EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

methyl N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(3R)-3-amino-4-[[(2R)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
CAS Number: 22839-47-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):172964-81-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:245-261-3
Nikkaji Web:J525.428K
Beilstein Number:2223850
XlogP3:-2.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:294.30746000
Formula:C14 H18 N2 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:sweeteners, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
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Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Aspartame
GSFA Codex: Aspartame (951)
DG SANTE Food Additives:aspartame
FDA Mainterm (SATF):22839-47-0 ; ASPARTAME
FDA Regulation:
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.804 Aspartame.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 246.00 to 247.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 535.79 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 532.00 °F. TCC ( 277.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.542 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol, slightly
 water, slightly
 water, 564.7 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Flavor Type: sweet
sweet sugar candy
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: flavoring agents
Ajinomoto USA
Ajinomoto® Aspartame
Flavor: sweet
Aspartame is low calorie sweetener which has exceptional sensory, nutritional, and safety characteristics. Ajinomoto Aspartame can provide food and drink manufacturers with substantial cost savings compared with sugar or HFCS.
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Aspartame 98%
Anhui Haibei
Atlantic Chemicals
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Aspartame >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
ECSA Chemicals
ECSA Chemicals
ECSA Chemicals
Foodchem International
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Aspartame Granular / Powder
Jiangyin Healthway
New functional food ingredients
Kraft Chemical
Northwestern Extract
Penta International
Penta International
Aspartame FCC
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Aspartame Granule
For experimental / research use only.
Aspartame European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sinofi Food Ingredients
Flavor: characteristic
Sugar Substitutes, Breakfast Cereals, Chewing Gum, Beverages, Chewable Multivitamin Supplements, Frozen Desserts, Gelatins, Puddings, Dairy Products, Instant Coffee, Chai Tea, Flavor Enhancer.
Tianjin Talent Chemical
United International
Flavor: sweet
Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. It was first synthesized in 1965.
Zhong Ya Chemical
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 37, 1996.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 37, 1996.

oral-mouse LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 37, 1996.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 37, 1996.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
sweeteners, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for aspartame usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Statement of EFSA on the scientific evaluation of two studies related to the safety of artificial sweeteners
View page or View pdf

Statement on two recent scientific articles on the safety of artificial sweeteners
View page or View pdf

Updated opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the 2nd ERF carcinogenicity study on aspartame, taking into consideration study data submitted by the Ramazzini Foundation in February 2009
View page or View pdf

Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the 2nd ERF carcinogenicity study on aspartame
View page or View pdf

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to a new long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame
View page or View pdf

Review of data on the food additive aspartame
View page or View pdf

Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Output of the public consultation on the draft EFSA scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

EFSA explains the Safety of Aspartame
View page or View pdf

Outcome of the public consultation on a draft protocol for assessing exposure to sweeteners as part of their safety assessment under the food additives re-evaluation programme
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):22839-47-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6992061
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
(3R)-3-amino-4-[[(2R)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
RTECS:WM3407000 for cas# 22839-47-0
 (3R)-3-amino-4-[[(2R)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:22839-47-0
Pubchem (cid):6992061
Pubchem (sid):134995163
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C11045
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01894
Export Tariff Code:2924.29.0700
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•as a table-top sweetener aspartame is spray-dried with partially hydrolyzed corn starch. •canderel formulation name •equal formulation name •natrataste formulation name •nutrasweet formulation name •pal sweet formulation name •pal sweet diet formulation name •sanecta formulation name •tri-sweet formulation name
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
For Flavor
acesulfame potassium
alitame anhydrous
aspartame-acesulfame salt
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
(S)-3-amino-4-(((S)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)amino)-4-oxobutanoic acid
(3R)-3-amino-4-[[(2R)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
(S)-3-amino-N-((S)-1-methoxycarbonyl-2-phenyl-ethyl)-succinamic acid
3-amino-N-(a-carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid N-methyl ester
L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninemethyl ester
laevo-aspartyl-laevo-phenyl alanine methyl ester
N-(L-a-aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
 aspartylphenylalanine methyl ester
(3S)-3-{N-[(1S)-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-phenylethyl]carbamoyl}-3-aminopropanoic cid
 methyl L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate
1-methyl N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalanate
 methyl N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate
L-phenylalanine, L-a-aspartyl-, methyl ester


PubMed:Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.
