EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes



CAS Number: 78-98-8Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-164-8
Nikkaji Web:J1.489C
Beilstein Number:0906750
CoE Number:105
XlogP3-AA:-0.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:72.06328000
Formula:C3 H4 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:937 pyruvaldehyde
FLAVIS Number:07.001 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:07.001 2-oxopropanal
FEMA Number:2969 pyruvaldehyde
FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow clear viscous liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Additional Assay Information:polymerizes readly
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 72.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 10.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure:120.930000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 36.00 °F. TCC ( 2.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.500
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength:medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
sweet acidic ethereal brown rummy
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in propylene glycol. sweet acidic ethereal brown rum
sweet acidic ethereal brown rummy
Odor Description:Sweet, acidic, etherial, brown, with a rummy nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 17, No. 5, 127, (1992)
Flavor Type: caramellic
sweet caramellic dairy creamy
Taste Description: at 0.10 %. Sweet, caramellic with a dairy creamy nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 17, No. 5, 127, (1992)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Methylglyoxal 40%
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Methylglyoxal solution
Pyruvaldehyde solution, 40wt. % in H2O
Odor: caramel
Certified Food Grade Products
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 11 - Highly flammable.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 1165 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 2, Pg. 369, 1978.

intravenous-mouse LD50 252 mg/kg
Cesko-Slovenska Farmacie. Vol. 15, Pg. 300, 1966.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 179 mg/kg
National Cancer Institute Screening Program Data Summary, Developmental Therapeutics Program. Vol. JAN1986

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
Recommendation for pyruvaldehyde usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 99.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 3.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 0.030005.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -1.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -1.00000
fruit ices: -1.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 0.030005.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):78-98-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :880
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:UZ0700000 for cas# 78-98-8
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:78-98-8
Pubchem (cid):880
Pubchem (sid):134971237
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00546
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01167
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00170
Export Tariff Code:2914.49.5000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
supplied commercially as a 30% aqueous solution.
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
methyl crotonic acid
methyl thiopropionate
methyl thio) methyl thiophene
furfuryl alcohol
caramel furanone
creme brulee flavor
lucuma flavor
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
custard flavor
hexen-3-yl acetate
methyl thio isovalerate
blueberry cheesecake flavor
acetone alcohol
molasses flavor
ice cream flavor
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
Search PMC Picture
 bread white bread
Search PMC Picture
 copal manilla
Search PMC Picture
 ginger oil
Search Trop Picture
 sesame seed oil
Search Trop Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 acetyl formaldehyde
 aldehyde, pyruvic
 glyoxal, methyl
 methyl glyoxal
 propanal, 2-oxo-
 propionaldehyde, 2-keto
 propionaldehyde, 2-oxo-
a-ketopropionic aldehyde
alpha-ketopropionic aldehyde
 pyroracemic aldehyde
 pyruvaldehyde 40% solution in water
 pyruvic aldehyde


PubMed:Formation of 4(5)-methylimidazole and its precursors, α-dicarbonyl compounds, in Maillard model systems.
J-Stage:Cleavage of a-Dicarbonyl Compounds by Terpene Hydroperoxide
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of α-dicarbonyl compounds submitted to in vitro simulated digestion process.
PubMed:Response surface methodology as optimization strategy for reduction of reactive carbonyl species in foods by means of phenolic chemistry.
PubMed:Effect of in vitro digestion on free α-dicarbonyl compounds in balsamic vinegars.
PubMed:Reactivity of thermally treated α-dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed:Effects of monascin on anti-inflammation mediated by Nrf2 activation in advanced glycation end product-treated THP-1 monocytes and methylglyoxal-treated wistar rats.
PubMed:Determination of toxic α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, released to the headspace of lipid commodities upon heat treatment.
PubMed:Antiglycative effect of fruit and vegetable seed extracts: inhibition of AGE formation and carbonyl-trapping abilities.
PubMed:Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.
PubMed:Studies on the formation of methylglyoxal from dihydroxyacetone in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey.
PubMed:Resveratrol upregulates Nrf2 expression to attenuate methylglyoxal-induced insulin resistance in Hep G2 cells.
PubMed:Trapping of methylglyoxal by curcumin in cell-free systems and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
PubMed:1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.
PubMed:Classification and characterization of manuka honeys based on phenolic compounds and methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Short communication: Evidence for methylglyoxal-mediated browning of Parmesan cheese during low temperature storage.
