EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

isovaleric acid
3-methylbutyric acid

Supplier Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:3-methylbutanoic acid
CAS Number: 503-74-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:207-975-3
FDA UNII:1BR7X184L5
Nikkaji Web:J2.605K
Beilstein Number:1098522
MDL:MFCD00002726
CoE Number:8
XlogP3:1.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:102.13310000
Formula:C5 H10 O2
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:259 isovaleric acid
FLAVIS Number:08.008 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.008 3-methylbutyric acid
FEMA Number:3102 isovaleric acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):503-74-2 ; ISOVALERIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.92300 to 0.92800 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.680 to 7.722
Refractive Index:1.40100 to 1.40500 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -29.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 175.00 to 177.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.554000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:3.5 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 159.00 °F. TCC ( 70.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.160
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 chloroform
 ether
 water, 40700 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
 water, 1 part to 25 parts water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: cheesy
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:400 hour(s) at 100.00 %
sour sweaty cheesy tropical
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in propylene glycol. sour stinky feet sweaty cheese tropical
Luebke, William tgsc, (1989)
Odor sample from: Harrmann & Reimer Corporation
cheesy dairy acidic sour pungent fruity ripe fatty fruity
Odor Description:Cheese, dairy, acidic, sour, pungent, fruity, stinky, ripe fatty and fruity notes
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 18, No. 5, 39, (1993)
Flavor Type: cheesy
cheesy dairy creamy fermented sweet waxy berry
Taste Description: at 50.00 ppm. Cheesey, dairy, creamy, fermented, sweet, waxy and berry
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 18, No. 5, 39, (1993)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Frutarom
ISOVALERIC ACID
Odor Description:Acidic, Cheese, Sour
Suggested Uses: Cheese, Citrus Fruits, Dairy Products, Hard Fruits, Passion Fruit, Pear, Soft Fruits, Strawberry
Alfrebro
ISOVALERIC ACID NATURAL
Odor Description:Rancid, Cheese, Disagreeable
Ernesto Ventós
isoVALERIC ACID
Odor Description:SOUR,CHEESY,FRUITY,FERMENTED,WOODY
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Isovaleric Acid 98.0 (min) Natural
Odor Description:Cheese, dairy, acidic, sour, pungent, fruity, stinky, ripe fatty and fruity notes
Mane
Isovaleric Acid
Odor Description:Sour Milky Cheesy
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
ISOVALERIC ACID NATURAL
98% min.
Odor: Cheesy, Rancid
Alfrebro
ISOVALERIC ACID (EU NAT)
Odor: Rancid, Cheese-like
Alfrebro
ISOVALERIC ACID NATURAL
Odor: Rancid, Cheese, Disagreeable
Ambles Nature et Chimie
ACIDE ISOVALERIQUE NAT
Astral Extracts
IsoValeric Acid
Augustus Oils
Iso Valeric Acid
Services
Aurochemicals
isoVALERIC ACID, Natural
Axxence Aromatic
isoVALERIC ACID Natural
Kosher
Sustainability
Beijing Lys Chemicals
3-Methyl butyric acid
Berjé
isoValeric Acid
Happening at Berje
Charkit Chemical
ISOVALERIC ACID FEMA 3102
Citrus and Allied Essences
3-Methylbutyric Acid (natural)
Odor: disagreeable sour,rancid,cheesy note
Market Report
CJ Latta & Associates
ISO VALERIC ACID
CJ Latta & Associates
Nat.Isovaleric acid
Diffusions Aromatiques
ACIDE ISOVALERIQUE
Elan Inc.
isovaleric acid
(natural), Kosher
ENNOLYS
3-Methyl butyric acid
Natural (EU,US), Kosher & Halal
Odor: rancid, cheese -like
Ernesto Ventós
3-METHYLBUTYRIC ACID NATURAL FIRMENICH 904020
Odor: SOUR,CHEESY,FRUITY,FERMENTED,WOODY
Ernesto Ventós
isoVALERIC ACID
Excellentia International
isoValeric Acid Natural
FCI SAS
ISOVALERIC ACID NATURAL EU
Odor: Strong, cheesy
Fleurchem
isovaleric acid natural
Fleurchem
isovaleric acid
Frutarom
ISOVALERIC ACID
Odor: Acidic, Cheese, Sour
Use: Suggested Uses: Cheese, Citrus Fruits, Dairy Products, Hard Fruits, Passion Fruit, Pear, Soft Fruits, Strawberry
Global Essence
isoValeric Acid Natural
Grau Aromatics
isoVALERIC ACID FCC
H. Interdonati, Inc.
3-Methylbutyric Acid Natural, Kosher
Featured Products
Indenta Group
isoValeric Acid
Indukern F&F
ISOVALERIC ACID
Odor: CHEESE, BITTER
Jiangyin Healthway
isoValeric Acid
New functional food ingredients
Kun Shan P&A
isoValeric Acid
Kunshan Sainty
isoValeric Acid, Natural
Lluch Essence
isoVALERIC ACID NATURAL 99%
Lluch Essence
isoVALERIC ACID
M&U International
isoVALERIC ACID
M&U International
NAT.3-METHYL BUTYRIC ACID, Kosher
M&U International
NAT.ISOVALERIC ACID, Kosher
Mane
Isovaleric Acid
Odor: Sour Milky Cheesy
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Isovaleric Acid 98.0 (min)
Natural
Odor: Cheese, dairy, acidic, sour, pungent, fruity, stinky, ripe fatty and fruity notes
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Isovaleric acid
Odor: Cheese, dairy, acidic, sour, pungent, fruity, stinky, ripe fatty and fruity notes
Natural Advantage
Isovaleric Acid Nat
Flavor: cheesy, fruity, sour
Riverside Aromatics LTD.is the exclusive distributor for Europe in UK for any non-US based inquiries
Naturamole
isovaleric acid 98% natural EU
OQEMA
isoValeric Acid
Pearlchem Corporation
Natural isoValeric Acid
Penta International
ISOVALERIC ACID FCC GRADE
Penta International
ISOVALERIC ACID NATURAL
Penta International
ISOVALERIC ACID
Prodasynth
ISOVALERIC ACID, NATURAL
(> 98%)
Prodasynth
ISOVALERIC ACID
(> 99%)
Odor: ACID, ACRID, CHEESE
R C Treatt & Co Ltd
isoValeric Acid
Reincke & Fichtner
isoValeric Acid natural
Reincke & Fichtner
isoValeric Acid
Robertet
isoValeric Acid NAT.
Sigma-Aldrich
Isovaleric acid, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Odor: cheese; animal
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Isovaleric acid, natural, ≥98%, FG
Odor: cheese; animal
SRS Aromatics
isoVALERIC ACID FCC
Sunaux International
nat.isoValeric Acid
Synerzine
isoValeric Acid
Taytonn
isoValeric Acid
Odor: Acidic, Cheese, Sour
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
isoValeric Acid >99.0%(GC)
United International
Isovaleric acid
Vigon International
isoValeric Acid Natural Deironized
Vigon International
isoValeric Acid
Odor: DISAGREEABLE, RANCID, CHEESE-LIKE
WEN International
ISOVALERIC ACID Natural
WholeChem
3-Methyl butyric acid
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 20/22 - Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
R 24 - Toxic in contact with skin.
R 34 - Causes burns.