PubMed:Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.
PubMed:Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.
PubMed:Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.
PubMed:"Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".
PubMed:Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.
PubMed:The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.
PubMed:Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.
PubMed:Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand.
PubMed:Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.
PubMed:Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.
PubMed:Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.
PubMed:Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.
PubMed:Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.
PubMed:Exploring the biological consequences of conformational changes in aspartame models containing constrained analogues of phenylalanine.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits by HPLC].
PubMed:Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.
PubMed:Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.
PubMed:Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage.
PubMed:Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.
PubMed:Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.
PubMed:Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.
PubMed:Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.
PubMed:Aspartame-induced fibromyalgia, an unusual but curable cause of chronic pain.
PubMed:[A rapid dialysis method for analysis of artificial sweeteners in food].
PubMed:Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice.
PubMed:Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.
PubMed:"The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.
PubMed:Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis.
PubMed:Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.
PubMed:Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.
PubMed:Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.
PubMed:[Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].
PubMed:One-step Real-time Food Quality Analysis by Simultaneous DSC-FTIR Microspectroscopy.
PubMed:Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.
PubMed:The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.
PubMed:Prevalence of sensitivity to food and drug additives in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.
PubMed:Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males.
PubMed:Further analysis of the short-term inhibition of food intake in humans by the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame).
PubMed:Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.
PubMed:Effect of carbonation on brain processing of sweet stimuli in humans.
PubMed:Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.
PubMed:Aspartame--facts and fiction.
PubMed:Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.
PubMed:Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating.
PubMed:The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters.
PubMed:Evaluation of reactions to food additives: the aspartame experience.
PubMed:Advantame--an overview of the toxicity data.
PubMed:An improved FIA biosensor for the determination of aspartame in dietary food products.
PubMed:Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.
PubMed:Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men.
PubMed:Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.
PubMed:The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive.
PubMed:Effect of sweeteners and hydrocolloids on quality attributes of reduced-calorie carrot juice.
PubMed:'Lone' atrial fibrillation precipitated by monosodium glutamate and aspartame.
PubMed:Effects of aspartame and phenylalanine on meal-time food intake of humans.
PubMed:Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects.
PubMed:Consuming aspartame with and without taste: differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males.
PubMed:Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.
PubMed:Aspartame intolerance.
PubMed:Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.
PubMed:Formaldehyde, aspartame, migraines: a possible connection.
PubMed:Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.
PubMed:Determination of aspartame and its major decomposition products in foods.
PubMed:[Controversies with aspartame].
PubMed:Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake.
PubMed:Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.
PubMed:Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards.
PubMed:Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.
PubMed:Formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines: a possible connection.
PubMed:Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis.
PubMed:Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Glutamatergic receptor kinetics are not altered by perinatal exposure to aspartame.
PubMed:Effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on the behavior and cognitive performance of children.
PubMed:Aspartame and dizziness: preliminary results of a prospective, nonblinded, prevalence and attempted cross-over study.
PubMed:Failure of aspartame to affect seizure susceptibility in kindled rats.
PubMed:Excessive Sugar Consumption May Be a Difficult Habit to Break: A View From the Brain and Body.
PubMed:Food avoidance diets for systemic, lip, and oral contact allergy: an american contact alternatives group article.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of aspartame in dry beverage bases and sweetener tablets with confirmation by thin layer chromatography.
PubMed:Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.
PubMed:Aspartame optical biosensor with bienzyme-immobilized eggshell membrane and oxygen-sensitive optode membrane.
