levulose
beta-D-fructofuranose
 
Notes:
a monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. it is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding. Occurs in honey and a large number of fruits, particularly apples and tomatoes. Fluid and nutrient replenisher, nutritive sweetener. Inulin from dandelion roots has also been used as a source. Present in polymeric form in the inulins, the energy reserve polysaccharides of many plants, e.g. dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke tubers
  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
      International trading and distribution
      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL SocietÓ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Email: Trading
      Email: Maintenance
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      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      Fructose
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      06-24000 FRUCTOSE CRYSTAL FCC
      06-24050 FRUCTOSE CRYSTALS USP GRADE
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
(3S,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one (Click)
CAS Number: 57-48-7Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-333-3
FDA UNII: 6YSS42VSEV
Nikkaji Web: J4.580B
Beilstein Number: 1239004
MDL: MFCD00148910
XlogP3-AA: -3.20 (est)
Molecular Weight: 180.15684000
Formula: C6 H12 O6
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
FDA Mainterm: LEVULOSE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 101 -- FOOD LABELING
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 101.9 Nutrition labeling of food.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.111 Acidified milk.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.112 Cultured milk.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.170 Eggnog.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.200 Yogurt.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.203 Lowfat yogurt.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.206 Nonfat yogurt.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.


FDA PART 146 -- CANNED FRUIT JUICES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages
Sec. 146.132 Grapefruit juice.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.170 Canned peas.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystals (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 551.74 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 575.00 °F. TCC ( 301.50 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -1.029 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 778000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
 clean  sweet  
Taste Description:
clean, very sweet
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: humectants
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Aceto
Fructose DC
ADM
CRYSTALLINE FRUCTOSE
Flavor: sweet
Fructose, known for years as "Fruit Sugar" because of its natural occurrence in many fruits, is the sweetest of the natural sugars. Although chiefly used for its power where it can exhibit sweetness up to 1.8 times that of sucrose, fructose offers many unique benefits, which today's food technologist can utilize to optimize product formulation and marketing strategies.
Anhui Haibei
Crystalline fructose
Austrade
Crystalline Fructose
Flavor: sweet
Crystalline fructose also provides a low Glycemic Index (GI). The glycemic index measures how quickly certain foods release carbohydrates into the bloodstream, which then raise consumers' blood glucose levels. High GI foods cause blood sugar levels to rise more rapidly, and high blood sugar is known to be the defining feature of diabetes. Scientific evidence has increased to show low GI foods can help control weight and more certainly, help reduce the risk of diabetes and related conditions by raising blood sugar more steadily.
BestGround
Agave syrup
Flavor: sweet
For the development of our Premium syrup we use organic 100% blue agave which is highly monitored in order to obtain a neutral taste which is a highly sought after characteristic for use in more complex food manufacturing or haute cuisine. It contains a moderate percentage of inulin which contributes to proper bowel function.
ECSA Chemicals
Fructose
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
D(-)-Fructose
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
D-Fructose
Farbest-Tallman Foods
Krystar® Crystalline Fructose
Flavor: clean, very sweet
Fructose is the sweetest of all naturally occurring sugars. Krystar pure crystalline fructose is produced by Tate & Lyle. It may be used alone or with other sweeteners in a variety of products. Benefits of using Krystar crystalline fructose include intense sweetness, reduced staling in baked goods and other selected applications. Krystar imparts a clear, light mouthfeel. Krystar crystalline fructose is available in two major particle sizes: Krystar 300 and Krystar 450. A third, powdered crystalline fructose, with an average particle size of 25-40 microns is also available.
Farbest-Tallman Foods
Krystar® Liquid Fructose
Flavor: clean, very sweet
Krystar liquid fructose is 99.5+% pure fructose (dsb). It is produced by dissolving crystalline fructose to yield a clear, colorless liquid that is intensely sweet. Fructose is the sweetest of the naturally occurring sugars, and as produced by Tate & Lyle as Krystar liquid fructose, this sweetness is available in convenient liquid form. It is ideal for wet process applications requiring a high degree of sweetness and/or reduced caloric content, since by virtue of its sweetness, less is needed to achieve sweetness parity. Krystar liquid fructose meets all standards set by the National Soft Drink Association, including microbiological and sediment limits.
