EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

acetoin
3-hydroxy-2-butanone

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:3-hydroxybutan-2-one
CAS Number: 513-86-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:52217-02-4
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:208-174-1
FDA UNII:BG4D34CO2H
Nikkaji Web:J2.623I
Beilstein Number:0385636
MDL:MFCD00004521
CoE Number:749
XlogP3-AA:-0.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:88.10616000
Formula:C4 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
JECFA evaluated acetoin (CASrn as in Register). (R)- or (S)-enantiomer not specified by CASrn in Register.
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:405 acetoin
FLAVIS Number:07.051 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:07.051 3-hydroxybutan-2-one
FEMA Number:2008 acetoin
FDA Mainterm: ACETOIN
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.60 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow liquid to solid (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.99500 to 1.01900 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.279 to 8.479
Refractive Index:1.41700 to 1.42200 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 90.00 to 91.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 147.00 to 148.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:2.690000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density:3.0 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 113.00 °F. TCC ( 45.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.360
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 propylene glycol
 water, 1000000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 fixed oils
Similar Items:note
acetoin acetate
acetoin butyrate
acetoin propylene glycol acetal
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: buttery
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:28 hour(s) at 100.00 %
sweet buttery creamy dairy milky fatty
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. sweet buttery creamy dairy milky fatty
Odor sample from: CA Aromatics Company Inc.
Flavor Type: creamy
">creamy dairy sweet oily milky buttery yogurt
Taste Description: creamy dairy sweet oily milky buttery
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Frutarom
NATURAL ACETOIN (AMC) ≥96.00%, natural, Kosher
Odor Description:Butter, Caramel, Creamy, Dairy
Suggested Uses: Bakery, Cheese, Chocolate, Coffee, Dairy Products, Raspberry, Soft Fruits
Advanced Biotech
ACETOIN LIQUID NATURAL 96% min. (liquid slurry)
Odor Description:Dairy, butter, milk, yogurt
PerfumersWorld
Acetoin
Odor Description:sweet carmal creamy green butter dairy milk fatty buttery creamy sour fatty vanilla
Taytonn
Acetoin
Odor Description:Buttery, Caramellic/ Caramel, Creamy, Dairy Products
Lluch Essence
ACETOIN
Odor Description:CREAMY, SWEET, FATTY
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
ACETOIN LIQUID NATURAL
96% min. (liquid slurry)
Odor: Dairy, butter, milk, yogurt
Advanced Biotech
ACETOIN LIQUID SYNTHETIC
96% min.
Odor: Dairy, butter, milk, yogurt
Advanced Biotech
ACETOIN POWDER NATURAL
96% min.
Odor: Dairy, butter, milk, yogurt
Advanced Biotech
ACETOIN POWDER SYNTHETIC
96% min.
Odor: Dairy, butter, milk, yogurt
Anhui Haibei
Acetoin natural
Odor: Sweet carmal creamy green butter dairy milk fatty
Anhui Suzhou Jinli Aromatic Chemicals
Acetoin
Apiscent Labs
ACETOIN SYNTH (3 HYDROXY 2 BUTANONE)
Odor: Cream
Apiscent Labs
ACETOIN, NATURAL
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin Natural
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin,dimer Natural
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin,dimer
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin
Augustus Oils
Acetyl Methyl Carbinol
Services
Aurochemicals
ACETOIN, Natural (Liquid)
Aurochemicals
ACETOIN, Natural (Powder)
Axxence Aromatic
ACETOIN Natural
Kosher
Sustainability
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Acetoin
Berjé
Acetoin
Happening at Berje
CG Herbals
Acetoin
Odor: Pleasant, Buttery-oily, Creamy-fatty
Flavor: Sweet-buttery, creamy, mild
Charkit Chemical
ACETOIN FEMA 2008
Charkit Chemical
ACETOIN LIQUID NATURAL FEMA 2008
Citrus and Allied Essences
Acetoin 98/100% FCC
Market Report
Citrus and Allied Essences
Acetoin Powder 98/100% FCC
De Monchy Aromatics
acetoin (powder)
De Monchy Aromatics
acetoin 50% in MPG EU natural
Odor: sweet, Fatty, buttery, creamy, dairy, milky
De Monchy Aromatics
acetoin 50% in MPG
De Monchy Aromatics
Acetoin
Diffusions Aromatiques
ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL NATUREL
Diffusions Aromatiques
ACETYLMETHYLCARBINOL
Elan Inc.