PubMed:Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.
PubMed:NTP report on the toxicology studies of aspartame (CAS No. 22839-47-0) in genetically modified (FVB Tg.AC hemizygous) and B6.129-Cdkn2atm1Rdp (N2) deficient mice and carcinogenicity studies of aspartame in genetically modified [B6.129-Trp53tm1Brd (N5) haploinsufficient] mice (feed studies).
PubMed:Aspartame demand in rhesus monkeys: effects of volume and concentration manipulations.
PubMed:Consumption of aspartame-containing beverages and incidence of hematopoietic and brain malignancies.
PubMed:Aspartame: review of safety.
PubMed:Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame?
PubMed:Absence of developmental effects in CF-1 mice exposed to aspartame in utero.
PubMed:Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.
PubMed:Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.
PubMed:High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.
PubMed:Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.
PubMed:Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.
PubMed:First European conference on aspartame: putting safety and benefits into perspective. Synopsis of presentations and conclusions.
PubMed:Aspartame: clinical update.
PubMed:[New data on the metabolism and physiologic mechanisms of aspartame action].
PubMed:Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety.
PubMed:Aspartame stability in commercially sterilized flavored dairy beverages.
PubMed:Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochratoxin A.
PubMed:The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women.
PubMed:Structure, dynamics, and stability of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of aspartame and neotame.
PubMed:Sensory evaluation of mixtures of maltitol or aspartame, sucrose and an orange aroma.
PubMed:Effect of aspartame on plasma amino acid profiles of diabetic patients with chronic renal failure.
PubMed:Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.
PubMed:The effect of aspartame on the activity of rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.
PubMed:An analysis of FDA passive surveillance reports of seizures associated with consumption of aspartame.
PubMed:The effects of aspartame on mast cells and basophils.
PubMed:Technology for the manufacture of Diabetic Rosogolla.
PubMed:Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.
PubMed:FTIR determination of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K in tabletop sweeteners.
PubMed:Mutagenic activity of peptides and the artificial sweetener aspartame after nitrosation.
PubMed:Comparison of aspartame- and fructose-sweetened layer cakes: importance of panels of users for evaluation of alternative sweeteners.
PubMed:Aspartame prevents the karyomegaly induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney.
PubMed:Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans.
PubMed:Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.
PubMed:Nutrition and eating behavior in patients with chronic pain receiving long-term opioid therapy.
PubMed:Subchronic effects of ochratoxin A on young adult rat brain and partial prevention by aspartame, a sweetener.
PubMed:Reduction of the ochratoxin A-induced cytotoxicity in Vero cells by aspartame.
PubMed:The influence of sweeteners in probiotic Petit Suisse cheese in concentrations equivalent to that of sucrose.
PubMed:Flow-through spectrophotometric sensor for the determination of aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products.
PubMed:Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of aspartame in dietary products.
PubMed:Enzymic method for the spectrophotometric determination of aspartame in beverages.
PubMed:Synthetic sweetners: cyclamates, saccharin, aspartame.
PubMed:Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.
PubMed:Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.
PubMed:Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.
PubMed:Aspartame degradation as a function of "water activity".
PubMed:Carbohydrate ingestion and brain serotonin synthesis: relevance to a putative control loop for regulating carbohydrate ingestion, and effects of aspartame consumption.
PubMed:Simultaneous formation and detection of the reaction product of solid-state aspartame sweetener by FT-IR/DSC microscopic system.
PubMed:Interspecies and interstrain studies on the increased susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions in animals given aspartame.
PubMed:Serum methanol concentrations in rats and in men after a single dose of aspartame.
PubMed:Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior, mood and arousal in men.
PubMed:In vivo cytogenetic studies on blends of aspartame and acesulfame-K.
PubMed:Effects of long-term ingestion of aspartame on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, plasma leptin and body weight gain and composition.
PubMed:Amperometric bienzymic sensor for aspartame.