Foodchem International
Crystalline Fructose
Kraft Chemical
Fructose
Penta International
FRUCTOSE CRYSTAL FCC
Penta International
FRUCTOSE CRYSTALS USP GRADE
Prinova
Fructose
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
D-(-)-Fructose ≥99%
Sinofi Ingredients
Crystalline Fructose
Flavor: characteristic
Sugar Substitutes, Dairy Products, Confections, Baking Food, Yogurt, Desserts, Soft Drink, Beverage Powder, Instant Coffee, Chai Tea, Puddings, Ice Cream, Pharmaceutical, Humectant, Preservative, Processing aid, Cereals, Canned Fruits, Cakes, Juices, Frozen Products, Flavor Enhancer, Prevents Sandiness.
SunOpta
Agave & Agave Nectar
Odor: characteristic
Use: Agave Syrup is a natural fructose sweetener extracted from the agave Salmiana or Blue agave. It is sweeter than the refined sugar and has nearly half the carbohydrate calories. It also is a low Glycemic Index Ingredient.
Tate & Lyle
Crystalline Fructose
Food and Beverage
The Ingredient House
Agave Syrup
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-rabbit LD50  15000 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A132-656

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for levulose usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 57-48-7
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 5984
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 (3S,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
Chemidplus: 0000057487
RTECS: 57-48-7
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 (3S,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 57-48-7
Pubchem (cid): 5984
Pubchem (sid): 134970870
Pherobase: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00095
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00660
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00657
Export Tariff Code: 1702.50.0000
Household Products: Search
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 humectants 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 apple custard apple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 apple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 apricot fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
Search Trop  Picture
 asparagus rhizome
Search Trop  Picture
 banana fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 barley seed
Search Trop  Picture
 bilberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 blueberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 borage leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 burdock root
Search Trop  Picture
 cacao bean
Search Trop  Picture
 caraway
Search Trop  Picture
 carob bean
Search Trop  Picture
 carrot root
Search Trop  Picture
 celery shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 chamomile sweet false chamomile plant
Search Trop  Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 chicory fruit juice
Search Trop  Picture
 chicory root
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut juice
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut root
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut sap
Search Trop  Picture
 coriander fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 coriander seed
Search Trop  Picture
 corn fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 corn seed
Search Trop  Picture
 currant black currant fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 currant red currant fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 dandelion plant
Search Trop  Picture
 dandelion root
Search Trop  Picture
 date palm fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 date palm seed
Search Trop  Picture
 elder black elder fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fenugreek plant
Search Trop  Picture
 fenugreek seed
Search Trop  Picture
 fig fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 garlic bulb
Search Trop  Picture
 garlic leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 ginger root
Search Trop  Picture
 ginkgo biloba seed
Search Trop  Picture
 gooseberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 guava fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 horseradish root
Search Trop  Picture
 kiwi fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 leek wild leek plant
Search Trop  Picture
 loquat fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 mango fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 mustard white mustard seed
Search Trop  Picture
 oat plant
Search Trop  Picture
 oat root
Search Trop  Picture
 olive fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop  Picture
 onion leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 papaya bark
Search Trop  Picture
 papaya fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 papaya leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 plum fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pokeweed fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pomegranate fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pomegranate fruit juice
Search Trop  Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop  Picture
 purslane plant
Search Trop  Picture
 puya raimondii
Search Trop  Picture
 quince fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 rose hips fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 saffron stigma
Search Trop  Picture
 sapodilla fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 solanum lycopersicum
Search Trop  Picture
 soursop plant
Search Trop  Picture
 soybean stem
Search Trop  Picture
 sunflower flower
Search Trop  Picture
 tamarind fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tamarind seed
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon root
Search Trop  Picture
 tomatillo fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 turmeric rhizome
Search Trop  Picture
 wheat seed
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 agave syrup
rightsweet organic agave syrup 200-350
rightsweet organic agave syrup 450 - 600
beta-D-fructofuranose
beta-dextro-fructofuranose
 fructose
crystalline fructose
D-(-)-fructose
dextro-(-)-fructose
krystar crystalline fructose
krystar liquid fructose
 fructose crystal FCC
 fructose DC
 fructose, D-
 fruit sugar
 levulose
D-levulose
D-(-)-levulose
 nevulose
(3S,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxy-2-hexanone
(3S,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats.
