steviol
kaur-16-en-18-oic acid, 13-hydroxy-
 
Notes:
aglucon of stevioside. Isol. from Cucurbita maxima Rebaudioside B, D, and E may also be present in minute quantities; however, it is suspected that rebaudioside B is a byproduct of the isolation technique. The two majority compounds stevioside and rebaudioside, primarily responsible for the sweet taste of stevia leaves, were first isolated by two French chemists in 1931.
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CAS Number: 471-80-7Picture of molecule
FDA UNII: 4741LYX6RT
MDL: MFCD20441965
XlogP3-AA: 3.80 (est)
Molecular Weight: 318.45670000
Formula: C20 H30 O3
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
 
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 464.00 to  465.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 480.00 °F. TCC ( 248.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 4.035 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 4.359 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
 sweet  
Taste Description:
sweet
  
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Steviol hydrate
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Steviol hydrate ≥98% (HPLC), powder
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for steviol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
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Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 10118
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0000471807
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References:
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 10118
Pubchem (sid): 134975501
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB36706
FooDB: FDB015642
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
 hydroxydehydrostevic acid
(14-alpha)-13-hydroxykaur-16-en-18-oic acid
 kaur-16-en-18-oic acid, 13-hydroxy-
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Articles:
PubMed: Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.
PubMed: Extraction of rebaudioside-A by sonication from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf and decolorization of the extract by polymers.
PubMed: Profiling and Quantification of Phenolics in Stevia Rebaudiana Leaves.
PubMed: Efficient enzymatic production of rebaudioside A from stevioside.
PubMed: Computer-Aided Identification of Anticonvulsant Effect of Natural Nonnutritive Sweeteners Stevioside and Rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Enzymatic transformation of stevioside using a β-galactosidase from Sulfolobus sp.
PubMed: Comparison of spray, freeze and oven drying as a means of reducing bitter aftertaste of steviol glycosides (derived from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant) - Evaluation of the final products.
PubMed: Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.
PubMed: Validation of an HPLC method for direct measurement of steviol equivalents in foods.
PubMed: Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Harvest Time on Steviol Glycosides, Flavonoid Composition, and Antioxidant Properties in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Current and New Insights in the Sustainable and Green Recovery of Nutritionally Valuable Compounds from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: In silico analysis and expression profiling of miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and their relationship with steviol glycosides content in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Interaction model of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) with sweet taste receptors: A computational approach.
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of rebaudioside E under anaerobic conditions: Comparison with rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.
PubMed: Biomass Yield and Steviol Glycoside Production in Callus and Suspension Culture of Stevia rebaudiana Treated with Proline and Polyethylene Glycol.
PubMed: Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.
PubMed: Ultra-HPLC method for quality and adulterant assessment of steviol glycosides sweeteners - Stevia rebaudiana and stevia products.
PubMed: Intensified Separation of Steviol Glycosides from a Crude Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana Leaves Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.
PubMed: Multicomponent analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins and auxiliary substances in multivitamin preparations by qNMR.
PubMed: [Determination of steviol in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves by near infrared spectroscopy].
PubMed: Enhanced production of steviol glycosides in mycorrhizal plants: a concerted effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on transcription of biosynthetic genes.
PubMed: Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.
PubMed: Preparation and chromatographic evaluation of a newly designed steviol glycoside modified-silica stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Digital NMR profiles as building blocks: assembling ¹H fingerprints of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Isolation and structural characterization of a new minor diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Evaluation of a silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column in saccharide and glycoside separations.
PubMed: Stevia-derived compounds attenuate the toxic effects of ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver of obese mice: a transcriptomic and metabolomic study.
PubMed: Investigation of the solubility enhancement mechanism of rebaudioside D using a solid dispersion technique with potassium sorbate as a carrier.
PubMed: Environmental cues induce changes of steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Structures of some novel α-glucosyl diterpene glycosides from the glycosylation of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?
PubMed: Influence of drying method on steviol glycosides and antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana leaves.
PubMed: Effect of the natural sweetener, steviol glycoside, on cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.
PubMed: Design and synthesis of isosteviol triazole conjugates for cancer therapy.
PubMed: Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.