PubMed:Effect of mealing on plasma and brain amino acid, and brain monoamine in rats after oral aspartame.
PubMed:The biological properties of aspartame. II. Actions involving the gastrointestinal system.
PubMed:The biological properties of aspartame. IV. Effects on reproduction and lactation.
PubMed:Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.
PubMed:Effects of aspartame on 45Ca influx and LDH leakage from nerve cells in culture.
PubMed:Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection].
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of saccharin and aspartame in commercial noncaloric sweeteners using the PLS-2 multivariate calibration method and validation by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Effect of tyrosine on the potentiation by aspartame and phenylalanine of metrazol-induced convulsions in rats.
PubMed:Effects of repeated doses of aspartame on serotonin and its metabolite in various regions of the mouse brain.
PubMed:Summary report of an International Aspartame Workshop.
PubMed:Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of neotame, alitame and aspartame in foods by HPLC].
PubMed:Aspartame--a review.
PubMed:l-Cysteine and glutathione restore the modulation of rat frontal cortex Na+, K+ -ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.
PubMed:The effect of aspartame metabolites on the suckling rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase. An in vitro study.
PubMed:Plasma and brain kinetics of large neutral amino acids and of striatum monoamines in rats given aspartame.
PubMed:Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.
PubMed:[Use of HPLC technique for determination of aspartame and acesulfam-K in processed fruit products].
PubMed:Dynamic response characteristics of the potentiometric carbon dioxide sensor for the determination of aspartame.
PubMed:The good taste of peptides.
PubMed:Dietary aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester delays osteoarthritis and prevents associated bone loss in STR/ORT mice.
PubMed:Aspartame sugar substitute: new court overruled.
PubMed:Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.
PubMed:FDA approves aspartame as soft-drink sweetener.
PubMed:Headspace solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography method for the determination of methanol in aspartame sweeteners.
PubMed:Re: The effect of aspartame metabolites on the suckling rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase. An in vitro study.
PubMed:Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations.
PubMed:Letter to U.S. FDA commissioner. Questions about the safety of the artificial sweetener aspartame.
PubMed:Bienzymatic electrode for the determination of aspartame in dietary products.
PubMed:Aspartame-induced urticaria.
PubMed:Aspartame as a preventive agent of chronic toxic effects of ochratoxin A in experimental animals.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of beta-aspartame in diet soft drinks, beverage powders and pudding mixes.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of sodium saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, and sodium benzoate in cola beverages.
PubMed:Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.
PubMed:Isothermal Fourier transform infrared microspectrosopic studies on the stability kinetics of solid-state intramolecular cyclization of aspartame sweetener.
PubMed:Recent aspartame studies.
PubMed:Aspartame approved despite risks.
PubMed:Decision on Aspartame due this year.
PubMed:Intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate in Italian teenagers: present levels and projections.
PubMed:[What is has the artificial sweeteners in indication the food of our diabetics?].
PubMed:Substitution of TAG oil with diacylglycerol oil in food items improves the predicted 10 years cardiovascular risk score in healthy, overweight subjects.
PubMed:A general strategy for performing temperature-programming in high performance liquid chromatography--further improvements in the accuracy of retention time predictions of segmented temperature gradients.
PubMed:Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review.
PubMed:Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a developmental neurotoxicity test.
PubMed:Taste perception in normal and overweight Mexican adults.
PubMed:Does aspartame cause methanol toxicity?
PubMed:Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Aspartame--a bit of a headache?
PubMed:Long-term continuous synthesis of aspartame precursor in a column reactor with an immobilized thermolysin.
PubMed:Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.
PubMed:Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.
PubMed:Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study.
PubMed:Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of sweeteners in beverages by LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of various aseptics and sweeteners in milk and dairy products].
PubMed:[What are the are the adverse health effects of sweeteners?].
PubMed:Monitoring adverse reactions to food additives in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
PubMed:Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype.