acetoin
(natural), Kosher
Elan Inc.
acetoin
Kosher
Ernesto Ventós
ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL BASF
Odor: BUTTER-LIKE
Flavor: BUTTER-LIKE
Ernesto Ventós
ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL NATURAL
Odor: BUTTER-LIKE
Flavor: BUTTER-LIKE
Ernesto Ventós
ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL
Odor: BUTTER-LIKE
Flavor: BUTTER-LIKE
Excellentia International
Acetoin (Acetyl Methyl Carbinol) Natural
FCI SAS
ACETOIN NATURAL EU
Odor: Cream like
Fleurchem
acetoin (acetyl methyl carbinol)
Fleurchem
acetoin natural
Frutarom
ACETOIN (ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL)
≥96.00%, NI, Kosher
Odor: Butter, Caramel, Creamy, Dairy
Use: Suggested Uses: Bakery, Cheese, Chocolate, Coffee, Dairy Products, Raspberry, Soft Fruits
Frutarom
NATURAL ACETOIN (AMC)
≥96.00%, natural, Kosher
Odor: Butter, Caramel, Creamy, Dairy
Use: Suggested Uses: Bakery, Cheese, Chocolate, Coffee, Dairy Products, Raspberry, Soft Fruits
Grau Aromatics
ACETOIN
NI, Kosher
Indukern F&F
ACETOIN NATURAL
Odor: CREAMY, CARAMEL, SWEET, BUTTER
Indukern F&F
ACETOIN
Odor: CREAMY, CARAMEL, SWEET, BUTTER
Inoue Perfumery
ACETOIN
Jiangyin Healthway
3-Hydroxy-2-butanone ( Acetoin )
New functional food ingredients
Jinan Enlighten Chemical Technology(Wutong Aroma )
Acetoin, Kosherk
Kun Shan P&A
Natural Acetoin ( Powder)
Kunshan Sainty
Acetoin, Natural
Lluch Essence
ACETOIN NATURAL 96%
Lluch Essence
ACETOIN
Odor: CREAMY, SWEET, FATTY
M&U International
ACETOIN, Kosher
M&U International
NAT.ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL(ACETOIN), Kosher
Moellhausen
ACETOIN Natural
Moellhausen
ACETOIN
Odor: sweet, butter, vanilla, fatty note
O'Laughlin Industries
ACETOIN NATURAL
O'Laughlin Industries
ACETOIN POWDER NATURAL
O'Laughlin Industries
ACETOIN POWDER
O'Laughlin Industries
ACETOIN SYNTHETIC FCC
OQEMA
3-Hydroxy-2-butanone(Acetoin)
OQEMA
Acetoin Liquid
Pearlchem Corporation
Acetoin
Penta International
ACETOIN 85% IN WATER, Kosher
Penta International
ACETOIN, NATURAL (CONGEALED LIQUID), Kosher
Penta International
ACETOIN, NATURAL (POWDER), Kosher
Penta International
ACETOIN, SYNTHETIC (CONGEALED LIQUID) FCC, Kosher
Penta International
ACETOIN, SYNTHETIC POWDER FCC, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
Acetoin 10% in DPG
PerfumersWorld
Acetoin
Odor: sweet carmal creamy green butter dairy milk fatty buttery creamy sour fatty vanilla
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Acetoin Natural
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Acetoin
Reincke & Fichtner
Acetoin natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Acetoin
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Acetoin ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetoin, ≥96%, FCC, FG
Odor: butter; creamy
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetoin, natural, ≥95%, FG
Odor: butter; creamy
Soda Aromatic
Acetoin
SRS Aromatics
ACETOIN
Odor: Sweet, Buttery, Creamy, Dairy, Milky, Fatty
Sunaux International
Acetoin
Sunaux International
nat.ACETYL METHYL CARBINOL
Taytonn
Acetoin
Odor: Buttery, Caramellic/ Caramel, Creamy, Dairy Products
Taytonn
Natural Acetoin (AMC)
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Acetoin (May exist as crystalline dimer) >98.0%(GC)
Tengzhou Jitian Aroma Chemiclal
Acetoin
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
3-Hydroxy-2-Butanone(Acetoin)
Treatt
Acetoin
Ungerer & Company
Acetoin
Vigon International
Acetoin (Acetyl Methyl Carbinol - 18 kg Open Head Plastic Pail)
Vigon International
Acetoin (Acetyl Methyl Carbinol - 25 kg Steel Container)
Vigon International
Acetoin (Acetyl Methyl Carbinol) Plastic Closed Head Pails
Vigon International
Acetoin (Acetyl Methyl Carbinol) Plastic Closed Head Pails
Odor: Pleasant, buttery-oily, creamy-fatty
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin ≥ 98.0%, Natural
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
Acetoin dimer ≥98.0%
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Eye irritation (Category 2A), H319
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramflame.jpgexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H228 - Flammable solid
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H319 - Causes serious eye irritation
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P337 + P313 - IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P362 - Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1977d)

oral-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 509, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 509, 1979.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for acetoin usage levels up to:
  0.0300 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2300.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -32.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -7.40000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: 0.8000050.00000
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -3.30000
fruit ices: -3.30000
gelatins / puddings: 0.6000021.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -18.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: -7.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 11 (FGE.11): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical group 10 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 1 (FGE.11Rev1) - Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical group 10 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of secondary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols, ketones, ketals and esters with a second secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group belonging to chemical group 10 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):513-86-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :179
