fir balsam absolute
 
Notes:
Absolute oil of Fir Needles. Owing to the increasing interest of international customers in alpine odors, manufacture takes place on a large scale of the essential oils derived from different species of pine, fir, black pine, silver fir, all having characteristics shared by conifers but each differing in certain specific details in each note. The products that come from France as Absolu d'Aiguilles are as a rule those from Abies alba. The concrete is prepared by treatment of the needles and twigs with petroleum ether, followed by a second extraction with 95 alcohol. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. it consists primarily of resins, essential oils, and usually cinnamic and benzoic acids. (abies balsamea, tsuga canadiensis, pinaceae).
  • Associate Allied Chemicals
    • Associate Allied Chemicals
      Quality, Service and Values
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  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements. Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients. The strength of the company is built on both its comprehensive knowledge base, and extensive stocks of raw materials for both fragrance and flavour use. To complement its range of conventional and Organic Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals, Augustus also offers a steadily increasing range of its own, UK manufactured Natural Extracts, Absolutes, Resinoids and Natural Chemicals. These again are fully tested and certificated, and very tightly quality controlled. Augustus is committed to promoting the use of natural ingredients, wherever the potential lies and to provide an environment of support and trust to both our customers and suppliers.
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  • Berjé
    • Berje Inc.
      The solution is clear
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      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
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      Fir Balsam Absolute
       
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    • Bontoux S.A
      Major international supplier
      Major international Producer of aromatic ingredients for the production of fragrances, flavors, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and Aromathopy.
      Bontoux Inc. was established in 1993 to directly service our North American clientele. The facility primarily serves as a Sales Customer Service, Repacking and Distribution Center for our customers in North America.
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      FIR BALSAM ABSOLUTE
       
  • Charabot
  • Excellentia International
    • Excellentia International
      Ingredients by Nature
      Exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers requirements.
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  • Hermitage Oils
    • Hermitage Oils
      Perfumery and Aromatherapy materials since 1979
      Hermitage Oils, the true home of essential oils!
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      Fir Balsam Absolute
      Arctander has this to say about Fir Balsam Absolute ”Its odour power is easily underestimated, and the apparent suave sweetness has a tremendous penetration in most fragrances. Obviously, this material is particularly useful in pine and spruce fragrances, “Christmas tree” odours, ect.., but the real pleasure of such a material is primarily obtained when it is used in the more unusual places, e.g. chypre, fougere, muget, cologne bases, violet bases, opoponax, hyacinth, carnation etc.”
       
       
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      06-12501 FIR BALSAM ABSOLUTE
       
  • Robertet
  • The John D. Walsh Company
    • The John D. Walsh Company, Inc
      Suppliers Since 1942
      Supplying the fragrance and flavor industry with high quality products.
      The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. has evolved from its beginnings as an agent/broker into a distributor of essential oils, aroma chemicals, concretes and absolutes. We currently represent the following companies, as their North American distributor: Destilerias Munoz Galvez, S.A. International Flavors & Fragrances PFW Aroma Chemicals B.V. Innospec Widnes Limited Hydrodiffusion de Guatemala, S. A. DSM Nutritional Products The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. is proud to be a founding member of IFEAT, an active member of IFRA, North America, and a corporate sponsor of the WFFC.
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      Fir Balsam Absolute
      SDS
       
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Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name: abies alba mill absolute
CAS Number: 8007-47-4 
ECHA EC Number: 232-362-2
MDL: MFCD00132800
Category: fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: dark green solid paste (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 230.00 °F. TCC ( 110.00 °C. )
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 7.061 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: balsamic
Odor Strength: medium
 fir needle  balsamic  berry  woody  sweet  green  pine  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
fir balsam berry woody sweet green pine
Luebke, William tgsc, (1988)
 sweet  woody  pine  green  floral  minty  
Odor Description:
Sweet, woody, pine, green, floral with minty nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 2, 55, (1994)
 woody  pine  floral  mossy  herbal  
Taste Description:
at 30.00 ppm.  
Woody, pine, floral, mossy, with herbal nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 2, 55, (1994)
Substantivity: 400 Hour(s)
  