PubMed:Food additives and sensitivities.
PubMed:[Simultaneous rapid determination of eight food additives in foods by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy.
PubMed:Artificial sweeteners - a review.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Effect of modified atmospheric packaging on chemical and microbial changes in dietetic rabri during storage.
PubMed:Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.
PubMed:Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.
PubMed:Detection of food additives by voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface.
PubMed:Differences in food supplies of U.S. households with and without overweight individuals.
PubMed:Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.
PubMed:Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography.
PubMed:Estimation of the dietary intake of 13 priority additives in France, Italy, the UK and Ireland as part of the FACET project.
PubMed:Identification of risk groups for intake of food chemicals.
PubMed:Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.
PubMed:Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake.
PubMed:Prevention of nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A, a food contaminant.
PubMed:Surface plasmon resonance analysis on interactions of food components with a taste epithelial cell model.
PubMed:Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.
PubMed:The effect of five artificial sweeteners on Caco-2, HT-29 and HEK-293 cells.
PubMed:From aspartame to Xenical. A look at the FDA review process.
PubMed:Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.
PubMed:Implicit media frames: automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners.
PubMed:Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.
PubMed:Pharmacological effects of phenylalanine on seizure susceptibility: an overview.
PubMed:[The use of low-calorie sweeteners].
PubMed:Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.
PubMed:Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives. Some food colours, thickening agents, smoke condensates, and certain other substances.
PubMed:The black agonist-receptor model of high potency sweeteners, and its implication to sweetness taste and sweetener design.
PubMed:Multiple chemical sensitivity: controlled scientific studies as proof of causation.
PubMed:Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults.
PubMed:Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.
PubMed:Natural food constituents and food additives: the pharmacologic connection.
PubMed:Neurotoxicology of food additives.
PubMed:The effect of food chemicals on cell aging of human diploid cells in in vitro culture.
PubMed:Suppression of alcohol preference by naltrexone in the rhesus macaque: a critical role of genetic variation at the micro-opioid receptor gene locus.
PubMed:Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.
PubMed:[Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].
PubMed:Caloric regulation in normal-weight men maintained on a palatable diet of conventional foods.
PubMed:Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.
PubMed:Responses to an intense sweetener in humans: immediate preference and delayed effects on intake.
PubMed:Adverse reactions to food additives.
PubMed:Type and strength of food preferences of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome.
PubMed:Genetic taste responses to 6-n-propylthiouracil among adults: a screening tool for epidemiological studies.
PubMed:Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake.
PubMed:Lunch eating behavior of preschool children. Effects of age, gender, and type of beverage served.
PubMed:Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.
PubMed:Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories.
PubMed:Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.
PubMed:Excitotoxic food additives--relevance of animal studies to human safety.
PubMed:The influence of fat co-administration on the glucose memory facilitation effect.
PubMed:Review of the nutritional benefits and risks related to intense sweeteners.
PubMed:There really is no controversy.
PubMed:Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.
PubMed:Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil.
PubMed:Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with and without bulimia nervosa.
PubMed:Food additives and contaminants. An update.
PubMed:Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.
PubMed:Food reformulations for improved health: A potential risk for microbial food safety?
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].
PubMed:Excitatory neurotoxins as food additives: an evaluation of risk.
PubMed:Qualitative and quantitative control of carbonated cola beverages using ¹H NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Chocolate Milk with Chia Oil: Ideal Sweetness, Sweeteners Equivalence, and Dynamic Sensory Evaluation Using a Time-Intensity Methodology.
PubMed:Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence.
PubMed:Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.
PubMed:Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.
PubMed:Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.
PubMed:Placebo expectancy effects in the relationship between glucose and cognition.
PubMed:Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.
PubMed:The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.
PubMed:Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly.
PubMed:NutraSweet overdosage.
PubMed:Nonnutritive sweeteners are not supernormal stimuli.
PubMed:Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.
PubMed:Volitional consumption of ethanol by fawn-hooded rats: effects of alternative solutions and drug treatments.