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2621
WGK Germany:1
3-hydroxybutan-2-one
Chemidplus:0000513860
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:EL8790000 for cas# 513-86-0
 
References:
 3-hydroxybutan-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:513-86-0
Pubchem (cid):179
Pubchem (sid):134978397
Flavornet:513-86-0
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00466
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB03243
FooDB:FDB011799
Export Tariff Code:2914.40.9000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
grades: technical, fcc (as acetoin).
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
butter oil
FL/FR
butter starter distillates
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
animal
costus valerolactone
FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
acetoin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
butter fragrance
FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
iso
butyl lactate
FL/FR
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
cyclotene
FL/FR
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
cheesy
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
chocolate
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
chocolate pyrazine A
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
cocoa
cocoa butter fragrance
FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
(R)-gamma-
nonalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
creamy
2,3-
butane diol
FR
butyl lactate
FL/FR
cyclotene propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-gamma-
jasmolactone
FR
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
earthy
3-
octanol
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
fatty
butter esters
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
7-
decen-4-olide
FL/FR
(Z)-
ethyl oleate
FL/FR
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
fermented
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
floral
acetophenone
FL/FR
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
(±)-4-
ethyl octanal
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hexenyl cyclopentanone
FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
leerall
FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
apple butter fragrance
FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
(S)-delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
2-
nonanone
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone butyrate
FL/FR
green
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL/FR
2-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
hay
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
herbal
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
marine
marine pyridine
FR
melon
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
watermelon ketone
FR
mushroom
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
nutty
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
(-)-(E,R)-
filbertone
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
oily
butter acids
FL/FR
plastic
1-
phenyl-1,2-propane dione
FL/FR
soapy
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
octahydrocoumarin
FL/FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
tropical
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
3-
nonen-4-olide
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
butyl laurate
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
woody
amber carbinol
FR
santall
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
butter nut rum flavor
FL
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
chocolate pyrazine A
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
cyclotene propionate
FL/FR
(S)-delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
7-
decen-4-olide
FL/FR
6-
decenoic acid
FL
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ethyl butyryl lactate
FL
(±)-4-
ethyl octanal
FL/FR
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
FL
methyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
S-
methyl 4-methyl pentane thioate
FL
3-(
methyl thio) hexanal
FL
S-
methyl thiopropionate
FL
(R)-gamma-
nonalactone
FL/FR
3-
nonen-4-olide
FL/FR
4,5-
octane dione
FL
(E)-2-
octen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
anisic
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bitter
glyceryl tributyrate
FL
brown
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
bovolide
FL
butter cream frosting flavor
FL
butter enhancers
FL
creamy
butter flavor
FL
sweet
butter flavor
FL
butter flavor
FL
butter maple flavor
FL
butter nut vanilla flavor
FL
butter oil
FL/FR
butter pecan flavor
FL
butter praline flavor
FL
butter starter distillates
FL/FR
butter toffee flavor
FL
butter vanilla nut flavor
FL
iso
butyl lactate
FL/FR
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
butyroin
FL
diacetyl
FL
ghee flavor
FL
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenoic acid
FL
caramellic
butter rum toffee flavor
FL
caramel furanone
FL
creme brulee flavor
FL
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
3-
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
FL
1-
phenyl-1,2-propane dione
FL/FR
pyruvaldehyde
FL
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
nonanone
FL/FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
chocolate
chocolate butter cream flavor
FL
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
butter lemon orange flavor
FL
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
octahydrocoumarin
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin butyrate
FL
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl ethyl carbinol
FL
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
butter esters
FL/FR
butter fat enzyme modified with added butyric acid