PubMed: Influence of steviol glycosides on the stability of vitamin C and anthocyanins.
PubMed: Bioconversion of rebaudioside I from rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.
PubMed: Separation of Rebaudiana A from Steviol glycoside using a polymeric adsorbent with multi-hydrogen bonding in a non-aqueous system.
PubMed: Validation of HPLC-UV method for determination of minor glycosides contained in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.
PubMed: Isolation and structure elucidation of rebaudioside D2 from bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A to rebaudioside D.
PubMed: Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: does viscosity have an impact?
PubMed: A unified approach to ent-atisane diterpenes and related alkaloids: synthesis of (-)-methyl atisenoate, (-)-isoatisine, and the hetidine skeleton.
PubMed: Novel G3/DT adjuvant promotes the induction of protective T cells responses after vaccination with a seasonal trivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine.
PubMed: Steviol glycoside rebaudioside A induces glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY release in a porcine ex vivo intestinal model.
PubMed: Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.
PubMed: RNA-Seq for gene identification and transcript profiling of three Stevia rebaudiana genotypes.
PubMed: Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in steviol glycoside biosynthesis in Stevia rebaudiana bertoni during plant hardening.
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of a novel rebaudioside M isomer from a bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A and NMR comparison studies of rebaudioside M isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita.
PubMed: High-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of steviol glycosides in Stevia formulations and sugar-free food products, and benchmarking with (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.
PubMed: [Biological conversion of stevioside to steviol by Aspergillus aculeatus and the purification of rebaudioside A].
PubMed: Adsorption characteristics of rebaudioside A and stevioside on cross-linked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) macroporous resins functionalized with chloromethyl, amino and phenylboronic acid groups.
PubMed: Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Genetic signature of differential sensitivity to stevioside in the Italian population.
PubMed: Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.
PubMed: Fast methodology of analysing major steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves.
PubMed: Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.
PubMed: Steviol retards renal cyst growth through reduction of CFTR expression and inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation in a mouse model of polycystic kidney disease.
PubMed: Drug solubilization mechanism of α-glucosyl stevia by NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.
PubMed: Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for routine identification and purity assessment of high-purity steviol glycoside sweeteners.
PubMed: Overexpression of a glycosyltransferase gene SrUGT74G1 from Stevia improved growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by catechin accumulation.
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of rebaudioside B, D, and M under anaerobic conditions: comparison with rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Steviol glycosides modulate glucose transport in different cell types.
PubMed: Steviol glucuronidation and its potential interaction with UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 substrates.
PubMed: Use of the modified Gompertz equation to assess the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antilisterial kinetics.
PubMed: Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.
PubMed: Efficient regeneration for enhanced steviol glycosides production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.
PubMed: Biotransformation of stevioside by Leuconostoc citreum SK24.002 alternansucrase acceptor reaction.
PubMed: Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.
PubMed: Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: insights into steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway.
PubMed: Functional analysis of Arabidopsis CYP714A1 and CYP714A2 reveals that they are distinct gibberellin modification enzymes.
PubMed: Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.
PubMed: Hydrogenation of the exocyclic olefinic bond at C-16/C-17 position of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana using various catalysts.
PubMed: [The use of low-calorie sweeteners].
PubMed: Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.
PubMed: A functional (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase exhibits diurnal regulation of expression in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Determination of six steviol glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from different geographical origin by LC-ESI-MS/MS.
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of stevioside and steviol on colonic epithelial cells.
PubMed: Metabolism and toxicity studies supporting the safety of rebaudioside D.
PubMed: Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function.
PubMed: Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Characterization of a novel steviol-producing β-glucosidase from Penicillium decumbens and optimal production of the steviol.
PubMed: Steviol reduces MDCK Cyst formation and growth by inhibiting CFTR channel activity and promoting proteasome-mediated CFTR degradation.
PubMed: Synthesis of skeletally diverse and stereochemically complex library templates derived from isosteviol and steviol.
PubMed: HPTLC method for simultaneous analysis of stevioside and rebaudioside-A in Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Stevioside methanol tetra-solvate.
PubMed: Simultaneous analysis of steviol and steviol glycosides by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection on a mixed-mode column: application to Stevia plant material and Stevia-containing dietary supplements.