S 01/02 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 2 ml/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 1/31/1972

intravenous-mouse LD50 1120 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 18, Pg. 141, 1961.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 310 ul/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 1/31/1972

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -5.50000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -1.20000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: -2.40000
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -14.00000
fruit ices: -14.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -12.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 1, Revision 1 (FGE.01Rev 1): Branched-chain aliphatic saturated aldehydes, carboxylic acids and related esters of primary alcohols and branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical groups 1 and 2 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 8 (FGE.08)[1]: Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical group 20
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 2 (FGE.07Rev2) : Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 1 (FGE.08Rev1): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical groups 20 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 2 (FGE.09Rev2): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group 8 and 30, and an ester of a phenol derivative from chemical group 25
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 30 (FGE.30): 2-Methoxy-4-(prop-1-enyl)phenyl 3-methylbutyrate from chemical group 17
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 01 Rev2 (FGE.01 Rev2): Branched-chain aliphatic saturated aldehydes, carboxylic acids and related esters of primary alcohols and branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical groups 1 and 2
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 30, Revision 1 (FGE.30Rev1): 4-Prop-1-enylphenol and 2-methoxy-4-(prop-1-enyl)phenyl 3-methylbutyrate from chemical group 17
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical groups 20 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):503-74-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :10430
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 3265
WGK Germany:1
3-methylbutanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000503742
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:NY1400000 for cas# 503-74-2
 
References:
 3-methylbutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:503-74-2
Pubchem (cid):10430
Pubchem (sid):134975895
Flavornet:503-74-2
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C08262
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00718
FooDB:FDB001324
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01606
Export Tariff Code:2915.60.5000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
animal
methyl (E)-2-octenoate
FL/FR
balsamic
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
valerian rhizome absolute
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
levulinic acid
FL/FR
cheesy
butyric acid
FL/FR
heptanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
S-(
methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-2-hexenoic acid
FR
valeric acid
FL/FR
chocolate
cocoa pentenal
FL/FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
creamy
butyl lactate
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
earthy
3-
octanol
FL/FR
estery
diisopropyl adipate
CS
ethereal
decyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
fatty
allyl cyclohexyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
coconut absolute
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
decanoic acid
FL/FR
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
octanoic acid
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E,Z,Z)-2,4,7-
tridecatrienal
FL/FR
fermented
iso
amyl alcohol
FL/FR
floral
dihydrojasmone lactone
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
phenethyl hexanoate
FL/FR
phenethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl acetate
FL/FR
allyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
amyl valerate
FL/FR
amyl valerate
FL/FR
iso
butyl-3-(methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
sour
cherry essence
FL/FR
sour
cherry fragrance
FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl carboxylic acid
FL/FR
dihydroactinidolide
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
filbert hexenone
FL/FR
4-
heptanone
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hepten-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
methyl 4-methyl valerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl acetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
octyl heptanoate
FL/FR
passiflora lauriflora fruit extract
CS
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
propyl butyrate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
prune specialty
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
fungal
1-
decen-3-ol
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
3-
heptanone
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
hexanal (aldehyde C-6)
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal
FL/FR
4-
hexenol
FL/FR
2-
pentenal
FL/FR
herbal
iso
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
3-
heptanol
FL/FR
perillaldehyde
FL/FR
honey
phenoxyacetic acid
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
meaty
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
minty
laevo-
piperitone
FL/FR
nutty
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
oily
petal pyranone
FL/FR
phenolic
meta-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
spicy
clove bud concrete
FR
cumin seed oil
FL/FR
(±)-1,2,5,6-
tetrahydrocuminic acid
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl 3-mercaptobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
thujonic
cistus cyclohexanone
FL/FR
tropical
passiflora edulis fruit extract
FL/FR
passiflora edulis fruit water
FL/FR
waxy
butyl laurate
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
9-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl myristate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
1-
undecanol
FL/FR
woody
beta-
terpineol
FL/FR
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
allyl alcohol
FL
allyl cyclohexyl hexanoate
FL/FR
amyl valerate
FL/FR
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
butyl isothiocyanate
FL
iso
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
iso
butyl-3-(methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
cistus cyclohexanone
FL/FR
decyl propionate
FL/FR
dihydroactinidolide
FL/FR
2,5-
dithiahexane
FL
S-
ethyl 2-acetyl aminoethane thioate
FL
ethyl 3-mercaptobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl cyclohexyl carboxylate
FL
ethyl isothiocyanate
FL
(E,E)-2,4-
heptadien-1-ol
FL
3-
heptanol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hepten-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenoic acid
FL
2-
hexyl acetate
FL
3-
hydroxypyruvic acid
FL
3-
mercapto-3-methyl butyl formate
FL
iso
mesityl oxide
FL
3-
methyl crotonic acid
FL
5-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL
methyl methane thiosulfonate
FL
S-
methyl thiopropionate
FL
4-
methyl valeric acid
FL
3-
methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
FL
1-
nonen-3-one
FL
octyl heptanoate
FL/FR
2-
pentenal
FL/FR
phenoxyacetic acid
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
prune specialty
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
beta-
terpineol
FL/FR
(±)-1,2,5,6-
tetrahydrocuminic acid
FL/FR
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
thiamine hydrochloride
FL
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL
iso
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL/FR
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
4-
mercapto-2-pentanone 1% in acetoin
FL
3-(
methyl thio) methyl thiophene
FL
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
propionic acid
FL
valeric acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
1-
undecanol
FL/FR
alliaceous
allyl propionate
FL/FR
truffle sulfide
FL
berry
prunus spinosa extract
FL
bitter
(E,Z,Z)-2,4,7-
tridecatrienal
FL/FR
buttery
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenoic acid
FL
caramellic
creme brulee flavor
FL
pyruvaldehyde
FL
pyruvic acid
FL
cheesy
(E)-2,4-
dimethyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
acetoin butyrate
FL
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
cream
cheese flavor
FL
custard flavor
FL
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-4-pentenoic acid
FL
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
dairy
butyl lactate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
4-
pentenoic acid
FL
earthy
1-
decen-3-ol
FL/FR
fatty
coconut absolute
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
dimethyl sulfoxide
FL
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octenoic acid
FL
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
fermented
methyl thio isovalerate
FL
fishy
trimethyl amine
FL
floral
cocoa pentenal
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
amyl valerate
FL/FR
blueberry cheesecake flavor
FL
sour
cherry essence
FL/FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl carboxylic acid
FL/FR
ethyl 3-oxohexanoate
FL
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
filbert hexenone
FL/FR
furfuryl isovalerate
FL
furfuryl valerate
FL
4-
heptanone
FL/FR
methyl (E)-2-octenoate
FL/FR
methyl 4-methyl valerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl acetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
phenethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
propyl butyrate
FL/FR
propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tamarindus indica extract
FL
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
valerian rhizome absolute
FL/FR
fusel
iso
amyl alcohol
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
FL
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
hexanal (aldehyde C-6)
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
3-(5-
methyl-2-furyl) butanal
FL
herbal
iso
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
ketonic
3-
heptanone
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
meaty
2-
methyl 3-(methyl thio) furan
FL
12-
methyl tridecanal
FL
metallic
4-
hexenol
FL/FR
minty
laevo-
piperitone
FL/FR
mushroom
methional diethyl acetal
FL
musty
S-(
methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
3-
octanol
FL/FR
propionaldehyde
FL
nutty
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
oily
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
petal pyranone
FL/FR
phenolic
meta-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
soapy
decanoic acid
FL/FR
octanoic acid
FL/FR
sour
acetic acid
FL
butyric acid
FL/FR
2,4-
dimethyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL
3-
methyl valeric acid
FL
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
spicy
cumin seed oil
FL/FR
perillaldehyde
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl methyl mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
methyl 4-(methyl thio) butyrate
FL
methyl thioacetate
FL
onion oleoresin
FL
sweet
acetone alcohol
FL
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
toasted
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
tropical
passiflora edulis fruit extract
FL/FR
passiflora edulis fruit water
FL/FR
vanilla
vanilla
ice cream flavor
FL
waxy
butyl laurate
FL/FR
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
9-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone lactone
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl myristate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
heptanoic acid
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
phenethyl hexanoate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLapple
FLbanana
FLblackberry
FLbutter
FLcheese blue cheese
FLcream
FLdairy
FRfruit
FLnut
FRpassion fruit
FLpear
FLstrawberry
FLwine sherry wine
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple fruit
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 arctic bramble fruit
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 banana fruit
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 banana plant
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 barley roasted barley
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 bay laurel leaf
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 beer
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 bergamot plant wild
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 blackberry fruit
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 brandy
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 burdock plant
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 cajeput
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 cassia plant
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 cayenne sap
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 celery seed
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 cheese
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 cheese @ 30.00 ± 10 µg%
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
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 cider
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 cinnamon
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 citronella
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 citrus fruits
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 cocoa
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 coffee
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 cornmint plant
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 currant fruit
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 cymbopogon javanensis
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 cypress
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 dolphin fat
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 eucalyptus goniocalyx
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 fish
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 geranium
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 grape
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 ham
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 honey buckwheat honey
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 hop
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 lavender
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 lavender oil spike spain @ 0.106%
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 lemongrass plant
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 lovage root
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 lychee canned lychee
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 marjoram sweet
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 milk
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 mushroom
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 mushroom giant puffball mushroom
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 niaouli
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 osmanthus absolute @ trace%
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 papaya fruit
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 passion fruit
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 peach fruit
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 peanut roasted peanut
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 pear fruit
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 peas
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper seed
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 peppermint american
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 peppermint plant
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 persea pubescens
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 petitgrain lemon petitgrain
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 pilot whale
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 potato chip
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rosemary
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 rue leaf
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 rum
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 safflower flower
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 seal fat
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 sherry
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 soybean seed
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 spearmint
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 strawberry wild strawberry fruit
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 tea
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 thymus mastichina
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 tobacco
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 tomato
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 trassi cooked trassi
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 valerian root
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 valerian root oil CO2 extract china @ 0.21%
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 vinegar
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 whiskey
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 wormwood silky wormwood
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Synonyms:
isobutyl formic acid
 delphinic acid
 dephinic acid
3-methyl butanoic acid
3-methyl butyric acid
beta-methyl butyric acid
nat.3-methyl butyric acid
3-methylbutanoic acid
3-methylbutyric acid
3-methylbutyric acid (natural)
isopentanoic acid
isopropyl acetic acid
isovalerianic acid
nat.isovaleric acid
isovaleric acid (natural)
isovaleric acid deironized natural
isovaleric acid FCC
isovaleric acid natural
 

Articles:

Google Patents:Dimethyl sulfide, beta-damascenone, 3-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutyric acid
PubMed:In vivo antidepressant activity of sesquiterpenes from the roots of Valeriana fauriei Briq.