FL
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
custard flavor
FL
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
5,5-
dibutyl dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
FL
divanillin
FL
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
dairy
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
butyl lactate
FL/FR
fatty
butter acids
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
diacetyl trimer
FL
(Z)-
ethyl oleate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
2-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
2,4-
undecadienal
FL
(E,E)-2,4-
undecadienal
FL
fermented
methyl thio isovalerate
FL
floral
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
acetyl isovaleryl
FL
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
blueberry cheesecake flavor
FL
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone butyrate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
green
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
2,3-
octane dione
FL
herbal
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
5-
hydroxymethyl furfural
FL
honey
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
mushroom
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
musty
3-
octanol
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
butter pecan cake flavor
FL
coffee furanone
FL/FR
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
(-)-(E,R)-
filbertone
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
oily
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
powdery
acetophenone
FL/FR
solvent
2-
ethyl furan
FL
sour
butyric acid
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
spiced
butter rum flavor
FL
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon butter pecan flavor
FL
cinnamon nut butter rum flavor
FL
clove bud oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
sweet
honey distillates
FL
vanilla butter nut flavor
FL
toasted
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla
ice cream flavor
FL
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
waxy
butyl laurate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
winey
5-
ethyl-2-methyl pyridine
FL
 
Potential Uses:
FRapple
FRbanana
 bread white bread
FRbutter
FRbutterscotch
FLcaramel
FLcarrot
FLcheese cheddar
FLchicken
 chocolate cocoa
FRcitrus
FRcoconut
FRcoffee
FLcorn
FRcream
FRcurrant
FLfish
FRfruit
FRhoney miel
 meat
FLmilk
FRmint
FRorange
 pea green pea
FRpear
FRplum
FRraspberry
FRstrawberry
FLtomato
 vinegar
 whiskey
FRwine
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple fruit
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 banana fruit
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 beer
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 bilberry fruit juice
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 bread white bread
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 butter
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 carrot
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 cheese cheddar cheese
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 chicken
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 cocoa
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 coconut endosperm
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 coffee roasted coffee
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 corn plant
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 cream
Search PMC Picture
 currant fruit
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 fig fruit
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 fish
Search PMC Picture
 honey
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 malpighia glabra l. fruit oil @ 0.10%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 milk
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 orange fruit juice
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 pea green pea
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 plum fruit
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 pork grilled pork
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rice cakes
PbMd Search PMC Picture
 spearmint oil
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 strawberry wild strawberry fruit
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 sunflower flower
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 tea leaf
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 tomato
Search Trop Picture
 vinegar
Search Picture
 whiskey
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 wine red wine
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 wine white wine
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Synonyms:
 acethoin
2-acetoin
 acetoin (acetyl methyl carbinol)
 acetoin (natural)
 acetoin 85% in water
 acetoin 98/100% FCC
 acetoin liquid natural
 acetoin liquid synthetic
 acetoin natural
 acetoin powder
 acetoin powder 98/100% FCC
 acetoin powder natural
 acetoin powder synthetic
 acetoin synth (3 hydroxy 2 butanone)
 acetoin, natural
 acetoin, natural (congealed liquid)
 acetoin, natural (powder)
 acetoin, synthetic (congealed liquid) FCC
 acetoin, synthetic powder FCC
 acetoin,dimer
 acetoin,dimer natural
 acetyl methyl carbinol
 acetyl methyl carbinol natural
nat.acetyl methyl carbinol(acetoin)
 acetylmethylcarbinol
 butan-2-one, 3-hydroxy-
2-butanol-3-one
2,3-butanolone
2-butanone, 3-hydroxy-
 dimethyl ketol
 dimethylketol
 helio-bouquet
3-hydroxy-2-butanone
2-hydroxy-3-butanone
2-hydroxy-3-oxobutane
gamma-hydroxy-beta-oxobutane
3-hydroxybutan-2-one
1-hydroxyethyl methyl ketone
 methyl acetyl carbinol
 

Articles:

PubMed:Reduction of the Off-Flavor Volatile Generated by the Yogurt Starter Culture Including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Soymilk.