PubMed: Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of steviol and isosteviol derivatives against human cancer cell lines.
PubMed: Spatio-temporal variation of the diterpene steviol in Stevia rebaudiana grown under different photoperiods.
PubMed: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a source of bioactive compounds: the effect of harvest time, experimental site and crop age on steviol glycoside content and antioxidant properties.
PubMed: Functional and structural variation of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) gene of Stevia rebaudiana-UGTSr involved in the synthesis of rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Isolation, NMR Spectral Analysis and Hydrolysis Studies of a Hepta Pyranosyl Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Catalytic hydrogenation of the sweet principles of Stevia rebaudiana, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D and sensory evaluation of their reduced derivatives.
PubMed: Influence of photoperiodism on the spatio-temporal accumulation of steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Absolute quantitation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in commercial standards by quantitative NMR.
PubMed: smRNAome profiling to identify conserved and novel microRNAs in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Steviol glycoside safety: is the genotoxicity database sufficient?
PubMed: 2C-Methyl- D- erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a functional gene.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of steviol and steviol glycosides by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of novel unfolded and macrocyclic derivatives of ent-kaurane steviol.
PubMed: Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.
PubMed: Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides.
PubMed: Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.
PubMed: Comprehensive characterization of Stevia rebaudiana using two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Human psychometric and taste receptor responses to steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Direct analysis of steviol glycosides from Stevia leaves by ambient ionization mass spectrometry performed on whole leaves.
PubMed: Large-scale profiling of diterpenoid glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Mass production of rubusoside using a novel stevioside-specific β-glucosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus.
PubMed: [Steviol glycosides as sweetener in diabetes?].
PubMed: Synthetic study on the relationship between structure and sweet taste properties of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Stimulation of steviol glycoside accumulation in Stevia rebaudiana by red LED light.
PubMed: The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), their constituents and the analyses thereof: a review.
PubMed: Solubility enhancement of steviol glycosides and characterization of their inclusion complexes with gamma-cyclodextrin.
PubMed: A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Synthesis of ent-kaurane diterpene monoglycosides.
PubMed: Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside a from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins.
PubMed: Structures of the novel α-glucosyl linked diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additive and contaminants.
PubMed: Tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of known and new steviol glycosides with structure proposals.
PubMed: Diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Structures of the novel diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: A new diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Fluorescence investigation of a specific structure formed by aggregation of transglycosylated stevias: solubilizing effect of poorly water-soluble drugs.
PubMed: Two minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of major steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana purified extracts by 1H NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: Diterpenoid steviol derivatives regulate the growth of winter wheat and improve its frost resistance.
PubMed: Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel exo-methylene cyclopentanone tetracyclic diterpenoids as antitumor agents.
PubMed: Investigations on the stability of stevioside and rebaudioside a in soft drinks.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives.
PubMed: Evaluation of steviol and its glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and commercial sweetener by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: NMR studies of the conformation of the natural sweetener rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Steviol effect, a glycoside of Stevia rebaudiana, on glucose clearances in rats.
PubMed: Genotoxicity studies on a high-purity rebaudioside A preparation.
PubMed: Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.
PubMed: An efficient microwave-assisted extraction process of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside.
PubMed: Gas-phase intramolecular elimination reaction studies of steviol glycosides in positive electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Quantitative and fingerprint analyses of Chinese sweet tea plant ( Rubus suavissimus S. Lee).
PubMed: Cancer preventive agents. Part 8: Chemopreventive effects of stevioside and related compounds.
PubMed: Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness.
PubMed: Comparative toxicokinetics and metabolism of rebaudioside A, stevioside, and steviol in rats.
PubMed: A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of rebaudioside A and stevioside after single oral doses in healthy men.
PubMed: Overview: the history, technical function and safety of rebaudioside A, a naturally occurring steviol glycoside, for use in food and beverages.
PubMed: Chronic consumption of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside, in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PubMed: The hemodynamic effects of rebaudioside A in healthy adults with normal and low-normal blood pressure.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed: Microbial hydrolysis of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Specific immunomodulatory and secretory activities of stevioside and steviol in intestinal cells.
PubMed: Immune up regulatory response of a non-caloric natural sweetener, stevioside.
