corn syrup high fructose
high fructose corn syrup
None found
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FDA internal no.: 977042-84-4 
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1865 Corn Syrup View-review
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.111 Acidified milk.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.112 Cultured milk.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.170 Eggnog.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.200 Yogurt.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.203 Lowfat yogurt.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.206 Nonfat yogurt.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup.
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
 sweet  sugar  
Taste Description:
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Flavor: sweet
ADM's blend 018032 is a clear sweetener blend consisting of 28% 42 High Fructose Corn Syrup and 72% 62/44 Corn Syrup (dry basis). It is recommended for use in vegetable and fruit canning applications where minimal sulfite and negligible chloride levels are needed.
Flavor: sweet
ADM's blend 018118 is a clear sweetener blend consisting of 30% 42 High Fructose Corn Syrup and 70% 42/43 Corn Syrup (dry basis). It is recommended for use in specialty syrups and sauces.
Odor: characteristic
Use: ADM's blend 018321 is a clear sweetener blend consisting of 50% 42 High Fructose Corn Syrup and 50% 62/44 Ion-Exchange Corn Syrup (dry basis). It is recommended for use in vegetable and fruit canning applications where minimal sulfite and negligible chloride levels are needed.
Flavor: sweet
ADM's blend 018095 is a clear sweetener blend consisting of 50% 42 High Fructose Corn Syrup and 50% 62/43 Corn Syrup (dry basis).
Flavor: sweet
High Fructose Corn Syrup Sweetener HFCS, Anhydrous Puff Pastry, Baked Goods, Beer, Breads, Candy, Confections, Dry Powdered Beverages, Fillings, Frostings, Ice Cream, Ice Cream Novelties, Icings, Icings, Frostings and Glazes, Juices, Pastries, Pastry, Anhydrous Puff Pastry, Baked Goods, Beer, Breads, Candy, Confections, Dry Powdered Beverages, Fillings, Frostings, Ice Cream, Ice Cream Novelties, Icings, Icings, Frostings and Glazes, Juices, Pastries, Pastry.
Flavor: sweet
CornSweet® 42 is ADM Corn Processing's first generation high fructose syrup. CornSweet® 42 is a low viscosity sweetener which can be handled in existing liquid sweetener facilities. This will minimize crystallization and color development. CornSweet® 42 is a versatile sweetener which may be used at a 50-100% replacement of sucrose or invert sugar in many applications. Its clean, non-masking sweetness permits its use in delicate flavored foods.
Flavor: sweet
CORNSWEET® 55 is ADM Corn Processing's second generation high fructose syrup. The principal sugars, fructose and dextrose, give it a sweetness comparable in most foods and beverages to sucrose or invert sugar. The high sweetness level of Cornsweet® 55 provides desirable characteristics to carbonated drinks, still drinks and processed foods. Although this product is resistant to crystallization at room temperature, the recommended storage temperature for ease in pumping and blending is 80-85 Degrees F..
Flavor: sweet
Cornsweet® 90, containing about 90% fructose, is ADM's sweetest high fructose corn syrup. Its high sweetness makes it the ideal choice for reduced calorie foods such as beverages, jellies and dressings. Normal room temperature storage is sufficient to prevent crystallization and minimize color development.
Anhui Haibei
Fructose containing corn syrup with fructose contents ranging from 9 – 50%
Flavor: sweet
HFCS is a liquid blend of glucose, maltose, fructose and higher saccharides, which is primarily used in beverages, fine baked goods, desserts and canned fruits.
Cargill, Inc.
Corn syrup solids
Flavor: characteristic
Cargill Dry GL™ Corn Syrup Glucose solids are obtained by enzymatic conversion of common corn starch. These nutritive carbohydrates in a DE range of 24 to 42 provide moisture retention and control crystallization. They influence key properties such as browning, hygroscopicity, and sweetness.
Sinofi Ingredients
High Fructose Corn Syrup
Flavor: characteristic
Sugar Substitutes, Dairy Products, Confections, Baking Food, Yogurt, Desserts, Soft Drink, Beverage Powder, Instant Coffee, Chai Tea, Puddings, Ice Cream, Pharmaceutical, Humectant, Preservative, Processing aid, Cereals, Canned Fruits, Cakes, Juices, Frozen Products, Flavor Enhancer, Prevents Sandiness.
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for corn syrup high fructose usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
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Safety References:
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
Chemidplus: 0977042844
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Pubchem (sid): 135283721
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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 ADM sweetener blend 28% HFCS 42 and 72% 62/44 CS (dry basis)
 ADM sweetener blend 30% HFCS 42 and 70% CS 42/43 (dry basis)
 ADM sweetener blend 50% HFCS 42 and 50% CS 62/43 (dry basis)
26/42 corn syrup L-SO2
 cornsweet 42
 cornsweet 42 80% solids
 cornsweet 55
 cornsweet 90
 fructose containing corn syrup with fructose contents ranging from 9 – 50%
high fructose corn syrup
 HFCS 42, HFCS 55 and HFCS 90
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PubMed: [Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].
PubMed: Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.
PubMed: Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the canadian diet.
PubMed: Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and on tooth demineralization.
PubMed: Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.
PubMed: Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.
PubMed: Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.
PubMed: Amounts of Artificial Food Dyes and Added Sugars in Foods and Sweets Commonly Consumed by Children.
PubMed: Association of fructose consumption and components of metabolic syndrome in human studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed: Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) Using Solid State Fermentation.
PubMed: Effect of sugars in solutions on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9- to 14-year-old normal weight boys.
PubMed: The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.
PubMed: Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.
PubMed: Sugar or high fructose corn syrup-what should nurses teach patients and families?
PubMed: Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.
PubMed: A novel procedure for evaluating the reinforcing properties of tastants in laboratory rats: operant intraoral self-administration.
PubMed: [Fructose consumption and its health implications; fructose malabsorption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].
PubMed: Generation of oxidative species from ultraviolet light induced photolysis of fructose.
PubMed: Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.
PubMed: Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.
PubMed: Review of the role of refined dietary sugars (fructose and glucose) in the genesis of retinal disease.
PubMed: Ghrelin receptor regulates HFCS-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.
PubMed: Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.
PubMed: 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.
PubMed: Mini review on fructose metabolism.
PubMed: Today's and yesterday's of pathophysiology: biochemistry of metabolic syndrome and animal models.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.
PubMed: The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: findings from recent randomized controlled trials.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.
PubMed: Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.
PubMed: Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.
PubMed: Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts.
PubMed: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: a risk factor for prevalent gout with SLC2A9 genotype-specific effects on serum urate and risk of gout.
PubMed: The Effect of a Low Fructose and Low Glycemic Index/Load (FRAGILE) Dietary Intervention on Indices of Liver Function, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
PubMed: Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.
PubMed: Human-relevant levels of added sugar consumption increase female mortality and lower male fitness in mice.
PubMed: Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.
PubMed: Maladaptive immune and inflammatory pathways lead to cardiovascular insulin resistance.
PubMed: The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline.
PubMed: Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed: Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.
PubMed: Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.
PubMed: Acute effects of fructose consumption on uric acid and plasma lipids in patients with impaired renal function.
PubMed: High sugar intake and development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation in mice: a protective role for PPAR- δ agonism.
PubMed: "Healthy" discussions about risk: The Corn Refiners Association's strategic negotiation of authority in the debate over high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: Fructose in perspective.
PubMed: Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: a critical review.
PubMed: Long-term ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate did not induce obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance: a two-generation study in mice.
PubMed: Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.
PubMed: Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on the acidogenicity, adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.
PubMed: [Dietary therapy for obesity].
PubMed: Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.
PubMed: Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?
PubMed: Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from the recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies.
PubMed: Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine.
PubMed: Immobilised enzymes in biorenewables production.
PubMed: Challenging the fructose hypothesis: new perspectives on fructose consumption and metabolism.
PubMed: Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?
PubMed: Fructose: it's "alcohol without the buzz".
PubMed: Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.
PubMed: Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease.
PubMed: Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes.