PubMed:Engineering Bacillus subtilis for acetoin production from glucose and xylose mixtures.
PubMed:An efficient method using Gluconacetobacter europaeus to reduce an unfavorable flavor compound, acetoin, in rice vinegar production.
PubMed:New insights into Lactococcus lactis diacetyl- and acetoin-producing strains isolated from diverse origins.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.
PubMed:Two strains of nonstarter lactobacilli increased the production of flavor compounds in soft cheeses.
PubMed:Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.
PubMed:Diacetyl and acetoin production from whey permeate using engineered Lactobacillus casei.
PubMed:[Determination of major flavor components in chinese spirits using a special domestic gas chromatograph with DNP packed column].
PubMed:Proteolysis, volatile compounds, and sensory evaluation in Hispánico cheese manufactured with the addition of a thermophilic adjunct culture, nisin, and calcium alginate-nisin microparticles.
PubMed:Organic acids and volatile flavor components evolved during refrigerated storage of kefir.
PubMed:Volatile flavor components of rice cakes.
PubMed:Comparative Assessment of Factors Involved in Acetoin Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis 168.
PubMed:An efficient method using Gluconacetobacter europaeus to reduce an unfavorable flavor compound, acetoin, in rice vinegar production.
PubMed:New insights into Lactococcus lactis diacetyl- and acetoin-producing strains isolated from diverse origins.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed:Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.
PubMed:Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed:Flying the fly: long-range flight behavior of Drosophila melanogaster to attractive odors.
PubMed:Diacetyl and acetoin production from whey permeate using engineered Lactobacillus casei.
PubMed:Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds.
PubMed:[Determination of major flavor components in chinese spirits using a special domestic gas chromatograph with DNP packed column].
PubMed:Genetic organization and expression of citrate permease in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Proteolysis, volatile compounds, and sensory evaluation in Hispánico cheese manufactured with the addition of a thermophilic adjunct culture, nisin, and calcium alginate-nisin microparticles.
PubMed:Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229.
PubMed:Volatile flavor components of rice cakes.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile compounds from the reaction of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonium sulfide model system.
PubMed:Genetic manipulation of the pathway for diacetyl metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Diacetyl formation by lactic bacteria.
PubMed:Characterization of Plasmid Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis: Evidence for Plasmid-Linked Citrate Utilization.
PubMed:[The quantitative composition of natural and technologically changed aromas of plants. IV. Enzymic and thermal reaction products formed during the processing of tomatoes (author's transl)].
PubMed:Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:2,3-Butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice.
PubMed:Enhancement of acetoin production in Candida glabrata by in silico-aided metabolic engineering.
PubMed:Characterizing and authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO vinegars using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology.
PubMed:Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.
PubMed:Oxidation of metabolites highlights the microbial interactions and role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during cocoa bean fermentation.
PubMed:Engineering of carboligase activity reaction in Candida glabrata for acetoin production.
PubMed:Characterization of plant-derived lactococci on the basis of their volatile compounds profile when grown in milk.
PubMed:Optimization of fermentation medium for acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis SF4-3 using statistical methods.
PubMed:2,3-butanediol production from starch by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae G31-A.
PubMed:NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase catalyses the first step in respiratory utilization of lactate by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.
PubMed:Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.
PubMed:Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:Moderate expression of the transcriptional regulator ALsR enhances acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Quality changes during storage of cooked and sliced meat products measured with PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS.
PubMed:Isolation of acetoin-producing Bacillus strains from Japanese traditional food-natto.
PubMed:A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace.
PubMed:Pectinatus sottacetonis sp. nov., isolated from a commercial pickle spoilage tank.
PubMed:Sweet wine production by two osmotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.
PubMed:Improved sample preparation and rapid UHPLC analysis of SO2 binding carbonyls in wine by derivatisation to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.