PubMed: Dopamine receptor signaling in the medial orbital frontal cortex and the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Fructose and glucose conditioned preferences in FVB mice: Strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.
PubMed: Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.
PubMed: Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.
PubMed: Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica.
PubMed: Analysis of blocking of flavor-preference conditioning based on nutrients and palatable tastes in rats.
PubMed: Evaluation of saccharin intake and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences following opioid receptor antagonism in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala or lateral hypothalamus in rats.
PubMed: Role of NMDA, opioid and dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling in the acquisition of a quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.
PubMed: Effect of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonism in the lateral hypothalamus on the expression and acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preference in rats.
PubMed: An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.
PubMed: Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.
PubMed: The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.
PubMed: The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.
PubMed: The suitability of three Galia melon cultivars and different types of cuts for the fresh-cut industry.
PubMed: Long-term ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate did not induce obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance: a two-generation study in mice.
PubMed: Sensory-specific appetition: Postingestive detection of glucose rapidly promotes continued consumption of a recently encountered flavor.
PubMed: Impact of T1r3 and Trpm5 on carbohydrate preference and acceptance in C57BL/6 mice.
PubMed: Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis F├Ârster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).
PubMed: Electronic nose to detect volatile compound profile and quality changes in 'spring Belle' peach (Prunus persica L.) during cold storage in relation to fruit optical properties measured by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy.
PubMed: Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.
PubMed: Dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala is required for the acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Recent advances on applications and biotechnological production of D-psicose.
PubMed: Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.
PubMed: Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric glucose but not fructose or galactose in C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed: Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: a review of published and other publicly available studies.
PubMed: Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content in short-day onion bulbs during 5-month storage at various temperatures or in controlled atmosphere.
PubMed: Do hummingbirds have a sweet-tooth? Gustatory sugar thresholds and sugar selection in the broad-billed hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris.
PubMed: Piperine attenuates cardiovascular, liver and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats.
PubMed: Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse.
PubMed: Strain differences in sucrose- and fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.
PubMed: Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.
PubMed: Patented techniques for acrylamide mitigation in high-temperature processed foods.
PubMed: Qualitative comparison of blackcurrant and blackcurrant--whey beverages.
PubMed: Identification of the medicinal off-flavor compound formed from ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal.
PubMed: Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.
PubMed: Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.
PubMed: Descriptive sensory analysis and free sugar contents of chestnut cultivars grown in North America.
PubMed: Evaluation of genotype and environment effects on taste and aroma flavor components of Spanish fresh tomato varieties.
PubMed: Rational development of taste masked oral liquids guided by an electronic tongue.
PubMed: A DFT analysis of thermal decomposition reactions important to natural products.
PubMed: The effects of high fructose syrup.
PubMed: Opioid receptor antagonism in the nucleus accumbens fails to block the expression of sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Role of amygdala dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Differential expression of the skeletal muscle proteome in grazed cattle.
PubMed: Rapid acquisition of conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Interaction of volatiles, sugars, and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors.
PubMed: Variability for free sugars and organic acids in Capsicum chinense.
PubMed: Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content and toxicity of acrylamide.
PubMed: Learned flavor preferences. The variable potency of post-oral nutrient reinforcers.
PubMed: Context conditional flavor preferences in the rat based on fructose and maltodextrin reinforcers.
PubMed: Role of systemic endocannabinoid CB-1 receptor antagonism in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Differential regulation of grain sucrose accumulation and metabolism in Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) revealed through gene expression and enzyme activity analysis.
PubMed: Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell on the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1100 as starter culture for wheat dough fermentation.
PubMed: Insular cortex lesions fail to block flavor and taste preference learning in rats.
PubMed: Kinetics of formation of three indicators of the maillard reaction in model cookies: influence of baking temperature and type of sugar.
PubMed: NMDA receptor in conditioned flavor-taste preference learning: blockade by MK-801 and enhancement by D-cycloserine.
PubMed: Changes in the volatile compounds and chemical and physical properties of Kuerle fragrant pear (Pyrus serotina Reld) during storage.
PubMed: Nutrient-conditioned flavor preference and incentive value measured by progressive ratio licking in rats.
PubMed: 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone as a secondary metabolite from D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate metabolism by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.