PubMed: Analysis of sugar degradation products with α-dicarbonyl structure in carbonated soft drinks by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS.
PubMed: Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.
PubMed: Industrial use of immobilized enzymes.
PubMed: Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.
PubMed: Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed: Effect of adulteration versus storage on volatiles in unifloral honeys from different floral sources and locations.
PubMed: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: clinical implications and treatment.
PubMed: Potential health risks from beverages containing fructose found in sugar or high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: Countries that use large amounts of high fructose corn syrup have higher rates of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed: High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.
PubMed: Reversal of the deleterious effects of chronic dietary HFCS-55 intake by PPAR-δ agonism correlates with impaired NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
PubMed: Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.
PubMed: A perspective on diet and gout.
PubMed: [Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].
PubMed: Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
PubMed: Fructose, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup: modern scientific findings and health implications.
PubMed: Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1.
PubMed: Effects on uric acid, body mass index and blood pressure in adolescents of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.
PubMed: Does fructose consumption contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?
PubMed: Bite of Arsenic, with Kathryn Cottingham. Interviewed by Ashley Ahearn.
PubMed: Effects of perinatal exposure to palatable diets on body weight and sensitivity to drugs of abuse in rats.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup causes vascular dysfunction associated with metabolic disturbance in rats: protective effect of resveratrol.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed: Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.
PubMed: Ecologically appropriate xenobiotics induce cytochrome P450s in Apis mellifera.
PubMed: Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.
PubMed: The Role of Overweight and Obesity in the Cardiorenal Syndrome.
PubMed: Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser perforation as skin pretreatment to improve sugar infusion process of frozen blueberries.
PubMed: Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects.
PubMed: Nutrigenomics of hepatic steatosis in a feline model: effect of monosodium glutamate, fructose, and Trans-fat feeding.
PubMed: A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes.
PubMed: Glp-1 analog, liraglutide, ameliorates hepatic steatosis and cardiac hypertrophy in C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet.
PubMed: Role of fructose-containing sugars in the epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
PubMed: Vitamin D deficiency in obese rats exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increases hepatic resistin and Toll-like receptor activation.
PubMed: High dietary fructose intake: Sweet or bitter life?
PubMed: Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women.
PubMed: High fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.
PubMed: Metabolic and behavioural effects of sucrose and fructose/glucose drinks in the rat.
PubMed: Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion.
PubMed: The impact of fructose on renal function and blood pressure.
PubMed: The role of salt in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced hypertension.
PubMed: Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic.
PubMed: Obesity and energy balance: is the tail wagging the dog?
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup. What's all the fuss about?
PubMed: Identification of the medicinal off-flavor compound formed from ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal.
PubMed: A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: carbohydrates and natural products.
PubMed: Isolation, purification, and characterization of thermophilic T80 isoenzyme of xylose isomerase from the xerophyte Cereus pterogonus.
PubMed: Effect of trans-fat, fructose and monosodium glutamate feeding on feline weight gain, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipokine and lipid profile.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable xylose isomerase from Opuntia vulgaris mill.
PubMed: Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.
PubMed: Electrospun gold nanofiber electrodes for biosensors.
PubMed: Is there a link between soft drinks and erectile dysfunction?
PubMed: Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.
PubMed: Dietary fructose, salt absorption and hypertension in metabolic syndrome: towards a new paradigm.
PubMed: The effect of fructose on renal biology and disease.
PubMed: Fructose induced lipogenesis: from sugar to fat to insulin resistance.
PubMed: Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.
PubMed: Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.
PubMed: How does the consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup impact the health of children and adolescents?
PubMed: The health implications of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose: what do we really know?
PubMed: Fructose: pure, white, and deadly? Fructose, by any other name, is a health hazard.
PubMed: Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.
PubMed: Fructose, exercise, and health.
PubMed: Elevated dietary sugar and the heart: experimental models and myocardial remodeling.
PubMed: Sodas, high fructose corn syrup, and obesity: Let's focus on the right target.
PubMed: Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed: The effects of high fructose syrup.
PubMed: Increased fructose intake as a risk factor for dementia.
PubMed: Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.