PubMed:Identification of potent odourants in wine and brewed coffee using gas chromatography-olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
PubMed:Identification of fruity aroma-producing compounds from Chryseobacterium sp. isolated from the Western Ghats, India.
PubMed:Identification and formation of volatile components responsible for the characteristic aroma of mat rush (igusa).
PubMed:Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.
PubMed:Evaluation and application of static headspace-multicapillary column-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry for complex sample analysis.
PubMed:The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.
PubMed:Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.
PubMed:Tomatoes cause under-arm odour.
PubMed:Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.
PubMed:Combining chemoinformatics with bioinformatics: in silico prediction of bacterial flavor-forming pathways by a chemical systems biology approach "reverse pathway engineering".
PubMed:Effects of wheat bran extract containing arabinoxylan oligosaccharides on gastrointestinal parameters in healthy preadolescent children.
PubMed:Gaseous pollutants emitted from a mechanical biological treatment plant for municipal solid waste: odor assessment and photochemical reactivity.
PubMed:Identification of Volatile Markers in Potato Brown Rot and Ring Rot by Combined GC-MS and PTR-MS Techniques: Study on in Vitro and in Vivo Samples.
PubMed:Sex-hormone dependent perception of androstenone suggests its involvement in communicating competition and aggression.
PubMed:Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.
PubMed:Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.
PubMed:Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.
PubMed:Lipid production for biofuels from hydrolyzate of waste activated sludge by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.
PubMed:Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).
PubMed:Volatile biomarkers from human melanoma cells.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile components in makgeolli, a traditional Korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage.
PubMed:Study of the volatile compounds and odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham extracted by SPME.
PubMed:Volatile metabolites of pathogens: a systematic review.
PubMed:Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease: no difference compared with controls, but between genders.
PubMed:Cytotoxic (A549) and antimicrobial effects of Methylobacterium sp. isolate (ERI-135) from Nilgiris forest soil, India.
PubMed:Structures and reactions of compounds involved in pink discolouration of onion.
PubMed:Differentiation of complex vapor mixtures using versatile DNA-carbon nanotube chemical sensor arrays.
PubMed:Two new compounds from the metabolites of a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces cavourensis YY01-17.
PubMed:[Relationship between volatile fatty acids and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in gingival crevicular fluids of patients with aggressive periodontitis].
PubMed:The effect of protease and nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes on manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher pigs.
PubMed:The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation.
PubMed:Isolation and synthesis of falcitidin, a novel myxobacterial-derived acyltetrapeptide with activity against the malaria target falcipain-2.
PubMed:In-tube extraction and GC-MS analysis of volatile components from wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. Carpatica) berry varieties and juice.
PubMed:Characterization of the formation of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoAs for bitter acid biosynthesis in hop glandular trichomes.
PubMed:[Clinical characteristics and analysis of mass spectrometric data in 33 patients with maple syrup urine disease].
PubMed:Genetic analysis of the metabolic pathways responsible for aroma metabolite production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:[An attempt to degradation of anticancer drug and odor in the medical environment by photocatalyst].
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and olfactometry (GC-O).
PubMed:Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Linum pubescens growing wild in Jordan.
PubMed:Removal of off-flavors from sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae.
PubMed:VFA and ammonia from residential food waste as indicators of odor potential.
PubMed:Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Clinical utility of a novel colorimetric chair side test for oral malodour.
PubMed:Longitudinal study of volatile fatty acids in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontitis before and after nonsurgical therapy.
PubMed:Tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in commercial Budu, a Malaysian fish sauce, using GC-MS.
PubMed:Odor compounds from different sources of landfill: characterization and source identification.
PubMed:Novel approach to test the relative recovery of liquid-phase standard in sorbent-tube analysis of gaseous volatile organic compounds.
PubMed:[Acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease in a school boy].
PubMed:A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other African mosquito species.
PubMed:A bio-catalytic approach to aliphatic ketones.
PubMed:Rapid discrimination and characterization of vanilla bean extracts by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.
PubMed:In vivo antidepressant activity of sesquiterpenes from the roots of Valeriana fauriei Briq.
PubMed:Production of volatile compounds by Lactobacillus sakei from branched chain α-keto acids.
PubMed:[Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain activation in early period after olfactory adaptation].
PubMed:Enzymatic characterization and elucidation of the catalytic mechanism of a recombinant bovine glycine N-acyltransferase.
PubMed:Structural, vibrational and hyperpolarizability calculation of (E)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid.
PubMed:Continued exploration of biphenylsulfonamide scaffold as a platform for aggrecanase-1 inhibition.
PubMed:Effect of storage time and conditions on the diene valepotriates content of the extract of Valeriana glechomifolia obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Identification of potent odourants in wine and brewed coffee using gas chromatography-olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
PubMed:A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.
PubMed:Identification of fruity aroma-producing compounds from Chryseobacterium sp. isolated from the Western Ghats, India.
PubMed:Insecticidal effect and chemical composition of the volatile oil from Bergenia ligulata.
PubMed:Comparison of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang) prepared by different methods based on profiling of volatile compounds.
PubMed:Newborn screening for isovaleric acidemia using tandem mass spectrometry: data from 1.6 million newborns.
PubMed:Acid stress-mediated metabolic shift in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LSCE1.
PubMed:Short- and medium-chain fatty acids exhibit antimicrobial activity for oral microorganisms.
PubMed:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent antagonism in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons.
PubMed:Synthesis of dysideaproline E using organocatalysis.
PubMed:Molecular defect of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in the skunk mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.
PubMed:Formation of isobutene from 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate by diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase.
PubMed:Volatile composition screening of Salix spp. nectar honey: benzenecarboxylic acids, norisoprenoids, terpenes, and others.
PubMed:NMR-based metabonomic analysis of the hepatotoxicity induced by combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD in rats.
PubMed:The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota.
PubMed:Pilot-plant cultivation of Streptomyces griseus producing homologues of nonactin by precursor-directed biosynthesis and their identification by LC/MS-ESI.
PubMed:Chronic intermittent form of isovaleric acidemia mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis.
PubMed:Identification and formation of volatile components responsible for the characteristic aroma of mat rush (igusa).
PubMed:A novel duplication at the putative DNA polymerase alpha arrest site and a founder mutation in Chinese in the IVD gene underlie isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Prevotella fusca sp. nov. and Prevotella scopos sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.
PubMed:Physiological functions of iso-type short-chain fatty acid and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids containing oil in obese OLETF rats.
PubMed:Polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinol-type derivatives including novel cage compounds from Hypericum erectum.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo antineoplastic activity of a novel bromopyrrole and its potential mechanism of action.
PubMed:Functional optical hemodynamic imaging of the olfactory cortex in normosmia subjects and dysosmia subjects.
PubMed:HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis of body odor to test the efficacy of foot deodorant formulations.
PubMed:Odorant concentration dependence in electroolfactograms recorded from the human olfactory epithelium.
