cinnamyl alcohol
Cinnamon imatations.
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Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (Click)
CAS Number: 104-54-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-212-3
Beilstein Number: 1903999
MDL: MFCD00002921
FEMA Number: 2294
CoE Number: 65
XlogP3: 1.90 (est)
Molecular Weight: 134.17790000
Formula: C9 H10 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict
Also(can) Contains: (E)-cinnamyl alcohol
 (Z)-cinnamyl alcohol
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
JECFA Food Flavoring: 647  cinnamyl alcohol
Flavis Number: 02.017 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 02.017  cinnamyl alcohol
FEMA Number: 2294  cinnamyl alcohol
FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: pale yellow solid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 30.00 to  34.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 250.00 to  258.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 169.00 to  170.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.012000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 4.6 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: > 200.00 °F. TCC ( > 93.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.950
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light. store under nitrogen.
Storage: store under nitrogen.
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: balsamic
Odor Strength: medium
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
sweet balsam hyacinth spicy green powdery cinnamic
Substantivity: 371 hour(s) at 100.00 %
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: flavoring agents
perfuming agents
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Safety Information:
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
  R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24 - Avoid contact with skin.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Human Experience: 100 %: no skin irritation. 5 % solution: sensitising.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  oral-rat LD50  2000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 855, 1974.

oral-guinea pig LD50  2675 mg/kg
Voprosy Pitaniya. Problems of Nutrition. Vol. 33(5), Pg. 48, 1974.

Dermal Toxicity:
  skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 855, 1974.

Inhalation Toxicity:
  Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Should not be used such that the level in finished cosmetic products exceeds 0.8%. Based on test results showing sensitising potential. (IFRA guidelines).
IFRA: View Standard
Fragrance usage is IFRA RESTRICTED. View Standard for complete information.
Please review all IFRA documents for complete information.
IFRA categories: limits in the finished product: (For a description of the categories, refer to the IFRA QRA Information Booklet.)
Category 1:
See Note (1)
0.09 % (1)
Category 2:  0.10 %
Category 3:  0.40 %
Category 4:  1.40 %
Category 5:  0.40 %
Category 6:
See Note (1)
2.20 % (1)
Category 7:  0.20 %
Category 8:  0.40 %
Category 9:  0.40 %
Category 10:  0.40 %
Category 11: See Note (2)

For this material, for pragmatic reasons, restrictive levels allowed by the QRA for certain categories but actually being higher than those already in place before applying the QRA, will temporarily not be implemented until the end of a 5 year monitoring phase. At the end of the 5 years the position will be reevaluated again.


(1) IFRA would recommend that any material used to impart perfume or flavour in products intended for human ingestion should consist of ingredients that are in compliance with appropriate regulations for foods and food flavourings in the countries of planned distribution and, where these are lacking, with the recommendations laid down in the Code of Practice of IOFI (International Organisation of the Flavor Industry). Further information about IOFI can be found on its website (


(2) Category 11 includes all non-skin contact or incidental skin contact products. Due to the negligible skin contact from these types of products there is no justification for a restriction of the concentration of this fragrance ingredient in the finished product.

Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 1500.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 1900.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -33.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -8.80000
beverages(alcoholic): -5.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -720.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -8.70000
fruit ices: -8.70000
gelatins / puddings: -22.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -17.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) reference(s):
The FEMA GRAS assessment of cinnamyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients.View pdf
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 214: alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes and precursors from chemical subgroup 3.1 of FGE.19: Cinnamyl derivatives[1]
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 68 (FGE.68): Consideration of cinnamyl alcohol and related flavouring agents evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting) evaluated by EFSA in FGE.15Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of aryl-substituted primary alcohol, aldehyde, acid, ester and acetal derivatives belonging to chemical group 22 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 104-54-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 308
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WGK Germany:2
Chemidplus: 0000104541
RTECS: GE2200000 for cas# 104-54-1
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 104-54-1
Pubchem (cid): 308
Pubchem (sid): 134972882
Flavornet: 104-54-1
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C02394
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB29697
Export Tariff Code: 2906.29.6000
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 acetaldehyde ethyl phenethyl acetalFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 animal carbolactoneFR
para-anisyl acetateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
sumatra benzoin absoluteFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
sumatra benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl cinnamateFL/FR
 benzyl methyl etherFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 cinnamyl acetateFL/FR
 cinnamyl anthranilate 
 cinnamyl benzoateFL/FR
 cinnamyl butyrateFL/FR
 cinnamyl cinnamateFL/FR
 cinnamyl hexanoateFL/FR
 cinnamyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 cinnamyl isovalerateFL/FR
 cinnamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 cinnamyl propionateFL/FR
 cinnamyl salicylate 
 cinnamyl tiglateFL/FR
 cinnamyl valerateFL/FR
 citrus carbaldehyde / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 copaiba balsam oilFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 costus root oilFL
 costus valerolactoneFR
 cotinus coggygria branch/leaf oilFL/FR
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 cubeb oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl salicylateFR
 deertongue absoluteFR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 fir balsam absoluteFR
 floral pyranolFR
 galbascone (IFF)FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 green etherFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 heptyl cinnamateFL/FR
 hexanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl cinnamateFR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 ho leaf oilFR
 hyacinth butanalFR
 hyacinth etherFR
 kewda absolute 
 kewda oilCS
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
 leafy acetalFL/FR
 linalyl cinnamateFL/FR
 levisticum officinale root oilFL/FR
 melilot absoluteFR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 methyl furfuracrylateFL
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
 methyl ortho-anisateFL/FR
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 muguet undecadienalFR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
 myrrh resinoidFR
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 octyl cinnamateFR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 peru balsam oilFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl formateFL/FR
 phenethyl oxyacetaldehydeFR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 phenoxyacetaldehyde 50% in benzyl alcoholFR
2-phenoxyethyl formateFR
 phenyl acetaldehyde / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
 phenyl acetaldehyde ethylene glycol acetalFR
 phenyl glycol diacetateFR
2-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
2-phenyl propionaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
2-phenyl propyl acetateFL/FR
(R)-2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl formateFL/FR
 phenyl propyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-phenyl-1(2)-propene-1-yl acetateFR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 reseda acetalFR
 rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgariaFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 styralyl alcoholFL/FR
 tea acetateFR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl cinnamateFL/FR
 tolu balsamFL/FR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
 valerian rhizome absoluteFL/FR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 watermelon ketoneFR
 woody acetateFR
annus wormwood oil franceFL/FR
annus wormwood oil vietnamFL/FR
 ylang ylang flower oilFL/FR
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Potential Uses:
 acacia cassie farnesianaFR
 apple blossomFR
 bay rumFR
 blue grass 
 blue mist 
 carnation dianthus oeilletFR
 chocolate cocoa 
 cinq fleurs forvil 
 daffodil narcissusFR
 hay new mown hay foin coupeFR
 honey mielFR
 honeysuckle chevrefeuilleFR
 hyacinth jacintheFR
 jonquil narcissus jonquillaFR
 lilac lilas syringaFR
 muguet lily of the valleyFR
 my sin 
 narcissus narcisseFR
 nut walnutFL
 orange blossomFR
 peru balsamFL/FR
 rose d'orientFR
 rose mossFR
 rose redFR
 rose tea roseFR
 sweet peaFR
 ylang ylangFR
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Natural Occurrence in: note
 champaca concrete @ 0.30%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 cinnamon bark
GRIN Trop Picture
 cinnamon leaf
GRIN Trop Picture
 lime oil expressed florida @ trace%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 narcissus absolute @ 0.12%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 raspberry plant
 tolu balsam
GRIN Trop Picture
 ylang ylang oil CO2 extract @ 0.02%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
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 cinnamic alcohol
nat.cinnamic alcohol
 cinnamic alcohol desensitized
 cinnamic alcohol FCC
 cinnamic alcohol honduras, natural isolated constituent
 cinnamic alcohol natural
 cinnamic alcohol pure FCC
 cinnamyl alcohol 10% dpg
 cinnamyl alcohol FCC
 cinnamyl alcohol natural
3-phenyl allyl alcohol
gamma-phenyl allyl alcohol
1-phenyl prop-1-en-3-ol
3-phenylallyl alcohol
 styryl carbinol
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PubMed: Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.
PubMed: Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.
PubMed: Characterization of odor-active volatiles in champa (Campomanesia lineatifolia R. and P.).
PubMed: The FEMA GRAS assessment of cinnamyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients.
PubMed: Reactions in selected patients to 22 fragrance materials.
PubMed: Characterization of odor-active volatiles in champa (Campomanesia lineatifolia R. and P.).
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Picture of molecule
Soluble in:
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 6188 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
 bath foam
 hair spray
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