PubMed:The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods.
PubMed:Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners.
PubMed:Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?
PubMed:Influence of artificial sweeteners on the kinetic and metabolic behavior of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.
PubMed:Sweetener/sweetness-induced changes in flavor perception and flavor release of fruity and green character in beverages.
PubMed:Prevention of lipid peroxidation induced by ochratoxin A in Vero cells in culture by several agents.
PubMed:Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers. Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey.
PubMed:Nutrition and behavior: the legend continues.
PubMed:Role of taste and calories in the selection of ethanol by C57BL/6NHsd and Hsd:ICR mice.
PubMed:Adverse rearing experiences enhance responding to both aversive and rewarding stimuli in juvenile rhesus monkeys.
PubMed:Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.
PubMed:Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.
PubMed:Effects of hunger state on flavour pleasantness conditioning at home: flavour-nutrient learning vs. flavour-flavour learning.
PubMed:Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.
PubMed:Molecular analysis of the microbial food safety implications of food reformulations for improved health.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of substances consumed as technical ingredients (food additives).
PubMed:Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages and special nutritional products using high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.
PubMed:Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.
PubMed:[Chinese restaurant syndrome. Implication of drugs].
PubMed:College students' use of high-intensity sweeteners is not consistently associated with sugar consumption.
PubMed:Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of some food additives.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweeteners permitted as additives in food by mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Orofacial sensitivity reactions and the role of dietary components. Case reports.
PubMed:Obstacles confronting consumer advocates. An overview of health-related issues.
PubMed:Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.
PubMed:The influences of the buffer capacity of various substances on pH changes in dental plaque.
PubMed:Comparison of capillary zone electrophoresis with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of additives in foodstuffs.
PubMed:Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review.
PubMed:Effects of energy density and portion size on development of acquired flavour liking and learned satiety.
PubMed:Treatment of hyperactive children with D-phenylalanine.
PubMed:Diet-induced changes in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in healthy adult men. Role of sucrose and excess calories.
PubMed:Chronic oral toxicity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the dog.
PubMed:Relief of fibromyalgia symptoms following discontinuation of dietary excitotoxins.
PubMed:Neuropharmacological evaluation of movement disorders that are adverse reactions to specific foods.
PubMed:Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.
PubMed:BDA accreditation causes concern.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of various food additives by high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.
PubMed:[Analysis of nine kinds of sweeteners in foods by LC/MS].
PubMed:Genetics of alcoholism: rapid development of a new high-ethanol-preferring (HEP) strain of female and male rats.
PubMed:Diet and human behavior: how much do they affect each other?
PubMed:Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.
PubMed:Excitotoxins in foods.
PubMed:Food components and caries.
PubMed:Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with anorexia nervosa.
PubMed:"Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs.
PubMed:Solution properties and sweetness response of selected bulk and intense sweeteners.
PubMed:Drugs, food additives and natural products as promoters in rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo assessment of the mutagenic activity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame).
PubMed:The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.
PubMed:Headaches? Change your diet.
PubMed:Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period.
PubMed:Flow injection determinations of artificial sweeteners: a review.
PubMed:Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.
PubMed:Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.
PubMed:How sweet it is.
PubMed:Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.
PubMed:Effects of glucose and fructose solutions on food intake and gastric emptying in nonobese women.
PubMed:Determination of seven artificial sweeteners in diet food preparations by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with absorbance detection.
PubMed:High-dose chromium(III) supplementation has no effects on body mass and composition while altering plasma hormone and triglycerides concentrations.
PubMed:[Artificial sweeteners--are they potentially carcinogenic?].
PubMed:Possible significance of adverse reactions to glutamate in humans.
PubMed:Decomposition products of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester and their identification by gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Sugar substitutes: reasons and indications for their use.
PubMed:Effect of storage on the flavours of cola drinks sweetened with different sweetener systems.
PubMed:Instilling science in the regulatory process.