PubMed: Apparent lack of pharmacological effect of steviol glycosides used as sweeteners in humans. A pilot study of repeated exposures in some normotensive and hypotensive individuals and in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics.
PubMed: Plant growth regulation activity of steviol and derivatives.
PubMed: A natural plant-derived dihydroisosteviol prevents cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion.
PubMed: Enzymatic modification of stevioside by cell-free extract of Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed: Steviol glycoside biosynthesis.
PubMed: Microbial metabolism of steviol and steviol-16alpha,17-epoxide.
PubMed: Metabolism of stevioside by healthy subjects.
PubMed: Transformation of steviol-16alpha,17-epoxide by Streptomyces griseus and Cunninghamella bainieri.
PubMed: Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.
PubMed: Identification of steviol glucuronide in human urine.
PubMed: Antiproliferative effect of isosteviol on angiotensin-II-treated rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
PubMed: Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Stevioside and Its Metabolite Steviol on THP-1 Cells.
PubMed: Hydrolysis of beta-glucosyl ester linkage of p-hydroxybenzoyl beta-D-glucose, a chemically synthesized glucoside, by beta-glucosidases.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives.
PubMed: Interactions of stevioside and steviol with renal organic anion transporters in S2 cells and mouse renal cortical slices.
PubMed: Structural analysis of isosteviol and related compounds as DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitors.
PubMed: Transport of the natural sweetener stevioside and its aglycone steviol by human organic anion transporter (hOAT1; SLC22A6) and hOAT3 (SLC22A8).
PubMed: Functional genomics uncovers three glucosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the major sweet glucosides of Stevia rebaudiana.
PubMed: Study on the stevioside analogues of steviolbioside, steviol, and isosteviol 19-alkyl amide dimers: synthesis and cytotoxic and antibacterial activity.
PubMed: Steviol quantification at the picomole level by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Microbial transformation of isosteviol and inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation of the transformation products.
PubMed: Isosteviol acts on potassium channels to relax isolated aortic strips of Wistar rat.
PubMed: Isosteviol as a potassium channel opener to lower intracellular calcium concentrations in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells.
PubMed: Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of steviol in rat plasma.
PubMed: Stevioside.
PubMed: Metabolism of stevioside and rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana extracts by human microflora.
PubMed: Metabolism of stevioside in pigs and intestinal absorption characteristics of stevioside, rebaudioside A and steviol.
PubMed: Effect of stevioside and steviol on the developing broiler embryos.
PubMed: Molecular cloning and characterization of Stevia rebaudiana UDP-glucosyltransferase.
PubMed: Absorption and metabolism of glycosidic sweeteners of stevia mixture and their aglycone, steviol, in rats and humans.
PubMed: Activity of isosteviol lactone on mitochondrial metabolism.
PubMed: Ceriopsins F and G, diterpenoids from Ceriops decandra.
PubMed: Metabolism of stevioside by chickens.
PubMed: [Genotoxicity studies of stevia extract and steviol by the comet assay].
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, stevia mixture and enzymatically modified stevia in human intestinal microflora.
PubMed: Determination of the diterpenoid, kaurenoic acid, in Annona glabra by HPLC.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.
PubMed: Leaf Ests from Stevia rebaudiana: a resource for gene discovery in diterpene synthesis.
PubMed: Features of development of Stevia rebaudiana shoots cultivated in the roller bioreactor and their production of steviol glycosides.
PubMed: Mutagenicity of steviol and its oxidative derivatives in Salmonella typhimurium TM677.
PubMed: Microbial transformations of isosteviol.
PubMed: Effect of steviol on para-aminohippurate transport by isolated perfused rabbit renal proximal tubule.
PubMed: Evaluation of the effect of steviol on chromosomal damage using micronucleus test in three laboratory animal species.
PubMed: Purification and some properties of a beta-glucosidase from Flavobacterium johnsonae.
PubMed: Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin: actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+-channel activity.
PubMed: Diterpene synthesis in Stevia rebaudiana: recruitment and up-regulation of key enzymes from the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.
PubMed: Biotransformation of the diperpenoid, isosteviol, by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus arrhizus.
PubMed: Developmental toxicity of steviol, a metabolite of stevioside, in the hamster.
