EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

corn syrups
hydrolyzed starch syrups


CAS Number: 8029-43-4
ECHA EC Number:232-436-4
Category:multiple purpose GRAS food substances
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1865 Corn Syrup View-review
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.112 Cultured milk.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.134 Canned preserved figs.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.180 Canned pineapple.

Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 145.3 Definitions.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages
Sec. 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages
Sec. 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice.

Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 146.3 Definitions.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.200 Certain other canned vegetables.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.175 Vanilla extract.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1865 Corn syrup.
Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Organoleptic Properties:
Flavor Type: sweet
">sweet sugar
Taste Description: sweet
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: binding agents
skin conditioning
viscosity controlling agents
Flavor: characteristic
Clintose® CR 24 Corn Syrup Solids is a nutritive saccharide that is produced as a white, odorless powder. This specialty product has a multitude of functional properties and can be utilized in a wide range of applications such as infant formulas, coffee whiteners, instant sauces, and meats. Some of the properties which make ADM's Corn Syrup Solids highly versatile are moderate sweetness, binding properties, solubility, low hygroscopicity, crystal growth inhibition, low browning tendency, viscosity/bodying agent, freezing point control, low osmotic pressure and film forming properties.
Flavor: characteristic
ADM's 36/43 Corn Syrup is an acid conversion syrup, bland in flavor, slightly sweet, and colorless. It is more viscous than 42/43 and the average molecular weight is somewhat higher. Because of these properties, it is widely used in ice cream to retard crystal formation and to provide desirable bodying characteristics.
Flavor: characteristic
ADM's 42/43 Corn Syrup is an acid converted syrup, having a pleasant sweet taste and bland flavor. It is colorless and of medium viscosity. 42/43 Corn Syrup is widely used in candies, jams, jellies, fountain and table syrups, where it imparts flavor, body characteristics and moisture retention.
Flavor: characteristic
ADM's 62/43 Corn Syrup is an acid-enzyme converted syrup. It has a pleasant taste and odor, and is somewhat sweeter and less viscous than regular syrup. It contains a higher proportion of dextrose and maltose than regular syrup, and is lower in high molecular weight carbohydrates. The high proportion of fermentable carbohydrates, along with increased sweetness makes it especially useful in baked goods such as bread, rolls, etc. The lower viscosity and high sweetness level provide desirable properties in nougats, fondants, etc.
Flavor: characteristic
ADM's 62/44 Corn Syrup is an acid-enzyme converted syrup. It has a pleasant taste, and is somewhat sweeter and less viscous than regular syrup and is lower in high molecular weight carbohydrates. The high proportion of fermentable carbohydrates, along with increased sweetness, makes it especially useful in baked goods such as bread, rolls, etc. The 62/44 corn syrup has properties similar to 62/43, except for higher solids content and slightly increased viscosity. It is useful where lower moisture content is desirable in formulations.
Flavor: sweet
Fibersol®-LQ corn syrup, a soluble corn fiber, has been specially designed for applications where added sweetness and humectancy are beneficial. It also facilitates ease of handling liquid product. Fibersol®-LQ corn syrup, a soluble corn fiber, is a unique, nutritionally-enhanced ingredient containing approximately 75 percent fiber on a dry solids basis. It is used to increase the fiber content of many foods, while adding sweetness and humectancy as additional benefits. Fiber fortification is simplified because Fibersol®-LQ is water-soluble, making fiber enhancements feasible in products such as frozen desserts, yogurts, beverages, cereals, dips, sauces, candy, and bars.
Corn Syrup Solids - DE 21, DE 29, DE 33, DE 40, DE 47
Flavor: sweet
Is a dried form of corn syrup (glucose syrup) used where it is impractical to use the liquid syrup.
Corn Syrups – DE 30, DE 40, DE 50, DE 60, DE 70
Flavor: sweet
Corn syrup (aka glucose syrup) is a corn (maize) based sweetener containing glucose, maltose and other polysaccharides.
High Maltose Corn Syrups with 30 – 50% Maltose content
Flavor: sweet
Maltose dissolves and crystallizes slowly in aqueous solutions. It is less sweet and more stable than sucrose.
ECSA Chemicals
Glucose Syrup
Company Profile
Kraft Chemical
Corn Syrup Solids
Tate & Lyle
Corn Syrups
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Category: multiple purpose GRAS food substances
Recommendation for corn syrups usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8029-43-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8029-43-4
Pubchem (sid):135311646
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
For Flavor
hexenoic acid
furfuryl alcohol
caramel furanone
lucuma flavor
maple distillates
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
ammonium isovalerate 30% in pg
chocolate flavor
massoia bark oil CO2 extract
cookie flavor
cinnamon sugar
cookie flavor
acetyl-5-methyl thiophene
decenoic acid
ethyl 3-oxohexanoate
furfuryl valerate
furyl pentyl ketone
methyl (E)-3-nonenoate
methyl sorbate
ethyl butyraldehyde
dehydrated and ground
honey flavor
malt distillates
molasses blackstrap
methional diethyl acetal
potato flavor
praline flavor
marzipan flavor
ethyl thioacetate
acesulfame potassium
acetone alcohol
agave flavor
alitame anhydrous
aspartame-acesulfame salt
caramel dione
corn syrup high fructose
dextrose monohydrate
ethyl 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) propionate
glucosyl steviol glycosides
glycyrrhizic acid
honey enhancer
luo han fruit concentrate
molasses concentrate
molasses distillates
molasses flavor
ornithine hydrochloride
rebaudioside C
rebaudioside C 30%
rubus suavissimus extract, 60% glucosylated rubusoside glycosides
sodium 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy) propionate
stevia rebaudiana extract, rebaudioside A 22%
stevia rebaudiana extract, rebaudioside A 60%
stevia rebaudiana extract, rebaudioside A 80%
steviol glycoside extract, rebaudioside C 22%
enzyme modified
steviol glycosides
sugar cane distillate
sugar extenders
sugar flavor
sugar flavor
sugar flavor
sugar replacers
sweet & sour candy flavor
sweet flavor
thaumatin b-recombinant
vanilla concentrate
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 corn sugar syrup
 corn syrups
 glucose sirup
 glucose syrup
hydrolyzed starch syrups