PubMed: Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions.
PubMed: The role of high-fructose corn syrup in metabolic syndrome and hypertension.
PubMed: Fructose consumption: recent results and their potential implications.
PubMed: Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.
PubMed: Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence.
PubMed: Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.
PubMed: The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects.
PubMed: Effect of dietary monosodium glutamate on HFCS-induced hepatic steatosis: expression profiles in the liver and visceral fat.
PubMed: Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity.
PubMed: 5-(Hy-droxy-meth-yl)furan-2-carbaldehyde.
PubMed: Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.
PubMed: The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.
PubMed: Soft drink consumption and obesity: it is all about fructose.
PubMed: Multiple abnormalities of myocardial insulin signaling in a porcine model of diet-induced obesity.
PubMed: Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.
PubMed: Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.
PubMed: Honey bee foraging preferences, effects of sugars, and fruit fly toxic bait components.
PubMed: Hardening of high-protein nutrition bars and sugar/polyol-protein phase separation.
PubMed: Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship?
PubMed: Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high-fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera).
PubMed: Interrelationships of added sugars intake, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity in adults in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2005.
PubMed: Effects of science and the media on consumer perceptions about dietary sugars.
PubMed: National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States.
PubMed: The effect of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on triglycerides and uric acid.
PubMed: Fructose and satiety.
PubMed: Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.
PubMed: Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup: is it uniquely responsible for obesity, reactive dicarbonyl compounds, and advanced glycation endproducts?
PubMed: The state of the science on dietary sweeteners containing fructose: summary and issues to be resolved.
PubMed: The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.
PubMed: Diabetes of the liver: the link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and HFCS-55.
PubMed: Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar.
PubMed: Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?
PubMed: Fructose: should we worry?
PubMed: Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.
PubMed: Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?
PubMed: Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.
PubMed: Fructose consumption and consequences for glycation, plasma triacylglycerol, and body weight: meta-analyses and meta-regression models of intervention studies.
PubMed: Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.
PubMed: Perspectives on obesity and sweeteners, folic acid fortification and vitamin D requirements.
PubMed: Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.
PubMed: Dietary fructose consumption among US children and adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
PubMed: Diet-induced insulin resistance impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognition in middle-aged rats.
PubMed: Deletion of xylR gene enhances expression of xylose isomerase in Streptomyces lividans TK24.
PubMed: Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants.
PubMed: Effect of consuming different caloric sweeteners on bone health and possible mechanisms.
PubMed: Carbohydrate issues: type and amount.
PubMed: Thermoinactivation mechanism of glucose isomerase.
PubMed: Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.
PubMed: Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed: Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice.
PubMed: Hepato-pancreato-biliary fat: the good, the bad and the ugly.
PubMed: The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague-Dawley rats on bone mass and strength.
PubMed: A short history of beverages and how our body treats them.
PubMed: Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.
PubMed: No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.
PubMed: Much ado about high-fructose corn syrup in beverages: the meat of the matter.
PubMed: Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.
PubMed: Patient perspectives: barriers to complementary and alternative medicine therapies create problems for patients and survivors.
PubMed: Effects of sucromalt on postprandial responses in human subjects.
PubMed: A new methodology based on GC-MS to detect honey adulteration with commercial syrups.
PubMed: Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.
PubMed: A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain.
PubMed: Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference?
PubMed: Hormonal responses to a fast-food meal compared with nutritionally comparable meals of different composition.
PubMed: Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.
PubMed: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predisposing factors and the role of nutrition.
PubMed: The 'skinny' on childhood obesity: how our western environment starves kids' brains.
PubMed: Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women.
PubMed: Obesity and diabetes: the roles that prices and policies play.
PubMed: Liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a new perspective on honey adulteration detection.
PubMed: An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane.
PubMed: Added sweeteners. Are high-fructose corn syrup and other sweeteners fueling the American obesity epidemic?
PubMed: Application of Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy to the discrimination between Irish artisanal honey and such honey adulterated with various sugar syrups.
PubMed: Safety assessment of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an ingredient added to cigarette tobacco.
PubMed: Adverse effects of dietary fructose.