PubMed: Lack of mutagenicity of stevioside and steviol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100.
PubMed: Effects of Steviol on renal function and mean arterial pressure in rats.
PubMed: Acute toxicity of stevioside, a natural sweetener, and its metabolite, steviol, in several animal species.
PubMed: Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays.
PubMed: Regionally-targeted mutagenesis by metabolically-activated steviol: DNA sequence analysis of steviol-induced mutants of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene of Salmonella typhimurium TM677.
PubMed: Hydroxylation of ent-kaurenoic acid to steviol in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni--purification and partial characterization of the enzyme.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetic studies of 131I-stevioside and its metabolites.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of steviol, a metabolite of stevioside, on glucose absorption in everted hamster intestine in vitro.
PubMed: Steviol and steviol-glycoside: glucosyltransferase activities in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni--purification and partial characterization.
PubMed: Stevioside is not metabolized in the isolated perfused rat liver.
PubMed: Effects of stevioside and steviol on intestinal glucose absorption in hamsters.
PubMed: Effective production of glycosyl-steviosides by alpha-1,6 transglucosylation of dextrin dextranase.
PubMed: Influence of stevioside on hepatic glycogen levels in fasted rats.
PubMed: Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: Formation of a transfer product from stevioside by the cultures of Actinomycete.
PubMed: Solubilization of steviolbioside and steviolmonoside with gamma-cyclodextrin and its application to selective syntheses of better sweet glycosides from stevioside and rubusoside.
PubMed: Enzymic production of sweet stevioside derivatives: transglucosylation by glucosidases.
PubMed: Transfructosylation of rebaudioside A (a sweet glycoside of Stevia leaves) with Microbacterium beta-fructofuranosidase.
PubMed: Interpretation of results with the 8-azaguanine resistance system in Salmonella typhimurium: no evidence for direct acting mutagenesis by 15-oxosteviol, a possible metabolite of steviol.
PubMed: Further study on the 1,4-alpha-transglucosylation of rubusoside, a sweet steviol-bisglucoside from Rubus suavissimus.
PubMed: Glucosylation of Steviol and Steviol-Glucosides in Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: [Mutagenicity of steviol: an analytical approach using the Southern blotting system].
PubMed: Mass spectral analysis of some derivatives and in vitro metabolites of steviol, the aglycone of the natural sweeteners, stevioside, rebaudioside A, and rubusoside.
PubMed: Characterization and feeding deterrent effects on the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, of some derivatives of the sweet compounds, stevioside and rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Glucose release by the liver under conditions of reduced activity of glucose 6-phosphatase.
PubMed: Evidence for Phytochrome Regulation of Gibberellin A(20) 3beta-Hydroxylation in Shoots of Dwarf (lele) Pisum sativum L.
PubMed: Characterization of bacterial mutagenicity mediated by 13-hydroxy-ent-kaurenoic acid (steviol) and several structurally-related derivatives and evaluation of potential to induce glutathione S-transferase in mice.
PubMed: Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic.
PubMed: Effects of Stevia rebaudiana natural products on rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed: Effect of steviol and its structural analogues on glucose production and oxygen uptake in rat renal tubules.
PubMed: A phytochemical screening procedure for sweet ent-kaurene glycosides in the genus Stevia.
PubMed: Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in mouse epidermis by sweetening agents and related compounds.
PubMed: Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced induction in Epstein-Barr virus early antigen in Raji cells.
PubMed: Diterpenoid sweeteners. Synthesis and sensory evaluation of stevioside analogues nondegradable to steviol.
PubMed: Intestinal degradation and absorption of the glycosidic sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A.
PubMed: Fungal products. Part XVI. Conversion of isosteviol and steviol acetate into gibberellin analogues by mutant b1-41a of Gibberella fujikuroi and the preparation of (3H)gibberellin A20.
PubMed: [Effect of terpenoid derivatives (helminthosporol, helminthosporic acid, dihydrohelminthosporic acid, and steviol) on antheridinum induction in Anemia phyllitidis].
PubMed: Inhibition of the biosynthesis of steviol by a growth retardant.
PubMed: Conversion of steviol to a gibberellin-like compound by Fusarium moniliforme.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of steviol.
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