PubMed:Effects of dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn finishing diets with or without twenty-five percent dried distillers grains on ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestion.
PubMed:The effect of pH on anaerobic fermentation of primary sludge at room temperature.
PubMed:The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.
PubMed:Nitrogen addition influences formation of aroma compounds, volatile acidity and ethanol in nitrogen deficient media fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains.
PubMed:Synthesis and evaluation of novel F-18 labeled fluoroarylvaline derivatives: potential PET imaging agents for tumor detection.
PubMed:Probiotic therapy to men with incipient arteriosclerosis initiates increased bacterial diversity in colon: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Oxazoline-oxazinone oxidative rearrangement. divergent syntheses of (2S,3S)-4,4,4-trifluorovaline and (2S,4S)-5,5,5-Trifluoroleucine.
PubMed:Air sampling and analysis method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to field-scale mortality composting operations.
PubMed:Distribution and development of the highly specialized lipids in the sound reception systems of dolphins.
PubMed:Isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid decrease anesthetic EC50 in tadpoles, modulate glycine receptor function, and interact with the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.
PubMed:Abnormal tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites in isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Detection of odorous compounds in breath.
PubMed:A selective matrix metalloprotease 12 inhibitor for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): discovery of (S)-2-(8-(methoxycarbonylamino)dibenzo[b,d]furan-3-sulfonamido)-3-methylbutanoic acid (MMP408).
PubMed:Creatine administration prevents Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition induced by intracerebroventricular administration of isovaleric acid in cerebral cortex of young rats.
PubMed:Deodorization of swine manure slurry using horseradish peroxidase and peroxides.
PubMed:Effects of isovalerate on ruminal fermentation, urinary excretion of purine derivatives and digestibility in steers.
PubMed:Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.
PubMed:Top note compounds of Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean.
PubMed:Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of antibacterial substances produced by a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain.
PubMed:Salivary free radical-scavenging activity is affected by physical and mental activities.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring fruity fermented flavor in peanuts.
PubMed:Prevotella histicola sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.
PubMed:Induction of oxidative stress by the metabolites accumulating in isovaleric acidemia in brain cortex of young rats.
PubMed:Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach.
PubMed:Differences in odor-active compounds of trincadeira wines obtained from five different clones.
PubMed:Acute decompensation of isovaleric acidemia induced by Graves' disease.
PubMed:Different outcome in isovaleric acidemia might be related to unsatisfactory diet compliance.
PubMed:Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments.
PubMed:Environmental effects exceed genetic effects on perceived intensity and pleasantness of several odors: a three-population twin study.
PubMed:Generation of volatile fatty acids by axillary bacteria.
PubMed:Acquired multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy.
PubMed:Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory effects and composition of the volatile oil from the dried roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon.
PubMed:Biochemical characterization of AtuD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the first member of a new subgroup of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases with specificity for citronellyl-CoA.
PubMed:Investigation of a wide spectrum of inherited metabolic disorders by 13C NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Aroma components of American country ham.
PubMed:Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.
PubMed:Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.
PubMed:Effects of phenolic monomers on the enzymes activities and volatile fatty acids production of Neocallimastix frontalis B9.
PubMed:Jonquetella anthropi gen. nov., sp. nov., the first member of the candidate phylum 'Synergistetes' isolated from man.
PubMed:Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.
PubMed:Genetic elucidation of human hyperosmia to isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Potential misdiagnosis of 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency associated with absent or trace urinary 3-methylcrotonylglycine.
PubMed:Recurrent attacks of status epilepticus as predominant symptom in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.
PubMed:Stable-isotope dilution measurement of isovalerylglycine by tandem mass spectrometry in newborn screening for isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Effect of dietary protein content on ileal amino acid digestibility, growth performance, and formation of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticles formed by solvent-in-water emulsion-diffusion technique: development and influence on insulin stability.
PubMed:Synthesis of cyclic peptides and peptide libraries on a new disulfide linker.
PubMed:A framework for exploring functional variability in olfactory receptor genes.
PubMed:Effects of increasing the intake of dietary β-glucans by exchanging wheat for barley on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentration and manure ammonia emissions in finishing pigs.
PubMed:Different spectrum of mutations of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) gene in Korean patients with isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Changes in key odorants of raw coffee beans during storage under defined conditions.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with beta-glucan enriched oat bran increases faecal concentration of carboxylic acids in healthy subjects.
PubMed:A morphological and 13C NMR study of the extramandibular fat bodies of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).
PubMed:Effects of olfactory stimulation with isovaleric acid on brain activation in informed and naïve conditions: a functional MRI study.
PubMed:Isovaleric acid reduces Na+, K+-ATPase activity in synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex of young rats.
PubMed:A sensitive liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of isovaleric and valeric acids in urine as fluorescent derivatives.
PubMed:Functional optical hemodynamic imaging of the olfactory cortex.
PubMed:Amino-acid depletion induced by abnormal amino-acid conjugation and protein restriction in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Changes in measures of biotin status do not reflect milk yield responses when dairy cows are fed supplemental biotin.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of a Quinone-containing Cockroach Sex Pheromone in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
PubMed:Evaluation of zeolite for control of odorants emissions from simulated poultry manure storage.
PubMed:Odorant receptor map in the mouse olfactory bulb: in vivo sensitivity and specificity of receptor-defined glomeruli.
PubMed:Synthesis and antigenic analysis of the BclA glycoprotein oligosaccharide from the Bacillus anthracis exosporium.
PubMed:Olfactory mucosa-expressed organic anion transporter, Oat6, manifests high affinity interactions with odorant organic anions.
PubMed:Characterization of livestock odors using steel plates, solid-phase microextraction, and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry.
PubMed:Experimental design to optimise the analysis of organic volatile compounds in cow slurry by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Genetic mutation profile of isovaleric acidemia patients in Taiwan.
PubMed:Ancient genomic architecture for mammalian olfactory receptor clusters.
PubMed:Novel iso-branched ether lipids as specific markers of developmental sporulation in the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus.
PubMed:3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase is involved in biosynthesis of isovaleryl-CoA in the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus during fruiting body formation.
PubMed:Olfactory responses in a gustatory organ of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae.
PubMed:Uptake and transformation of pesticide metabolites by duckweed (Lemna gibba).
PubMed:Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.
PubMed:Identification of genes and proteins necessary for catabolism of acyclic terpenes and leucine/isovalerate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:'Classical' organic acidurias, propionic aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria and isovaleric aciduria: long-term outcome and effects of expanded newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Breast feeding in organic acidaemias.
PubMed:Clostridium bartlettii sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.
PubMed:Foot odor due to microbial metabolism and its control.
PubMed:Manure composition of swine as affected by dietary protein and cellulose concentrations.
PubMed:Photodegradation of toluene over TiO(2-x)N(x) under visible light irradiation.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia: new aspects of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.
PubMed:The atu and liu clusters are involved in the catabolic pathways for acyclic monoterpenes and leucine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Identification of two novel pigment precursors and a reddish-purple pigment involved in the blue-green discoloration of onion and garlic.
PubMed:Monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum in grass silages with the aid of 16S rDNA-based quantitative real-time PCR assays.
PubMed:First-pass hydrolysis of a propranolol ester derivative in rat small intestine.
PubMed:Interaction of carboxylic acids with chitosan: effect of pK and hydrocarbon chain length.
PubMed:Methylcrotonyl-CoA and geranyl-CoA carboxylases are involved in leucine/isovalerate utilization (Liu) and acyclic terpene utilization (Atu), and are encoded by liuB/liuD and atuC/atuF, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Biosynthesis and identification of volatiles released by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.
PubMed:Identification based on quantitative measurements and aroma recombination of the character impact odorants in a Bavarian Pilsner-type beer.
PubMed:Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.
PubMed:Volatile compounds from anal glands of the wolverine, Gulo gulo.
PubMed:Identification of 19 new metabolites induced by abnormal amino acid conjugation in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of iso-fatty acids in myxobacteria.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:Cognitive modulation of olfactory processing.
PubMed:The influence of microbial metabolites on human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro.
PubMed:[Application of tandem mass spectrometry in diagnosis of organic acidemias].
PubMed:Characteristic volatiles from young and aged fruiting bodies of wild Polyporus sulfureus (Bull.:Fr.) Fr.