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
Associate Allied Chemicals
Fir Balsam Absolute
About
Augustus Oils
Fir Balsam Absolute
Services
Berjé
Fir Balsam Absolute
Happening at Berje
Biolandes Parfumerie
fir balsam absolute
Odor: woody family / fruity, sweet, pine
Photo Gallery
Bontoux
FIR BALSAM ABSOLUTE
Charabot
Fir balsam clarextract
Natural on carrier (MPG)
Odor: Woody, resinous, sweet, sugary, toffee, fresh, slightly phenolic
Charabot
Fir balsam resinoid
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Woody, pine, caramel facet
Ernesto Ventós
FIR BALSAM ABS RESIN
Odor: PINE, SWEET, FRUITY, BALSAMIC
Excellentia International
Fir Balsam Absolute
Hermitage Oils
Fir Balsam Absolute
Odor: characteristic
Use: Arctander has this to say about Fir Balsam Absolute ”Its odour power is easily underestimated, and the apparent suave sweetness has a tremendous penetration in most fragrances. Obviously, this material is particularly useful in pine and spruce fragrances, “Christmas tree” odours, ect.., but the real pleasure of such a material is primarily obtained when it is used in the more unusual places, e.g. chypre, fougere, muget, cologne bases, violet bases, opoponax, hyacinth, carnation etc.”
The Vault
Penta International
FIR BALSAM ABSOLUTE
Robertet
Fir balsam clarextract
Natural on carrier (MPG)
Odor: Woody, resinous, sweet, sugary, toffee, fresh, slightly phenolic
Robertet
Fir balsam resinoid
100% Pure & Natural, Kosher
Odor: Woody, pine, caramel facet
The John D. Walsh Company
Fir Balsam Absolute
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Eye irritation (Category 2A), H319
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H319 - Causes serious eye irritation
Precautionary statement(s)
P261 - Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, Pg. 449, 1975.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, Pg. 449, 1975.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA Other Specification: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Essential oils (e.g. turpentine oil) and isolates (e.g. delta-3-carene) derived from the Pinacea family, including Pinus and Abies genera, should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production. Such products should have a peroxide value of less than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter, determined according to the FMA method, which can be downloaded from the IFRA website (see Analytical Methods).
IFRA: View Standard
Recommendation for fir balsam absolute usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Recommendation for fir balsam absolute flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPI System: View
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 8007-47-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WGK Germany: 2
 abies alba mill absolute
Chemidplus: 0008007474
RTECS: CP2352500 for cas# 8007-47-4
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References:
 abies alba mill absolute
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 8007-47-4
Pubchem (sid): 135355032
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Other Information:
Export Tariff Code: 1301.90.0000
Household Products: Search
Wikipedia: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
aldehydic
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
amber
 amber oxepinFR
 ambroxanFL/FR
 angelica root oilFL/FR
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
animal
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
anise
 anise seed oilFL/FR
sweet fennel seed oilFL/FR
anisic
 ambrette seed oilFL/FR
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzophenoneFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 clover nitrileFR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir needle oil siberiaFL/FR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
camphoreous
 camphor tree bark oilFL/FR
chocolate
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
citrus
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
clean
 amerinalFR
coconut
gamma-nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))FL/FR
fatty
 decanolFL/FR
floral
 acetophenoneFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 heliotropyl diethyl acetalFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 ho leaf oilFR
 hyacinth etherFR
abrialis lavandin oilFL/FR
 lavender oilFL/FR
 leerallFR
 linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 neroli oil bigardeFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fresh
10-undecen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
fruity
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
 green acetateFR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
green
 cortex pyridineFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-olFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl tiglateFL/FR
 hexyl tiglateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
hay
 hay absoluteFR
herbal
 anthemis nobilis flower oil romanFL/FR
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 nopyl acetateFR
 rosemary oil spainFL/FR
 thyme oil (thymus zygis gracillis) spainFL/FR
marine
green algae absoluteFL/FR
 marine pyridineFR
melon
 watermelon ketoneFR
mossy
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
powdery
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
spicy
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
 eugenolFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 nutmeg oilFL/FR
black pepper oilFL/FR
 pepper tree berry oilFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
terpenic
 cypress leaf oilFR
 frankincense oilFL/FR
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
thujonic
 armoise oilFR
 sage oil dalmatianFL/FR
 thuja occidentalis leaf oilFL/FR
tonka
 coumarinFR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
waxy
 decyl acetateFL/FR
1-dodecanolFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
woody
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 santallFR
 spruce needle oil canadaFL/FR
 tobacarol (IFF)FR
 woody acetateFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 woody propanolFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
green algae absoluteFL/FR
 ambrette seed oilFL/FR
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 methyl (E)-cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 thuja occidentalis leaf oilFL/FR
aldehydic
 decanolFL/FR
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
anise
 anise seed oilFL/FR
sweet fennel seed oilFL/FR
aromatic
 benzyl isoeugenolFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir needle oil siberiaFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
berry
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
camphoreous
 camphor tree bark oilFL/FR
citrus
 benzophenoneFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
cooling
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
creamy
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
gamma-nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))FL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
floral
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 neroli oil bigardeFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
greasy
10-undecen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
green
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 angelica root oilFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cortex pyridineFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-olFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl tiglateFL/FR
 hexyl tiglateFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
herbal
 anthemis nobilis flower oil romanFL/FR
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
abrialis lavandin oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 lavender oilFL/FR
 rosemary oil spainFL/FR
 thyme oil (thymus zygis gracillis) spainFL/FR
honey
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
powdery
 acetophenoneFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
1-dodecanolFL/FR
spicy
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
 eugenolFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 nutmeg oilFL/FR
black pepper oilFL/FR
 pepper tree berry oilFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
terpenic
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
thujonic
 sage oil dalmatianFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
waxy
 decyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
woody
 ambroxanFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
 frankincense oilFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 spruce needle oil canadaFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 ash mountain ash 
 ash mountain ash blossom 
 balsamFR
 bark 
 bayberryFR
 berryFR
 bouquetFR
 boxwood blossom 
 boxwoodberry 
 calamusFR
 cedar forestFR
 cedarleafFL/FR
 christmas blendsFR
 citronellaFL/FR
 clematisFR
 cypressFR
 daffodil narcissusFR
 davanaFL/FR
 diffusion 
 earth humusFR
 evergreenFR
 fern fougereFR
 figFR
 fir 
 fir balsamFR
 fir needle pine needleFL/FR
 flouveFR
 flouve blossom 
 foliage 
 forestFR
 forest pine forestFR
 fruit dried fruit 
 gingerFR
 ginger whiteFR
 gingergrassFR
 grass sweetFR
 hay new mown hay foin coupeFR
 heatherFR
 herbalFR
 hollyberryFR
 incenseFR
 iris blossom 
 ivyFR
 juniper berryFR
 lavandinFL/FR
 lavenderFR
 liverwort 
 meadow countryFR
 muskFR
 narcissus narcisseFR
 oakmoss mousse de chene mossFR
 ocean sea 
 oreganoFL/FR
 outdoors natural outdoors 
 palmarosaFL/FR
 pineFR
 pinon coneFR
 privet blossom 
 rhubarbFR
 sap 
 spruceFL/FR
 thymeFL/FR
 vetiverFR
 woodyFR
 wormwood absinthiumFL/FR
 yewFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 abies alba mill
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 abies alba absolute
 fir balsam abs resin
 fir balsam absolute resin
 fir balsam clarextract
 fir balsam natural & nat-identical blend (Robertet)
 fir balsam res sol 100 abs
 fir balsam resinoid
 fir balsam resinoid absolute
 fir balsam resinoide
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Articles:
PubMed: Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.
PubMed: Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of an extractive fraction from Abies alba bark.
PubMed: Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).
PubMed: Changes in ATP, glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(P)H cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of Abies alba Mill. embryogenic cultures.
PubMed: Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians.
PubMed: Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.
PubMed: Contrasting patterns of nucleotide diversity for four conifers of Alpine European forests.
PubMed: The geographical and environmental determinants of genetic diversity for four alpine conifers of the European Alps.
PubMed: How fast do European conifers overgrow wounds inflicted by rockfall?
PubMed: Life strategies in intra-annual dynamics of wood formation: example of three conifer species in a temperate forest in north-east France.
PubMed: Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.
PubMed: Variability of stomatal conductance in a small and isolated population of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).
PubMed: Composition of essential oil from seeds and cones of Abies alba.
PubMed: Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.
PubMed: Three-dimensional analysis of the anatomical growth response of European conifers to mechanical disturbance.
PubMed: A new serial pooling method of shifted tree ring blocks to construct millennia long tree ring isotope chronologies with annual resolution.
PubMed: Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.
PubMed: Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.
PubMed: Acclimation of leaves to contrasting irradiance in juvenile trees differing in shade tolerance.
PubMed: Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation.
PubMed: Induction of photosynthesis and importance of limitations during the induction phase in sun and shade leaves of five ecologically contrasting tree species from the temperate zone.
PubMed: Accuracy assessment of a small-area method for estimating the spatial distribution of the degree of tree damage.
PubMed: Stem breakage of trees and energy dissipation during rockfall impacts.
PubMed: The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).
PubMed: Susceptibility to low-temperature photoinhibition in three conifers differing in successional status.
PubMed: [Genetic variation and differentiation of Abies alba Mill. populations from Ukrainian Carpathians].
PubMed: Two classes of 5S rDNA unit arrays of the silver fir, Abies alba Mill.: structure, localization and evolution.
PubMed: Differences in the influx of glutamine and nitrate into Viscum album from the xylem sap of its hosts.
PubMed: Spatial and seasonal variation in amino compounds in the xylem sap of a mistletoe (Viscum album) and its hosts (Populus spp. and Abies alba).
PubMed: Detecting differences in crown transparency assessments between countries using the image analysis system CROCO.
PubMed: [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].
PubMed: Water and oxygen permeance of phellems isolated from trees: the role of waxes and lenticels.
PubMed: Foliar and cortex oleoresin variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Albania.
PubMed: Foliar morphological and physiological plasticity in Picea abies and Abies alba saplings along a natural light gradient.
PubMed: Carbon stocks and soil respiration rates during deforestation, grassland use and subsequent Norway spruce afforestation in the Southern Alps, Italy.
PubMed: High level of variation at Abies alba chloroplast microsatellite loci in Europe.
PubMed: Manganese deficiency of silver fir trees (Abies alba) at a reforested site in the Jura mountains, Switzerland: aspects of cause and effect.
PubMed: Embryogenic culture initiation and somatic embryo development in hybrid firs (Abies alba x Abies cephalonica, and Abies alba x Abies numidica).
PubMed: Performance of some growth variables.
PubMed: CO2/H2O gas exchange parameters of one- and two-year-old needles of spruce and fir.
PubMed: Mineral content in the soil and tree foliage.
PubMed: General methods and materials.
PubMed: Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference.
PubMed: Effect of SO(2) and O(3) on Production of Antioxidants in Conifers.
PubMed: [Determination of the chitinolytic activity of "Abies alba" Mill. litter microorganisms: bacteria and yeasts (author's transl)].
PubMed: [Free sugars, cyclitols and organic acids in the cambial sap of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea Abies Karst. and Abies alba Mill].
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