PubMed:Analysis of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi by HPLC and HPTLC plates.
PubMed:[Diet and migraine].
PubMed:Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.
PubMed:Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages.
PubMed:The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.
PubMed:Limiting response alternatives in time-intensity scaling: an examination of the halo-dumping effect.
PubMed:Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches.
PubMed:Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight adults.
PubMed:Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: a review.
PubMed:Factors affecting performance of a proteinase-catalyzed bioreactor for oligopeptide syntheses.
PubMed:Sweetener intakes.
PubMed:Letter: 1-Glutamic and L-aspartic acids--a question of hazard?
PubMed:[Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Application potential for some sugar substitutes in some low energy and diabetic foods.
PubMed:Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.
PubMed:Determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection: interlaboratory study.
PubMed:Sweet taste in the calf: III. Behavioral responses to sweeteners.
PubMed:Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.
PubMed:A computerized procedure for estimating nutrient intake.
PubMed:Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.
PubMed:The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.
PubMed:Synthesis and application of dipeptides; current status and perspectives.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in preserved fruits by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
PubMed:Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners.
PubMed:Inherited metabolic diseases affecting the carrier.
PubMed:Dietary amino acids and brain function.
PubMed:Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.
PubMed:[Development of an optimized formulation of damask marmalade with low energy level using Taguchi methodology].
PubMed:Reaction of chlorine dioxide with amino acids and peptides: kinetics and mutagenicity studies.
PubMed:Gradient elution capillary electrochromatography and hyphenation with nuclear magnetic resonance.
PubMed:Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions in foods for elderly and young subjects.
PubMed:Possible pathomechanism of autoimmune hepatitis.
PubMed:Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.
PubMed:Selective continuous monitoring and analysis of mixtures of acesulfame-K, cyclamate, and saccharin in artificial sweetener tablets, diet soft drinks, yogurts, and wines using filter-supported bilayer lipid membranes.
PubMed:Experimental study of the internal signal of alliesthesia induced by sweet molecules in rats.
PubMed:Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar.
PubMed:Taste perception with age: generic or specific losses in threshold sensitivity to the five basic tastes?
PubMed:Development of a new oat-based probiotic drink.
PubMed:[Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache].
PubMed:Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods.
PubMed:Reverse-phase liquid chromatographic determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in foods.
PubMed:Short-term effects of the flavour of drinks on ingestive behaviours in man.
PubMed:[Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].
PubMed:Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener.
PubMed:Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.
PubMed:An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.
PubMed:[Long-term drinking purified water may aggravate the inhibition of NMDA expression and spatial learning ability induced by lead on rat].
PubMed:Evaluation of evidence for infection as a mode of action for induction of rat lymphoma.
PubMed:Interactions of the sweet-tasting proteins thaumatin and lysozyme with the human sweet-taste receptor.
PubMed:[Diet therapy in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)].
PubMed:Taste perception with age: generic or specific losses in supra-threshold intensities of five taste qualities?
PubMed:The effect of social setting on response to a preloading manipulation in non-obese women and men.
PubMed:Effects of sodium saccharin diet on fat-cell lipolysis: evidence for increased function of the adenylyl cyclase catalyst.
PubMed:Common questions patients ask during pregnancy.
PubMed:The effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on body weight in rats.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection--development and single-laboratory validation.
PubMed:Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
PubMed:Calcium-deprived rats avoid sweet compounds.
PubMed:Sensory and physical properties of a reduced-calorie frozen dessert system made with milk fat and sucrose substitutes.
PubMed:Determination of cyclamate by high-performance liquid chromatography with indirect photometry.
PubMed:Kinetics of interaction of vanillin with amino acids and peptides in model systems.
PubMed:Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.
PubMed:Additive effects of flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour pairings on liking for the smell and flavour of a novel drink.
PubMed:Sweet taste transduction in hamster taste cells: evidence for the role of cyclic nucleotides.