PubMed:Breastfeeding experience in inborn errors of metabolism other than phenylketonuria.
PubMed:Simultaneous retention index analysis of urinary amino acids and carboxylic acids for graphic recognition of abnormal state.
PubMed:Morphological and biochemical perturbations in rat erythrocytes following in vitro exposure to Fenvalerate and its metabolite.
PubMed:Effect of design parameters in horizontal flow constructed wetland on the behaviour of volatile fatty acids and volatile alkylsulfides.
PubMed:Aroma impact components in commercial plain sufu.
PubMed:Statistical total correlation spectroscopy: an exploratory approach for latent biomarker identification from metabolic 1H NMR data sets.
PubMed:Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus.
PubMed:Stable isotope dilution analysis of wine fermentation products by HS-SPME-GC-MS.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia diagnosed promptly by tandem mass spectrometry: report of one case.
PubMed:Thermosipho atlanticus sp. nov., a novel member of the Thermotogales isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent.
PubMed:Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.
PubMed:Could valerian have been the first anticonvulsant?
PubMed:A common mutation is associated with a mild, potentially asymptomatic phenotype in patients with isovaleric acidemia diagnosed by newborn screening.
PubMed:Effect of ascorbate, nitrate and nitrite on the amount of flavour compounds produced from leucine by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus.
PubMed:Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.
PubMed:Application of polymethacrylate resin as stationary phase in liquid chromatography with UV detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines.
PubMed:Synthesis of flavor and fragrance esters using Candida antarctica lipase.
PubMed:Use of headspace solid-phase microextraction to characterize odour compounds in subsurface flow constructed wetland for wastewater treatment.
PubMed:Effect of the fungal protease EPg222 on the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausage "salchichón" ripened with commercial starter cultures.
PubMed:13C NMR chemical shifts of the triclinic and monoclinic crystal forms of valinomycin.
PubMed:Immobilization of lipases on different carriers and their use in synthesis of pentyl isovalerates.
PubMed:Catabolism of leucine to branched-chain fatty acids in Staphylococcus xylosus.
PubMed:Exceptional chiral recognition of racemic carboxylic acids by calix[4]arenes bearing optically pure alpha,beta-amino alcohol groups.
PubMed:Study on the organoleptic intensity scale for measuring oral malodor.
PubMed:Isovaleric acid accumulation in odontocete melon during development.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings.
PubMed:Kinetics of thermophilic, anaerobic oxidation of straight and branched chain butyrate and valerate.
PubMed:Acute metabolic decompensation in an adult patient with isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Attractiveness of fruit and flower odorants detected by olfactory receptor neurons in the fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata.
PubMed:Altering soluble and potentially rumen degradable protein for prepubertal Holstein heifers.
PubMed:[Analysis of the constituents of essential oils from Sambucus chinensis].
PubMed:Synthesis of ethyl isovalerate using Rhizomucor miehei lipase: optimization.
PubMed:High concentrations of isovaleric acid in the fats of odontocetes: variation and patterns of accumulation in blubber vs. stability in the melon.
PubMed:Second case of a successful pregnancy in maternal isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Investigation of the change in the flavor of a coffee drink during heat processing.
PubMed:Glucose but Not Polypeptone Reduces the Effect of Probiotic Preparations to Stimulate Carbohydrate Breakdown and Reduce Net Ammonia Production by Pig Cecal Bacteria In Vitro.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics and interactions of a novel antagonist of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with ritonavir in rats and monkeys: role of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein.
PubMed:Volatile components and aroma active compounds in aqueous essence and fresh pink guava fruit puree (Psidium guajava L.) by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O.
PubMed:Specific anosmia to isovaleric acid in laboratory C57BL/6 mice: recessive inheritance.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of the lipophilic side chain in the cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic IC101.
PubMed:Flavor composition of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and marmeleiro (Croton species) honeys.
PubMed:Autonomic nervous system responses to odours: the role of pleasantness and arousal.
PubMed:Quantitation of odor-active compounds in rye flour and rye sourdough using stable isotope dilution assays.
PubMed:Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from newly hybrid citrus, dekopon (Shiranuhi mandarin Suppl. J.).
PubMed:[Study on difference in olfactory response in dysosmia patients].
PubMed:The cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum C10 encodes a putative multidrug efflux pump protein that significantly increases cephalosporin C production.
PubMed:Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme.
PubMed:Comparison of lipids in selected tissues of the Florida manatee (Order Sirenia) and bottlenose dolphin (Order Cetacea; Suborder Odontoceti).
PubMed:Response of forage fiber degradation by ruminal microorganisms to branched-chain volatile fatty acids, amino acids, and dipeptides.
PubMed:A novel biosynthetic pathway providing precursors for fatty acid biosynthesis and secondary metabolite formation in myxobacteria.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a Galactomyces reessii hydratase that converts 3-methylcrotonic acid to 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid.
PubMed:Branched-chain organic acidurias.
PubMed:Optimization of headspace solid-phase Microextraction (SPME) for the odor analysis of surface-ripened cheese.
PubMed:Effect of glucose, maltose, soluble starch, and CO2 on the growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.
PubMed:Sensory and chemical changes in tomato sauces during storage.
PubMed:The role of poly-hydroxy-alkanoate form in determining the response of enhanced biological phosphorus removal biomass to volatile fatty acids.
PubMed:Determination of semivolatile compounds in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) by supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Total synthesis of nor-1,6-germacradien-5-ols.
PubMed:Characterization of plasma acylcarnitines in patients under valproate monotherapy using ESI-MS/MS.
PubMed:Growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility and fecal odorous compounds in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing hydrolyzed feather meal.
PubMed:Conversion of L-leucine to isovaleric acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23.
PubMed:The olfactory receptor gene superfamily of the mouse.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents of essential oil from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana alernifolia Bunge].
PubMed:Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to human-specific sweat components.
PubMed:Determination of key aroma compounds in the crumb of a three-stage sourdough rye bread by stable isotope dilution assays and sensory studies.
PubMed:Thermoanaerobacter yonseiensis sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, xylose-utilizing bacterium that grows at up to 85 degrees C.
PubMed:Ethanol hypersensitivity and olfactory discrimination defect in mice lacking a homolog of Drosophila neuralized.
PubMed:Thapsia garganica L: a poisonous plant of North Africa.
PubMed:[Acidemia, isovaleric].
PubMed:A biochemical hypothesis explaining the response of enhanced biological phosphorus removal biomass to organic substrates.
PubMed:C1-C5 organic acid emissions from an SI engine: influence of fuel and air/fuel equivalence ratio.
PubMed:Porphyromonas gulae sp. nov., an anaerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus from the gingival sulcus of various animal hosts.
PubMed:meso-N,N'-oxalyldivaline.
PubMed:Detection of inherited metabolic disorders via tandem mass spectrometry in Thai infants.
PubMed:Synthesis of N4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-asparagine analogues. n-Butyramide, 3-chloropropionamide, 3-aminopropionamide, and isovaleramide analogues.
PubMed:Evaluation of individual components of plum odor as potential attractants for adult plum curculios.
PubMed:Odorant-induced hyperpolarization and suppression of cAMP-activated current in newt olfactory receptor neurons.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatography analysis of D-penicillamine by derivatization with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM).
PubMed:Odorant molecular length: one aspect of the olfactory code.
PubMed:Evaluation of diet as a cause of gastric ulcers in horses.
PubMed:Evaluation of urinary acylglycines by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in mitochondrial energy metabolism defects and organic acidurias.
PubMed:Exon skipping in IVD RNA processing in isovaleric acidemia caused by point mutations in the coding region of the IVD gene.
PubMed:Mitochondrial import and processing of wild type and type III mutant isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.
PubMed:Factors influencing leucine catabolism by a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus.
PubMed:Probiotic preparations dose-dependently increase net production rates of organic acids and decrease that of ammonia by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia with promyelocytic myeloproliferative syndrome.
PubMed:Deconvolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of urinary organic acids--potential for pattern recognition and automated identification of metabolic disorders.
PubMed:Identification of the key odorants in barley malt (caramalt) using GC/MS techniques and odour dilution analyses.
PubMed:Influence of chain ordering on the selectivity of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes for permeant size and shape.
PubMed:Functional MR imaging of regional brain responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors.
PubMed:Methylation of FrzCD defines a discrete step in the developmental program of Myxococcus xanthus.