PubMed:[Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].
PubMed:Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.
PubMed:Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the canadian diet.
PubMed:Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and on tooth demineralization.
PubMed:Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.
PubMed:Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.
PubMed:Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.
PubMed:Amounts of Artificial Food Dyes and Added Sugars in Foods and Sweets Commonly Consumed by Children.
PubMed:Association of fructose consumption and components of metabolic syndrome in human studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed:Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) Using Solid State Fermentation.
PubMed:Effect of sugars in solutions on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9- to 14-year-old normal weight boys.
PubMed:Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a murine model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by use of a high-fat/fructose diet and sedentary lifestyle.
PubMed:The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.
PubMed:Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.
PubMed:Corn syrup mantle plumes.
PubMed:Sugar or high fructose corn syrup-what should nurses teach patients and families?
PubMed:Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.
PubMed:A novel procedure for evaluating the reinforcing properties of tastants in laboratory rats: operant intraoral self-administration.
PubMed:[Fructose consumption and its health implications; fructose malabsorption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].
PubMed:Generation of oxidative species from ultraviolet light induced photolysis of fructose.
PubMed:Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.
PubMed:Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.
PubMed:Optimization and characterization of stable lipid-based, oxygen-filled microbubbles by mixture design.
PubMed:Review of the role of refined dietary sugars (fructose and glucose) in the genesis of retinal disease.
PubMed:Ghrelin receptor regulates HFCS-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.
PubMed:Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.
PubMed:3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.
PubMed:Mini review on fructose metabolism.
PubMed:Today's and yesterday's of pathophysiology: biochemistry of metabolic syndrome and animal models.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.
PubMed:The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: findings from recent randomized controlled trials.
PubMed:[Identification and characterization of Aspergillus aculeatus JMUdb058 for naringinase production].
PubMed:Ingestion of honey improves the symptoms of allergic rhinitis: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
PubMed:Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.
PubMed:Responses of iliac conduit artery and hindlimb resistance vessels to luminal hyperfructosemia in the anaesthetized pig.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.
PubMed:