PubMed:Sugar "allergy" and children's behavior.
PubMed:Effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism in mild hypercholesterolaemic individuals.
PubMed:The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners in beverage by ultra performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Engineering, expression, purification, and production of recombinant thermolysin.
PubMed:Effects of dietary arabinogalactan on gastrointestinal and blood parameters in healthy human subjects.
PubMed:Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.
PubMed:A comparison of symptoms after the consumption of milk or lactose-hydrolyzed milk by people with self-reported severe lactose intolerance.
PubMed:Discovery and structure determination of a novel Maillard-derived sweetness enhancer by application of the comparative taste dilution analysis (cTDA).
PubMed:Protease-catalyzed synthesis of oligopeptides in heterogenous substrate mixtures.
flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as phenylalanine and aspartic acid. Compd. with 100 times the sweetness of sucrose. Artificial sweetener permitted in foods in EU at 300-5500 ppm. Also permitted in USA. Widely used in foods, beverages and pharmaceutical formulations Aspartame (L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a low-calorie sweetener used to sweeten a wide variety of low- and reduced-calorie foods and beverages, including low-calorie tabletop sweeteners. Aspartame is composed of two amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, as the methyl ester. Aspartic acid and phenylalanine are also found naturally in protein containing foods, including meats, grains and dairy products. Methyl esters are also found naturally in many foods such as fruits and vegetable and their juices. Upon digestion, aspartame breaks down into three components (aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol), which are then absorbed into the blood and used in normal body processes. Neither aspartame nor its components accumulates in the body. These components are used in the body in the same ways as when they are derived from common foods.; Aspartame is an artificial sweetener. It is 200 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentrations, without the high energy value of sugar. While aspartame, like other peptides, has a caloric value of 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) per gram, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible, which makes it a popular sweetener for those trying to avoid calories from sugar. The taste of aspartame is not identical to that of sugar: the sweetness of aspartame has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar. Blends of aspartame with acesulfame potassium?usually listed in ingredients as acesulfame K?are alleged[who?] to taste more like sugar, and to be sweeter than either substitute used alone.; Aspartame is the name for an artificial, non-carbohydrate sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; This sweetener is marketed under a number of trademark names, including Equal, NutraSweet, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide, including (but not limited to) diet sodas and other soft drinks, instant breakfasts, breath mints, cereals, sugar-free chewing gum, cocoa mixes, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, juices, laxatives, chewable vitamins supplements, milk drinks, pharmaceutical drugs and supplements, shake mixes, tabletop sweeteners, teas, instant coffees, topping mixes, wine coolers and yogurt. It is provided as a table condiment in some countries. However, aspartame is not always suitable for baking because it often breaks down when heated and loses much of its sweetness. Aspartame is also one of the main sugar substitutes used by people with diabetes.; i.e., the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is marketed under a number of trademark names, such as Equal, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide. It is commonly used in diet soft drinks, and is often provided as a table condiment. It is also used in some brands of chewable vitamin supplements. In the European Union, it is also known under the E number (additive code) E951. Aspartame is also one of the sugar substitutes used by diabetics. Upon ingestion, aspartame breaks down into several constituent chemicals, including the naturally-occurring essential amino acid phenylalanine which is a health hazard to the few people born with phenylketonuria, a congenital inability to process phenylalanine. Aspartic acid is an amino acid commonly found in foods. Approximately 40% of aspartame (by mass) is broken down into aspartic acid. Because aspartame is metabolized and absorbed very quickly (unlike aspartic acid-containing proteins in foods), it is known that aspartame could spike blood plasma levels of aspartate. Aspartic acid is in a class of chemicals known as excitotoxins. Abnormally high levels of excitotoxins have been shown in hundreds of animals studies to cause damage to areas of the brain unprotected by the blood-brain barrier and a variety of chronic diseases arising out of this neurotoxicity.
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