PubMed:Diagnosis of isovaleric acidaemia by tandem mass spectrometry: false positive result due to pivaloylcarnitine in a newborn screening programme.
PubMed:Characterization of hemoglobin adducts from a 4, 4'-methylenedianiline metabolite evidently produced by peroxidative oxidation in vivo.
PubMed:Volatile fatty acid, metabolic by-product of periodontopathic bacteria, induces apoptosis in WEHI 231 and RAJI B lymphoma cells and splenic B cells.
PubMed:[Isovaleric acidemia].
PubMed:Improvement in exercise tolerance in isovaleric acidaemia with L-carnitine therapy.
PubMed:Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate the expression of cell surface MHC class-I molecules in B16/BL6 cells.
PubMed:Enzyme analyses demonstrate that beta-methylbutyric acid is converted to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid via the leucine catabolic pathway by galactomyces reessii
PubMed:Malignant ventricular dysrhythmias in a patient with isovaleric acidemia receiving general and local anesthesia for suction lipectomy.
PubMed:[Carnitine deficiency in inborn errors of metabolism].
PubMed:Stridor as the major presenting symptom in riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.
PubMed:[Application of gas chromatography to identification of Clostridium difficile].
PubMed:Pemenone and androstenone do not cross-adapt reciprocally.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia: response to a leucine load after three weeks of supplementation with glycine, L-carnitine, and combined glycine-carnitine therapy.
PubMed:Lessons from the late diagnosis of isovaleric acidemia in a five-year-old boy.
PubMed:Effect of carnitine administration on glycine metabolism in patients with isovaleric acidemia: significance of acetylcarnitine determination to estimate the proper carnitine dose.
PubMed:Effect of deaerated water on serum biochemical values and on the cecum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rat.
PubMed:Odor discrimination of "IP3-" and "cAMP-increasing" odorants in the turtle olfactory bulb.
PubMed:Stratification and age-related differences in blubber fatty acids of the male harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia appearing as diabetic ketoacidosis.
PubMed:[Effects of the Prevotella intermedia culture filtrate and short-chain fatty acids on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions].
PubMed:Simple isotope dilution assay for propionic acid and isovaleric acid.
PubMed:The genetic basis for specific anosmia to isovaleric acid in the mouse.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric analysis of glycine conjugates and urinary isovalerylglycine in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Enhanced sensitivity to androstenone following regular exposure to pemenone.
PubMed:Prenatal diagnosis of isovaleric acidaemia by enzyme and metabolite assay in the first and second trimesters.
PubMed:Effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus FBB61, pediocin A producer strain, in caecal fermentations.
PubMed:Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels - Part III. Sensory evaluation.
PubMed:Calcium modulates the rapid kinetics of the odorant-induced cyclic AMP signal in rat olfactory cilia.
PubMed:Inhibitory K+ current activated by odorants in toad olfactory neurons.
PubMed:Involvement of erythrocyte calpain in glycine- and carnitine-treated isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Perceptual characteristics of binary, trinary, and quaternary odor mixtures consisting of unpleasant constituents.
PubMed:Individual differences in the perceived intensity and quality of specific odors following self- and cross-adaptation.
PubMed:Enhancement of the turtle olfactory responses to fatty acids by treatment of olfactory epithelium with phosphatidylserine.
PubMed:Evaluation of fermentability of acid-treated maize husk by rat caecal bacteria in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:An approach to sequence-specific antibody proteases. The use of haptens mimicking both a transition state and a distorted ground state.
PubMed:Intravenous L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency and isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Severe CNS bleeding followed by a good clinical outcome in the acute neonatal form of isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Influence of galactooligosaccharides on the human fecal microflora.
PubMed:Renal handling of carnitine in secondary carnitine deficiency disorders.
PubMed:Effects of transgalactosylated disaccharides on the human intestinal microflora and their metabolism.
PubMed:Induction of olfactory receptor sensitivity in mice.
PubMed:Quantification of carnitine and specific acylcarnitines by high-performance liquid chromatography: application to normal human urine and urine from patients with methylmalonic aciduria, isovaleric acidemia or medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.
PubMed:Effect of increasing ruminal butyrate on milk yield and blood constituents in dairy cows fed a grass silage-based diet.
PubMed:Activity of the AIB factor observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.
PubMed:Cleavage and deprotection of peptides on MBHA-resin with hydrogen bromide.
PubMed:Survey of conformational role of ester bonds in a cyclic depsipeptide. Study on cyclo(-L-Ala-L-Hmb-)2 by energy calculation and NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:The variant human isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene responsible for type II isovaleric acidemia determines an RNA splicing error, leading to the deletion of the entire second coding exon and the production of a truncated precursor protein that interacts poorly with mitochondrial import receptors.
PubMed:Alloisoleucine in isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Identification of the molecular defects responsible for the various genotypes of isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:[Phenotypic expression variation of isovaleric acidemia in Argentinian patients. A long term follow-up].
PubMed:Prenatal diagnosis of isovaleric acidemia by fast atom bombardment and tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Analysis of characteristic odors from human male axillae.
PubMed:Molecular characterization of four different classes of mutations in the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene responsible for isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:The laboratory identification of gram-positive anaerobic cocci.
PubMed:Odorant-sensitive adenylate cyclase: rapid, potent activation and desensitization in primary olfactory neuronal cultures.
PubMed:Long-term L-carnitine treatment in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Acute neonatal isovaleric acidaemia presented without acidosis or ketonuria.
PubMed:Digesta kinetics, ruminal fermentation characteristics and serum metabolites of pregnant and lactating ewes fed chopped alfalfa hay.
PubMed:Tetrachloroethene transformation to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene by sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures.
PubMed:Comparison of the sensitivity of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice to airborne molecules of isovaleric acid and amyl acetate.
PubMed:Elucidation of chemical compounds responsible for foot malodour.
PubMed:[Acute poisoning with ethylene glycol esters].
PubMed:[Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors and their effect on major enzymatic systems involved in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols].
PubMed:Nucleotide sequence of messenger RNA encoding human isovaleryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and its expression in isovaleric acidemia fibroblasts.
PubMed:Attraction ofOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) andOryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) to some common volatiles of food.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia: personal history, clinical survey and study of the molecular basis.
PubMed:[The direct detection of volatile fatty acids by gas chromatography in microbiological diagnosis].
PubMed:Fate of leucine in the biosynthesis of bakuchiol, a meroterpene from Psoralea corylifolia.
PubMed:[Biotinidase deficiency: a congenital metabolic disease which can be successfully treatment with vitamin H].
PubMed:[Isovaleric acidemia].
PubMed:Effect of the combination of monensin and isoacids on rumen fermentation in vitro.
PubMed:A study of chemoreception based on membrane fluidity and circular dichroism of a membrane assembly model--role of protein penetrating into the lipid bilayer.
PubMed:Rapid presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections in animals by gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Volatile fatty acid uptake and propionate metabolism in ruminant hepatocytes.
PubMed:A comparative study of 2-deoxyglucose patterns of glomerular activation in the olfactory bulbs of C57 BL/6J and AKR/J mice.
PubMed:Birthweights in the Faroe Islands: possible role of isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Physiological studies on the growth and utilization of sugars by Listeria species.
PubMed:Preparation of fecal samples for assay of volatile fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:[The effect of intravenous administration of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate to lambs aged 8-45 days on the blood plasma content of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and total alpha-amino-N].
PubMed:[Age-related changes in the olfactory sensitivity of laboratory mice].
PubMed:[Experimental pharmacologic and morphologic study of new platinum complexes].
PubMed:[The constituents of C21-steroids from Dregea sinensis var. corrugata].
PubMed:Novel linear antagonists of the antidiuretic (V2) and vasopressor (V1) responses to vasopressin.
PubMed:Application of continuous-flow liquid chromatography/fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry to the analysis of diagnostic acylcarnitines in human urine.
PubMed:Glutaric acidemia type II. Comparison of pathologic features in two infants.
PubMed:Influence of metabolic and physical factors on production of diacetoxyscirpenol by Fusarium sambucinum Fuckel.
PubMed:Characterization of skin-surface lipids from the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
PubMed:Acute and chronic-intermittent isovaleric acidemia: diagnosis and glycine therapy.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidemia: medical and neurodevelopmental effects of long-term therapy.