PubMed:Flavour chemistry of methylglyoxal and glyoxal.
PubMed:Survey of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commercial honey of different floral origin.
PubMed:Effect of coffee filtrate, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and caffeine on Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis survival in ground chicken breasts.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal, advanced glycation end products and autism: is there a connection?
PubMed:Phlorotannins from brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyls.
PubMed:Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.
PubMed:Chemical modifications of peptides and their impact on food properties.
PubMed:Cranberry phytochemicals inhibit glycation of human hemoglobin and serum albumin by scavenging reactive carbonyls.
PubMed:Efficiency of trapping methylglyoxal by phenols and phenolic acids.
PubMed:Formation of arginine modifications in a model system of Nα-tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-arginine with methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Bacterial metabolic 'toxins': a new mechanism for lactose and food intolerance, and irritable bowel syndrome.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal content in drinking coffee as a cytotoxic factor.
PubMed:Maternally transmitted and food-derived glycotoxins: a factor preconditioning the young to diabetes?
PubMed:Beneficial effects of cinnamon proanthocyanidins on the formation of specific advanced glycation endproducts and methylglyoxal-induced impairment on glucose consumption.
PubMed:Carbonyl compounds methylglyoxal and glyoxal affect interleukin-8 secretion in intestinal cells by superoxide anion generation and activation of MAPK p38.
PubMed:Analysis, distribution, and dietary exposure of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies and their relationship with other heat-induced contaminants.
PubMed:Stilbene glucoside from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a novel natural inhibitor of advanced glycation end product formation by trapping of methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Carbonated soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden.
PubMed:Characterization and the possible formation mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.).
PubMed:Food derived carbonyl compounds affect basal and stimulated secretion of interleukin-6 and -8 in Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of vanillic acid on methylglyoxal-mediated glycation in apoptotic Neuro-2A cells.
PubMed:Biosynthetic mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and its relationship with Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid and methylglyoxal in aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) callus.
PubMed:Identification and monitoring of intermediates and products in the acrylamide pathway using online analysis.
PubMed:Formate excretion in urine of rats fed dimethylaminoazobenzene-rich diets: the possibility of formate formation from D-lactate.
PubMed:Formation of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone through methylglyoxal: a Maillard reaction intermediate.
PubMed:Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of the site specificity of modification of beta-casein by glucose and methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal: its presence and potential scavengers.
PubMed:Cytoprotective effects of phenolic acids on methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2A cells.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal: its presence in beverages and potential scavengers.
PubMed:Formation of pyrazines and a novel pyrrole in Maillard model systems of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and 2-oxopropanal.
PubMed:Cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins as reactive carbonyl scavengers to prevent the formation of advanced glycation endproducts.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of methylglyoxal as the dominant antibacterial constituent of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honeys from New Zealand.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal and other carbohydrate metabolites induce lanthanum-sensitive Ca2+ transients and inhibit growth in E. coli.
PubMed:Isolation and determination of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds by RP-HPLC-DAD in green and roasted coffee.
PubMed:Determination of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in environmental and biological matrices by stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatization.
PubMed:Reducing the formation of glucose degradation products in peritoneal dialysis solutions by ultrahigh temperature ohmic heating.
PubMed:Synthesis of 1-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid produced by L-lysine-epsilon-aminotransferase from the Streptomyces clavuligerus gene expressed in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Changes in the volatile composition of a semihard ewe milk cheese induced by high-pressure treatment of 300 MPa.
PubMed:Effects of high pressure treatment on volatile profile during ripening of ewe milk cheese.
PubMed:Investigations on the promoting effect of ammonium hydrogencarbonate on the formation of acrylamide in model systems.
PubMed:Characterization of the glyoxalase I gene from the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae.
PubMed:Trapping reactions of reactive carbonyl species with tea polyphenols in simulated physiological conditions.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal in food and living organisms.
PubMed:Free glutamine as a major precursor of brown products and fluorophores in Maillard reaction systems.
PubMed:Epicatechin carbonyl-trapping reactions in aqueous maillard systems: Identification and structural elucidation.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal-derived beta-carbolines formed from tryptophan and its derivates in the Maillard reaction.
PubMed:Identification of DNA adducts of methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Application of semiquantitative proteomics techniques to the maillard reaction.