PubMed: Critical role of amygdala in flavor but not taste preference learning in rats.
PubMed: Quality components of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) varieties.
PubMed: Culture Conditions Affecting the Optimal Mycelial Growth of Cystoderma amianthinum.
PubMed: Pediatricians' perception about the use of antibiotics and dental caries--a preliminary study.
PubMed: Characterization of the antioxidant activity of sugars and polyhydric alcohols in fish oil emulsions.
PubMed: Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.
PubMed: Impact of suppression of ethylene action or biosynthesis on flavor metabolites in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruits.
PubMed: Naltrexone does not prevent acquisition or expression of flavor preferences conditioned by fructose in rats.
PubMed: QTL affecting soluble carbohydrate concentrations in stored onion bulbs and their association with flavor and health-enhancing attributes.
PubMed: Fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in male and female rats: effects of sweet taste and sugar concentration.
PubMed: Ethanol-conditioned flavor preferences compared with sugar- and fat-conditioned preferences in rats.
PubMed: Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of strawberry (Cv. Cigaline) during maturation.
PubMed: Formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3[2H]-furanone by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: identification of an intermediate.
PubMed: Dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists reduce the acquisition and expression of flavor-preferences conditioned by fructose in rats.
PubMed: Formation of 5-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone in cytosolic extracts obtained from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.
PubMed: Conditioned acceptance and preference but not altered taste reactivity responses to bitter and sour flavors paired with intragastric glucose infusion.
PubMed: Changes in the volatile compounds and in the chemical and physical properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during maturation.
PubMed: Mousy off-flavor of wine: precursors and biosynthesis of the causative N-heterocycles 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline by Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176.
PubMed: Identification and quantitation of key aroma compounds formed in Maillard-type reactions of fructose with cysteamine or isothiaproline (1,3-thiazolidine-2-carboxylic acid).
PubMed: Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.
PubMed: Conditioned enhancement of flavor evaluation reinforced by intragastric glucose. II. Taste reactivity analysis.
PubMed: Conditioned enhancement of flavor evaluation reinforced by intragastric glucose: I. Intake acceptance and preference analysis.
PubMed: Formation of Strecker aldehydes and pyrazines in a fried potato model system.
PubMed: Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food?
PubMed: Corynebacterium glutamicum: a dissection of the PTS.
PubMed: Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric fructose and glucose: differences in reinforcement potency.
PubMed: Comparison of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, antioxidant vitamins, and sensory quality of different colored carrot varieties.
PubMed: Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Sweet Cherry Cultivars.
PubMed: Investigations into genotypic variations of peanut carbohydrates.
PubMed: Conditioned flavor avoidance, preference, and indifference produced by intragastric infusions of galactose, glucose, and fructose in rats.
PubMed: Galactose consumption induces conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.
PubMed: Inulin and oligofructose: what are they?
PubMed: Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric sugar infusions in rats: maltose is more reinforcing than sucrose.
PubMed: The addition of oat fiber and natural alternative sweeteners in the manufacture of plain yogurt.
PubMed: Learned suppression of intake based on anticipated calories: cross-nutrient comparisons.
PubMed: Diabetic rats prefer glucose-paired flavors over fructose-paired flavors.
PubMed: Microbiological and biochemical characterization of cassava retting, a traditional lactic Acid fermentation for foo-foo (cassava flour) production.
PubMed: beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.
PubMed: Sucrose and fructose have qualitatively different flavors to rats.
PubMed: Glucose- and fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats: taste versus postingestive conditioning.
PubMed: Effect of casitone and fructose on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and its survival during storage.
PubMed: Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals.
PubMed: Manufacturing, composition, and applications of fructose.
PubMed: Intragastric glucose but not fructose conditions robust flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed: Hedonic response of sucrose likers and dislikers to other gustatory stimuli.
PubMed: Flavor preferences conditioned by sugars: rats learn to prefer glucose over fructose.
PubMed: Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
PubMed: Flavor preferences and fructose: evidence that the liver detects the unconditioned stimulus for calorie-based learning.
PubMed: Comparison of aspartame- and fructose-sweetened layer cakes: importance of panels of users for evaluation of alternative sweeteners.
PubMed: Congenital and experiential factors in the development of human flavor preferences.
PubMed: The use of immobilized enzymes in the food industry: a review.
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