PubMed:The treatment of isovaleric acidemia with glycine supplement.
PubMed:[Isovaleric acidemia].
PubMed:Nutritional requirements of Methanomicrobium mobile.
PubMed:Preparation of a Cell-Free, Isobutene-Forming System from Rhodotorula minuta.
PubMed:Molecular basis of isovaleric acidemia and the study of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.
PubMed:[Spatial distribution of electrical responses in the olfactory epithelium of mice].
PubMed:Isovaleric acidaemia in a premature infant: diagnosis and treatment.
PubMed:A Scandinavian case of isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Feeding related lateral hypothalamic neuron responses to odors depend on food deprivation in rats.
PubMed:Endogenous catabolism as source of toxic metabolites in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Specificity of spatial patterns of glomerular activation in the mouse olfactory bulb: computer-assisted image analysis of 2-deoxyglucose autoradiograms.
PubMed:Renin inhibitors. Design of angiotensinogen transition-state analogues containing novel. (2R,3R,4R,5S)-5-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-isopropyl-7-methyloctanoic acid.
PubMed:Protein origin of the volatile fatty acids isobutyrate and isovalerate in human stool.
PubMed:[Specific anosmia to isovaleric acid in the peripheral portion of the olfactory analyzer of the laboratory mouse].
PubMed:Molecular basis of isovaleric acidemia and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.
PubMed:The odorant-sensitive adenylate cyclase of olfactory receptor cells. Differential stimulation by distinct classes of odorants.
PubMed:Characterization of Flavobacterium species by analysis of volatile fatty acid production.
PubMed:Fanconi syndrome in a patient with a variant of isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Differential metabolism of fenvalerate and granuloma formation. II. Toxicological significance of a lipophilic conjugate from fenvalerate.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile free fatty acids in human urine by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Stable isotope dilution analysis of isovalerylglycine in amniotic fluid and urine and its application for the prenatal diagnosis of isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:[The effect of intravenous administration of butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and capronate on the blood plasma levels in sheep of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and total alpha-amino-nitrogen].
PubMed:[The effect of intravenous administration of butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and capronate to calves, young cattle and cattle on the blood plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and total alpha-amino-nitrogen].
PubMed:The response to L-carnitine and glycine therapy in isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Early identification of isovaleric aciduria using photodiode array detection for liquid chromatographic profiling of urinary carboxylic acids.
PubMed:Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in isovaleric acidemia fibroblasts using an improved tritium release assay.
PubMed:Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed diets containing ammonium salts of the branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid.
PubMed:Supplementation of dairy cow diets with ammonium salts of volatile fatty acids.
PubMed:Influence of methionine hydroxy analog and DL-methionine on rumen protozoa and volatile fatty acids.
PubMed:Use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detection and study of organic acidurias.
PubMed:Molecular heterogeneity of variant isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase from cultured isovaleric acidemia fibroblasts.
PubMed:Catalytic defect of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Lack of both cofactor responsiveness and biochemical heterogeneity in eight patients.
PubMed:[Neonatal form of isovaleric acidemia. Apropos of a new case].
PubMed:Rumen fermentation characteristics, nitrogen balance and growth in lambs fed methane digester effluent.
PubMed:Identification of metabolites diagnostic for organic acidurias by simultaneous dual-column capillary gas chromatography.
PubMed:Photosynthesis involvement in the mechanism of action of diphenyl ether herbicides.
PubMed:Short-chain fatty acids in the small-bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome.
PubMed:Alanine decreases the protein requirements of infants with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.
PubMed:Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite: II. Five carbon acyclic primary beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino alkanoic acids.
PubMed:Influences of cold exposure on digestion of organic matter, rates of passage of digesta in the gastrointestinal tract, and feeding and rumination behaviour in sheep given four forage diets in the chopped, or ground and pelleted form.
PubMed:L-carnitine and glycine therapy in isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:[Effect of the intravenous infusion of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate on the blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and total alpha-amino-N in sheep under conditions of adequate feeding and after an 8-day fast].
PubMed:L-carnitine therapy in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of l-carnitine and acylcarnitines by patients with disorders of organic acid metabolism: evidence for secondary insufficiency of l-carnitine.
PubMed:Alternative pathways for biosynthesis of leucine and other amino acids in Bacteroides ruminicola and Bacteroides fragilis.
PubMed:Genetic complementation analysis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency in cultured fibroblasts.
PubMed:A simple method of determining 4-hydroxyisovaleric acid and its level in a patient with isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Volatile compounds from ponerine ants in the genusMesoponera.
PubMed:[Comparative studies of the digestibility of wheat straw pellets with different proportions of concentrated feed in sheep and bulls. 2. Rumen fermentation studies].
PubMed:Receptor cell responses to odorants: similarities and differences among odorants.
PubMed:Detection of Clostridium difficile in faeces by direct gas liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Neonatal lethargy due to isovaleric acidemia and hyperammonemia.
PubMed:Hudson memorial lecture. Neonatal management of organic acidurias. Clinical update.
PubMed:Long term outcome of organic acidurias: survey of 105 French cases (1967-1983).
PubMed:Hyperammonaemia in a preterm infant with isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed:Growth and end product formation of two psychrotrophic Lactobacillus spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509T at different pH values and temperatures.
PubMed:Role of N-acetylglutamate and acetyl-CoA in the inhibition of ureagenesis by isovaleric acid in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Complementation studies of isovaleric acidemia and glutaric aciduria type II using cultured skin fibroblasts.
PubMed:Isovalerylglucuronide, a new urinary metabolite in isovaleric acidemia. Identification problems due to rearrangement reactions.
PubMed:3-Methylglutaconic aciduria in two infants.
PubMed:N-Isovalerylalanine and N-isovalerylsarcosine: two new minor metabolites in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Organic acids or urine in multiple sclerosis.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of two enzymes involved in isovaleric acid synthesis in Clostridium bifermentans.
PubMed:Profiles of urinary volatiles from metabolic disorders characterized by unusual odors.
PubMed:Treatment of epileptic patients with valproic acid does not modify plasma and urine short-chain-fatty acids.
PubMed:[Isovaleric aciduria].
PubMed:Response characteristics of lateral hypothalamic neurons to odors in unanesthetized rabbits.
PubMed:Effects of ammonia and organic acids on the intradental sensory nerve activity.
PubMed:[Volatile fatty acids in the rumen of sheep fed a synthetic diet].
PubMed:Organic aciduria associated with isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Subcellular location of enzymes involved in leucine dissimilation in Clostridium bifermentans.
PubMed:Choleretic effect of structural analogs of valproic acid in the rat.
PubMed:Mechanism of depsipeptide formation catalyzed by enniatin synthetase.
PubMed:Inherited metabolic diseases: advances in delineation, diagnosis, and treatment.
PubMed:Organic acids and anaerobic microorganisms in the contents of the cholesteatoma sac.
PubMed:[Isovaleric acidemia: identical biochemical picture in 3 patients with variable clinical manifestations].
PubMed:C6-C10-dicarboxylic aciduria: investigations of a patient with riboflavin responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation defects.
PubMed:The tracing of the pathway of mevalonate's metabolism to other than sterols.
PubMed:Microflora and volatile fatty acids present in inguinal pouches of the wild rabbit,Oryctolagus cuniculus, in Australia.
PubMed:Direct quantitative determination of acidic end products in clinical specimens for presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic infections.
PubMed:Changing plasma and urinary organic acid levels in a patient with isovaleric acidemia during an attack.
PubMed:Gas-liquid chromatography of positive blood cultures for rapid presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic bacteremia.
PubMed:Nonenzymic protein modification: a general phenomenon?
PubMed:Effect of a valine load test on plasma alpha-keto acids in Friedreich ataxia.
PubMed:A mechanism of toxicity of isovaleric acid in rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed:Leucine dissimilation to isovaleric and isocaproic acids by cell suspensions of amino acid fermenting anaerobes: the Stickland reaction revisited.
PubMed:Volatile components of the occipital gland secretion of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).
PubMed:Evidence of a thiamine deficiency in sheep fed maize silage.
PubMed:Hyperammonemia secondary to hereditary organic acidurias: a study of 29 cases.
PubMed:Correlation between blood ammonia concentration and organic acid accumulation in isovaleric and propionic acidemia.