PubMed: Detection of royal jelly adulteration using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.
PubMed: A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.
PubMed: Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.
PubMed: Honey in combination with vacuum impregnation to prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples.
PubMed: Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.
PubMed: Detection of sugar adulterants in apple juice using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed: Dietary modulation of parathion-induced neurotoxicity in adult and juvenile rats.
PubMed: Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia.
PubMed: Effects of dietary fructose on liver steatosis in overfed mule ducks.
PubMed: The obesity epidemic in the United States.
PubMed: Dried fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants.
PubMed: The fat of the land: do agricultural subsidies foster poor health?
PubMed: Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.
PubMed: High-fructose corn syrup and the obesity epidemic.
PubMed: Is high fructose corn syrup the cause of obesity?
PubMed: The epidemic of obesity and changes in food intake: the Fluoride Hypothesis.
PubMed: Beverage consumption and risk of obesity among Native Americans in Arizona.
PubMed: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.
PubMed: Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.
PubMed: Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome.
PubMed: Glucose-to-fructose conversion at high temperatures with xylose (glucose) isomerases from Streptomyces murinus and two hyperthermophilic Thermotoga species.
PubMed: Heat resistance of juice spoilage microorganisms.
PubMed: Control of fumonisin: effects of processing.
PubMed: Identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup and high-fructose corn syrup in apple juice by capillary gas chromatography: PVM 4:1999.
PubMed: Description of the long-term lipogenic effects of dietary carbohydrates in male Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fluid ingestion: influence of glycemic response on 10-km treadmill running performance in the heat.
PubMed: The interaction between dietary fructose and magnesium adversely affects macromineral homeostasis in men.
PubMed: Generalized linearization of kinetics of glucose isomerization to fructose by immobilized glucose isomerase.
PubMed: Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.
PubMed: Lowering the pH optimum of D-xylose isomerase: the effect of mutations of the negatively charged residues.
PubMed: Fate of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in liquid sweeteners.
PubMed: Solvent and viscosity effects on the rate-limiting product release step of glucoamylase during maltose hydrolysis.
PubMed: Molecular analysis of the fructose transporter gene (GLUT5) in isolated fructose malabsorption.
PubMed: beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.
PubMed: Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.
PubMed: Normative data for commercial pineapple juice from concentrate.
PubMed: Immobilization of D-xylose (D-glucose) isomerase from a Chainia species.
PubMed: Determination of honey authenticity by anion-exchange liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals.
PubMed: Effect of carbohydrate composition on fluid balance, gastric emptying, and exercise performance.
PubMed: High-speed chromatographic analysis of high-fructose corn syrup for process monitoring.
PubMed: Effects of carbonated and noncarbonated beverages at specific intervals during treadmill running in the heat.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic detection of a variety of inexpensive sweeteners added to pure orange juice.
PubMed: Mineral balances in humans as affected by fructose, high fructose corn syrup and sucrose.
PubMed: Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.
PubMed: Effect of fructose consumption during lactation on sow and litter performance and sow plasma constituents.
PubMed: Frozen desserts and glycemic response in well-controlled NIDDM patients.
PubMed: Effects of high-fructose (90%) corn syrup on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
PubMed: Mechanism of thermoinactivation of immobilized glucose isomerase.
PubMed: Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.
PubMed: Enzymatic production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose in aqueous ethanol.
PubMed: Effects of feeding sows fat or fructose during late gestation and lactation.
PubMed: Effect of dietary fructose on broiler chick performance.
PubMed: Influence of selected carbohydrate drinks on cycling performance and glycogen use.
PubMed: The effects of sucrose, fructose, and high-fructose corn syrup meals on plasma glucose and insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.
PubMed: Verification of authenticity of apple juice.
PubMed: Mass spectrometric 13C/12C determinations to detect high fructose corn syrup in orange juice: collaborative study.
PubMed: Plasma glucose and insulin after fructose an high-fructose corn syrup meals in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
PubMed: Carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio is relatively uniform among honeys.
PubMed: Letter: The use of high-fructose corn syrup as a sweetener.
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