PubMed:How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?
PubMed:Monitoring the effect of high pressure and transglutaminase treatment of milk on the evolution of flavour compounds during lactic acid fermentation using PTR-ToF-MS.
PubMed:Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.
PubMed:Inoculation of Treixadura musts with autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: fermentative performance and influence on the wine characteristics.
PubMed:Precursor supply strategy for tetramethylpyrazine production by bacillus subtilis on solid-state fermentation of wheat bran.
PubMed:New insights into Lactococcus lactis diacetyl- and acetoin-producing strains isolated from diverse origins.
PubMed:Investigation of spoilage in saveloy samples inoculated with four potential spoilage bacteria.
PubMed:Impact of perceptive interactions on red wine fruity aroma.
PubMed:Significance of heme-based respiration in meat spoilage caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum.
PubMed:Streptococcus danieliae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the caecum of a mouse.
PubMed:Volatile composition of partially fermented wines elaborated from sun dried Pedro Ximénez grapes.
PubMed:A 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 for mainly producing R,R-2,3-butanediol: purification, characterization and cloning.
PubMed:Malolactic fermentation and secondary metabolite production by Oenoccocus oeni strains in low pH wines.
PubMed:Simultaneous production of isopropanol, butanol, ethanol and 2,3-butanediol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 engineered strains.
PubMed:Removal of pathogenic factors from 2,3-butanediol-producing Klebsiella species by inactivating virulence-related wabG gene.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for enhanced production of acetoin.
PubMed:Cloning, expression and characterization of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.
PubMed:Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.
PubMed:Discrimination of Chinese vinegars based on headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry of volatile compounds and multivariate analysis.
PubMed:Transfer and subsequent growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum in orange juice medium during storage at 4 and 30°C.
PubMed:Amino acids and volatile compounds in wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo varieties subjected to malolactic fermentation in barrels.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed:Identification of chemical markers for the sensory shelf-life of saveloy.
PubMed:Monitoring of microbial metabolites and bacterial diversity in beef stored under different packaging conditions.
PubMed:Spoilage-related activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains in air-stored and vacuum-packed meat.
PubMed:The transcriptional response of Listeria monocytogenes during adaptation to growth on lactate and diacetate includes synergistic changes that increase fermentative acetoin production.
PubMed:Mechanism of citrate metabolism by an oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403.
PubMed:Enterococcus populations in artisanal Manchego cheese: biodiversity, technological and safety aspects.
PubMed:Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Ligustrazine formation in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar: changes during fermentation and storing process.
PubMed:Integrated regulation of acetoin fermentation by quorum sensing and pH in Serratia plymuthica RVH1.
PubMed:Transcriptome, proteome, and metabolite analyses of a lactate dehydrogenase-negative mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583.
PubMed:Identification and measurement of diacetyl substitutes in dry bakery mix production.
PubMed:Sensorically and antimicrobially active metabolite production of Lactobacillus strains on Jerusalem artichoke juice.
PubMed:Two strains of nonstarter lactobacilli increased the production of flavor compounds in soft cheeses.
PubMed:Exploitation of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours: chemical characterization and their use for sourdough fermentation.
PubMed:Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.
PubMed:Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed:Effect of pH, aeration and feeding non-sterilized agave juice in a continuous agave juice fermentation.
PubMed:Production of tetramethylpyrazine by batch culture of Bacillus subtilis with optimal pH control strategy.
PubMed:Influence of indigenous yeasts on the fermentation and volatile profile of plum brandies.
PubMed:Construction and characterization of three lactate dehydrogenase-negative Enterococcus faecalis V583 mutants.
PubMed:Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Microbial, sensory and volatile changes during the anaerobic cold storage of morcilla de Burgos previously inoculated with Weissella viridescens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile compounds produced by 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis isolated from leben (Tunisian fermented milk) using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.
PubMed:A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings.
PubMed:Asthma arising in flavoring-exposed food production workers.
PubMed:Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.
PubMed:Methylglyoxal and other carbohydrate metabolites induce lanthanum-sensitive Ca2+ transients and inhibit growth in E. coli.
PubMed:Mutation of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis impairs the growth during citrate metabolism.
PubMed:Formation of diacetyl and acetoin by Lactococcus lactis via aspartate catabolism.