PubMed:Neonatal isovaleric acidemia associated with hyperammonemia.
PubMed:Isovaleric acidaemia presenting with dwarfism, cataract and congenital abnormalities.
PubMed:Larval osmeterial secretions of the swallowtails (Papilio).
PubMed:The microbiology of the human axilla and its relationship to axillary odor.
PubMed:Isovalericacidemia appearing as diabetic ketoacidosis.
PubMed:Excretion of N-isovalerylglutamic acid in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:A novel approach for heavy metal poisoning treatment, a model. Mercury poisoning by means of chelating microspheres: hemoperfusion and oral administration.
PubMed:The antagonism of the toxicity of hypoglycin by glycine.
PubMed:Adenosine 5'-triphosphate- yielding pathways of branched-chain amino acid fermentation by a marine spirochete.
PubMed:In vitro conversion of leucine to valine: configurational assignment of [5-13C]leucines.
PubMed:Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.
PubMed:Effect of monensin on the fermentation of basal rations in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec).
PubMed:3-Hydroxyisoheptanoic acid: a new metabolite in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Cerebellar hemorrhage complicating isovaleric acidemia: a case report.
PubMed:New metabolites in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:[Oscillographic polarography of the alkaloid dolicotheline and several related imidazole derivatives].
PubMed:Neonatal glutaric aciduria type II: an X-linked recessive inherited disorder.
PubMed:[Biochemistry of the evolutive cycle of Triatoma infestans (vinchuca). V. Volatile fatty acids emission].
PubMed:Pharmacological studies on iridoid compounds. II. Relationship between structures and choleretic actions of iridoid compound.
PubMed:Studies of the glycine metabolism in a patient with D-glyceric acidemia and hyperglycinemia.
PubMed:[Comparative study of the biochemical characteristics of hemolytic treponemes isolated from pigs].
PubMed:The pancytopenia of isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Lindane degradation by cell-free extracts of Clostridium rectum.
PubMed:Characterization of Clostridium difficile and its differentiation from Clostridium sporogenes by automatic head-space gas chromatography.
PubMed:Excretion pattern of branched-chain amino acid metabolites during the course of acute infections in a patient with methylmalonic acidaemia.
PubMed:Biochemical studies in a patient with defects in the metabolism of acyl-CoA and sarcosine: another possible case of glutaric aciduria type II.
PubMed:Studies on the role of beta-cell metabolism in the insulinotropic effect of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid.
PubMed:Inhibition of the glycine cleavage system by branched-chain amino acid metabolites.
PubMed:Isotachophoretic analysis of isovalerylglycine in urine of a patient with isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Wound healing properties of naphthaquinone pigments from Alkanna tinctoria.
PubMed:Glycine therapy in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:Production of branched-chain volatile fatty acids by certain anaerobic bacteria.
PubMed:New bromisoval (bromural) metabolites in human urine: alpha-(cystein-S-yl)isovalerylurea, alpha-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)isovalerylurea and alpha-(cysteamin-S-yl)isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Organic aciduria in hypoxic premature newborns simulating an inborn error of metabolism.
PubMed:Presumptive diagnosis of anaerobic bacteremia by gas-liquid chromatography of blood cultures.
PubMed:Skin surface lipids of the dog.
PubMed:Stereoselectivity and stereospecificity of the alpha,beta-dihydroxyacid dehydratase from Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:[Serum isovaleric acid in a young infant].
PubMed:Effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism in the rat on tissue amino acid and keto acid concentrations.
PubMed:Heterogeneity in maple syrup urine disease: aspects of cofactor requirement and complementation in cultured fibroblasts.
PubMed:Specific anosmia in the laboratory mouse.
PubMed:Benzoyl cyanide in the defensive secretion of polydesmoid millipeds.
PubMed:Tetrahydrofolate and other growth requirements of certain strains of Ruminococcus flavefaciens.
PubMed:[Pharmacokinetic studies following administration of 14 C-D-penicillamine to rats].
PubMed:Alterations in volatile free fatty acids of blood after hepatectomy.
PubMed:Multiple acyl-coenzyme A carboxylases in Pseudomonas citronellolis.
PubMed:[Variations in the pattern of ruminal volatile free fatty acids, acetoacetate and glucose in the blood plasma of lactating cows after a period of fasting and renewed feeding].
PubMed:Metabolism of [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia. Characterization of metabolic defects.
PubMed:Gluconeogenesis in isolated intact lamb liver cells. Effects of glucagon and butyrate.
PubMed:The encephalopathic action of five-carbon-atom fatty acids in the rabbit.
PubMed:Positional analysis of isovaleroyl triglycerides using proton magnetic resonance with Eu(fod)3 and Pr(fod)3 shift reagents: II. Cetacean triglycerides.
PubMed:Variations in lipid composition and sound velocity in melon from the North Atlantic Pilot whale, globicephala melaena melaena.
PubMed:Therapeutic effects of glycine in isovaleric acidemia.
PubMed:The effect of selenium or vitamin E supplementation on volatile fatty acid content of rumen liquor in sheep fed a purified diet.
PubMed:Brain lipids from the porpoise (Delphinus delphis). Phosphoglycerides rich in isovaleric acid and long-chain iso-acids.
PubMed:Maple syrup urine disease: analysis of branched chain ketoacid decarboxylation in cultured fibroblasts.
PubMed:A short-chain acyl-CoA: 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol acyltrasnferase from a microsomal fraction of the rabbit Harderian gland.
PubMed:Positional analysis of isovaleroyl triglycerides using proton magnetic resonance with Eu (fod) 3 and Pr (fod) 3 shift reagents: I. Model compounds.
PubMed:Isovaleric acid as a precursor of odd numbered iso fatty acids in Tetrahymena.
PubMed:Mammalian pheromone: identification of active component in the subauricular scent of the male pronghorn.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Lipid biosynthesis and increase in isovaleric acid of plasma.
PubMed:Triacylglycerols characteristic of porpoise acoustic tissues: molecular structures of diisovaleroylglycerides.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of an alkyldiacylglycerol containing isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Isovaleric and -methylbutyric acidemias induced by hypoglycin A: mechanism of Jamaican vomiting sickness.
PubMed:Hypoglycin A: a specific inhibitor of isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Ester and ether-linked lipids in the mandibular canal of a porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Occurrence of isovaleric acid in glycerolipids.
PubMed:Volatile fatty acid requirements of cellulolytic rumen bacteria.
PubMed:Conversion of alpha-keto-isovaleric acid oxime and isobutyraldoxime to linamarin in flax seedlings.
PubMed:Metabolic fates of isovaleric acid and isovalthine in rats.
PubMed:Characterization of several bovine rumen bacteria isolated with a xylan medium.
PubMed:On the carbon origin of isovaleric acid residue of urinary isovalthine.
PubMed:[On the origin of isovaleric acid in magnamycin].
PubMed:Experimental isovalthinuria. I. Experiment with isovaleric acid-1-C14.
PubMed:Experimental isovalthinuria. I. Induction by isovaleric acid.
PubMed:The hypoglycaemic effect of leucine and isovaleric acid.
PubMed:Studies on the utilization of isovaleric acid in cholesterol synthesis.
PubMed:The utilization of isovaleric acid for the synthesis of cholesterol.
PubMed:The formation of ketone bodies from isovaleric acid.
 
Notes:
Flavouring agent. Simple esters are used in flavourings. Constit. of hops, cheese etc.; an important component of cheese aroma and flavour 3-Methylbutanoic acid, or more commonly isovaleric acid, is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. Isovaleric acid is clear colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water, but extremely soluble in most common organic solvents.; Isovaleric acid has a strong pungent cheesy or sweaty smell, but its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery. It has been proposed that it is the anticonvulsant agent in valerian. It is a major component of the cause of unpleasant foot odor.; Isovaleric acid, is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. Isovaleric acid is clear colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water, but well soluble in most common organic solvents.; It has been suggested that isovaleric acid from pilot whales, a species frequently consumed in the Faroe Islands, may be the unusual dietary factor in prolonged gestation in the population of the Faroe Islands.; Previous studies suggested that was due to the high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been, but fatty acid data for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in blood lipids of Faroese and Norwegians was reviewed in terms of the type of fish eaten (mostly lean white fish with DHA much greater than EPA); the popular lean fish, thus, probably provides too little EPA to produce a marked effect on human biochemistry. (PMID 2646392)
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