
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
sorbyl acetate
FL
3,5,5-
trimethyl hexanol
FL/FR
hay
genet absolute
FL/FR
herbal
angelica archangelica seed extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower extract
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
apium graveolens seed oil
FL/FR
sweet
basil absolute
FL/FR
celery flavor
FL
celery seed oil distillates
FL
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
clover herb distillate (melilotus officinalis)
FL
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
iso
dihydrolavandulal
FL/FR
dill flavor
FL
hexyl salicylate
FL/FR
hyssop oil
FL/FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
matricaria chamomilla flower oil
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil america
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
parsley flavor
FL
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
curled
parsley oleoresin
FL
curled
parsley seed oil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
prenyl salicylate
FL/FR
rosemary oil africa
FL/FR
rosemary oil corsica
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
rosmarinus officinalis extract
FL/FR
rosmarinus officinalis tincture
FL/FR
salvia officinalis lavandulifolia extract
FL/FR
salvia sclarea oil
FL/FR
yerba mate absolute
FL/FR
medicinal
frankincense absolute
FL/FR
minty
trans-para-
menthan-2-one
FL/FR
(-)-
menthone
FL/FR
mossy
oakmoss distillates
FL/FR
pine
spruce beer flavor
FL
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
spicy
benzyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
cassie absolute
FL/FR
cuminaldehyde
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
geranium flavor
FL
ginger root oil cochin
FL/FR
nutmeg flavor
FL
nutmeg oil
FL/FR
origanum majorana oleoresin
FL
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
tea
mate flavor
FL
yerba mate flavor
FL
terpenic
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
thujonic
sage oil albania
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
decanol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
woody
(Z)-
abienol
FL/FR
ambroxan
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
cedrol
FL/FR
cedryl acetate
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
frankincense resinoid
FL/FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
juniper berry oil terpeneless
FL/FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
spruce flavor
FL
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
thuja occidentalis leaf oil
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRarmoise
FRash mountain ash
FRbalsam
FRbark
FRbayberry
FRboxwood berry
FL/FRcajeput
FRcedar
FRcedar forest
FRcedarwood
FRchristmas
FRevergreen
FRfern
FRfir balsam
FRfir needle oil replacer
FRforest
FRfrankincense
FRgreen
FRherbal
FRhollyberry
FRincense
FRivy
FRjuniper
FRjuniper berry
FRlavandin
FRlavender
FRmoss
FRniaouli
FRpine
FRpine forest
FRpinion
FRrosemary
FRsage
FRspruce
FRsweet grass
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 hemlock eastern hemlock leaf
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 hemlock needle oil (tsuga canadensis) canada
canadian hemlock oil canada
 spruce oil canada
 tsuga canadensis leaf oil canada
 
 
Notes:
It is steam distilled from the leaves and twigs of Tsuga Canadensis, also known as the Eastern Hemlock since it grows all along the east coast of the U.S.A. Bornyl acetate replacer. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. picea mariana, picea alba or tsuga heterophylla, pinaceae.
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