PubMed:Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans isolated from goat's and ewe's milk: influence of glucose and lactose.
PubMed:Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavorings.
PubMed:Structure-reactivity relationships of flavan-3-ols on product generation in aqueous glucose/glycine model systems.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile compounds as spoilage indicators in fresh king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during storage using SPME-GC-MS.
PubMed:Lactobacillus casei metabolic potential to utilize citrate as an energy source in ripening cheese: a bioinformatics approach.
PubMed:Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented milk "laban".
PubMed:[Determination of major flavor components in chinese spirits using a special domestic gas chromatograph with DNP packed column].
PubMed:Method for the simultaneous assay of diacetyl and acetoin in the presence of alpha-acetolactate: application in determining the kinetic parameters for the decomposition of alpha-acetolactate.
PubMed:The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses.
PubMed:Characterization of respiratory exposures at a microwave popcorn plant with cases of bronchiolitis obliterans.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic quantification of major volatile compounds and polyols in wine by direct injection.
PubMed:The 'buttery' attribute of wine--diacetyl--desirability, spoilage and beyond.
PubMed:Genetic organization and expression of citrate permease in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Purification of antilisterial bacteriocins.
PubMed:Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria, in maize porridge with added malted barley.
PubMed:Method development for the determination of diacetyl and acetoin at a microwave popcorn plant.
PubMed:Gluconic acid consumption in wines by Schizosaccharomyces pombe and its effect on the concentrations of major volatile compounds and polyols.
PubMed:Changes in gluconic acid, polyols and major volatile compounds in sherry wine during aging with submerged flor yeast cultures.
PubMed:Diacetyl of lactic acid bacteria from milk and fermented foods in Thailand.
PubMed:Proteolysis, volatile compounds, and sensory evaluation in Hispánico cheese manufactured with the addition of a thermophilic adjunct culture, nisin, and calcium alginate-nisin microparticles.
PubMed:Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria in milk.
PubMed:The species-specific ratios of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin isomers as a tool to evaluate wine yeast performance.
PubMed:IS981-mediated adaptive evolution recovers lactate production by ldhB transcription activation in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient strain of Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Growth and energy generation by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 during citrate metabolism.
PubMed:Evolution of volatile byproducts during wine fermentations using immobilized cells on grape skins.
PubMed:Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.
PubMed:Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from newly hybrid citrus, dekopon (Shiranuhi mandarin Suppl. J.).
PubMed:Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.
PubMed:Effect of Enterococcus faecium on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Greek Feta cheese.
PubMed:Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S. carnosus and S. equorum--a comparative study in model systems.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria, the combined approach: kinetic modelling, metabolic control and experimental analysis.
PubMed:Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229.
PubMed:Solvent desorption dynamic headspace sampling of fermented dairy product volatiles.
PubMed:Influence of aeration on the physiological activity of flor yeasts.
PubMed:Determination of organic acids, sugars, diacetyl, and acetoin in cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Metabolic behavior of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 in microaerobic continuous cultivation at a low dilution rate.
PubMed:Ecophysiological attributes of a Lactobacillus sp. and a Pseudomonas sp. on sterile beef fillets in relation to storage temperature and film permeability.
PubMed:Characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in ewe's milk and cheese from northwest Argentina.
PubMed:Proteolysis and formation of volatile compounds in cheese manufactured with a bacteriocin-producing adjunct culture.
PubMed:Improved performances and control of beer fermentation using encapsulated alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase and modeling.
PubMed:Approaches to wine aroma: release of aroma compounds from reactions between cysteine and carbonyl compounds in wine.
PubMed:Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction for the isotopic analysis of volatile compounds produced during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Organic acids and volatile flavor components evolved during refrigerated storage of kefir.
PubMed:Cloning, DNA sequence analysis, and deletion of a gene encoding diacetyl-acetoin reductase from Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile compounds from the reaction of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonium sulfide model system.
PubMed:Pyruvate flux distribution in NADH-oxidase-overproducing Lactococcus lactis strain as a function of culture conditions.
PubMed:Effects of the addition of Enterococcus faecalis in Cebreiro cheese manufacture.
PubMed:Cofactor engineering: a novel approach to metabolic engineering in Lactococcus lactis by controlled expression of NADH oxidase.
PubMed:Production of fermented milk using a malty compound-producing strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk.
PubMed:Main microbial flora present as natural starters in Cebreiro raw cow's-milk cheese (northwest Spain).
PubMed:Diacetyl formation by lactic bacteria.
PubMed:Behaviour of Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila in skim milk during fermentation by various lactobacilli.
PubMed:Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes in defined glucose medium.
PubMed:Growth and Energy Generation by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis during Citrate Metabolism.
PubMed:Analysis of sensory and physicochemical data on commercial tomato purée with pattern recognition techniques.
PubMed:Microbiological and aromatic characteristics of fermented maize doughs for kenkey production in Ghana.
PubMed:Acetoin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.
PubMed:Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetoin Helps To Maintain pH Homeostasis in Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Purification, characterization and some properties of diacetyl(acetoin) reductase from Enterobacter aerogenes.
PubMed:Enzyme Activities Affecting End Product Distribution by Lactobacillus plantarum in Response to Changes in pH and O(2).
PubMed:Microencapsulated enzyme systems for the acceleration of cheese ripening.
PubMed:Volatile compounds associated with microbial growth on normal and high pH beef stored at chill temperatures.
PubMed:Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus intermedius of canine origin.
PubMed:High-Efficiency Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetoin by Lactobacillus plantarum during pH-Controlled and Fed-Batch Fermentations.
PubMed:Desmutagenic effect of alpha-dicarbonyl and alpha-hydroxycarbonyl compounds against mutagenic heterocyclic amines.
PubMed:Time course of volatile compound formation during refrigerated storage of naturally contaminated beef in air.
PubMed:[Enterotoxigenicity and biochemical features of strains of Staphylococcus aureus of different origins ].
PubMed:Growth and end-product formation in fermenter cultures of Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509T and two psychrotrophic Lactobacillus spp. in different gaseous atmospheres.
PubMed:Glycerol utilization by Brochothrix thermosphacta.
PubMed:Growth and end product formation of two psychrotrophic Lactobacillus spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509T at different pH values and temperatures.
PubMed:[Effect of thiamine on the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in rat liver following stimulation of lipogenesis].
PubMed:End Products of Glucose Fermentation by Brochothrix thermosphacta.
PubMed:Microbial production of 2,3-butylene glycol from cheese whey.
PubMed:Volatile Compounds Associated with Spoilage of Vacuum-Packaged Sliced Luncheon Meat by Brochothrix thermosphacta.
PubMed:Identification of pathogenic staphylococci isolated from animals and foods derived from animals.
PubMed:Aerobic metabolism of Brochothrix thermosphacta growing on meat surfaces and in laboratory media.
PubMed:Characters of Lactobacillus coryniformis, isolated from an Iraqi cheese.
PubMed:Degradation of organic acids by dairy lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:[The quantitative composition of natural and technologically changed aromas of plants. II. Aroma compounds in oranges and their changes during juice processing (author's transl)].
PubMed:Development and use of single "polytropic" diagnostic tubes for the approximate taxonomic grouping of bacteria isolated from foods, water and medicinal preparations.
PubMed:Enzymatic determination of butane-2,3-diol in wines.
PubMed:Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and biochemical properties of certain coagulase-negative enterotoxigenic cocci.
PubMed:Microfermentation series for identification of single colonies of Enterobacteriaceae.
PubMed:Short-term toxicity of acetoin (acetylmethylcarbinol) in rats.
PubMed:Diacetyl and acetoin production by Lactobacillus casei.
PubMed:[Influence of the type of the raw product and the storage conditions on the diacetyl level (diacetyl and acetoin) in tomato juice].
PubMed:Enumeration of Bacillus cereus in foods.
PubMed:Bacterial production of diacetyl and acetoin in wine.
 
Notes:
a product of fermentation. it is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. in mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide. Constit. of beer, wine, fresh or cooked apple, fresh or cooked leak, corn, honey, cocoa, butter, cheeses, roasted coffee and other foodstuffs. Flavouring ingredient. [DFC] Acetoin is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. Acetoin is used as an external energy store by a number of fermentive bacteria. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the compounds giving butter its characteristic flavor. Acetoin is used as a food flavoring (in baked goods) and a fragrance. It can be found in apples, butter, yogurt, asparagus, black currants, blackberry, wheat, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cantaloupe. [Wikipedia]
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