PubMed:Evaluation of advanced glycation end products and carbonyl compounds in patients with different conditions of oxidative stress.
PubMed:D-lactate metabolism in starved Octopus ocellatus.
PubMed:Determination of methylglyoxal in ruminal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorometric detection.
PubMed:Formation of genotoxic dicarbonyl compounds in dietary oils upon oxidation.
PubMed:Evidence that high-dose L-arginine may be inappropriate for use by diabetic patients as a prophylactic blocker of methylglyoxal glycation.
PubMed:Dietary glycotoxins correlate with circulating advanced glycation end product levels in renal failure patients.
PubMed:Kinetic modelling of Amadori N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-glycine degradation pathways. Part I--reaction mechanism.
PubMed:Improved superoxide-generating system suitable for the assessment of the superoxide-scavenging ability of aqueous extracts of food constituents using ultraweak chemiluminescence.
PubMed:Inflammatory mediators are induced by dietary glycotoxins, a major risk factor for diabetic angiopathy.
PubMed:Possible mechanism for involvement of cysteine in aroma production in wine.
PubMed:Qualitative determination of specific protein glycation products by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry Peptide mapping.
PubMed:Carbohydrate and amino acid degradation pathways in L-methionine/D-[13C] glucose model systems.
PubMed:N(delta)-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2-yl)-l-ornithine, a novel methylglyoxal-arginine modification in beer.
PubMed:Inhibition of gastric mucosal damage by methylglyoxal pretreatment in rats.
PubMed:Origin of carbohydrate degradation products in L-Alanine/D-[(13)C]glucose model systems.
PubMed:Performance of a 62Zn/62Cu generator in clinical trials of PET perfusion agent 62Cu-PTSM.
PubMed:Origin of 2,3-pentanedione and 2,3-butanedione in D-glucose/L-alanine Maillard model systems.
PubMed:Toxicity of low levels of methylglyoxal: depletion of blood glutathione and adverse effect on glucose tolerance in mice.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal modification of protein. Chemical and immunochemical characterization of methylglyoxal-arginine adducts.
PubMed:Generation and the fate of C2, C3, and C4 reactive fragments formed in Maillard model systems of [13C]glucose and [13C]glycine or proline.
PubMed:Protein modification by a Maillard reaction intermediate methylglyoxal. Immunochemical detection of fluorescent 5-methylimidazolone derivatives in vivo.
PubMed:Relative hepatotoxicity of 2-(substituted phenyl)thiazoles and substituted thiobenzamides in mice: evidence for the involvement of thiobenzamides as ring cleavage metabolites in the hepatotoxicity of 2-phenylthiazoles.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal and regulation of its metabolism in microorganisms.
PubMed:Analysis of the potential carcinogenicity of coffee and its related compounds in a medium-term liver bioassay of rats.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal and lipid hydroxperoxide as endogenous cytotoxic molecular species: detoxification and regulation of gene expression in yeasts.
PubMed:Glyoxalase I in micro-organisms: molecular characteristics, genetics and biochemical regulation.
PubMed:Concentrations of D-lactate and its related metabolic intermediates in liver, blood, and muscle of diabetic and starved rats.
PubMed:2-Oxoaldehyde metabolism in microorganisms.
PubMed:Contribution of coffee aroma constituents to the mutagenicity of coffee.
PubMed:L-alanine: 4,5-dioxovalerate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas riboflavina: purification and inactivation by methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehyde in mold. Purification and characterization of two methylglyoxal reductases from Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:Metabolism of 2-ketoaldehydes in mold: purification and characterization of glyoxalase I from Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:Simple and sensitive determination of methylglyoxal in biological samples by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.
PubMed:Mutagens in coffee and other beverages.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal in beverages and foods: its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.
PubMed:Mutagens and carcinogens in foods.
PubMed:Bacterial mutagenicity of natural materials, pyrolysis products and additives in foodstuffs and their association with genotoxic effects in mammals.
PubMed:Rapid, sensitive assay for staphylococcal enterotoxin and a comparison of serological methods.
an organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. it has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals. Flavouring ingredient Methylglyoxal, also called pyruvaldehyde or 2-oxopropanal (CH3-CO-CH=O or C3H4O2) is the aldehyde form of pyruvic acid. It has two carbonyl groups, so it is a dicarbonyl compound. Methylglyoxal is both an aldehyde and a ketone. (Wikipedia)
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2018 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy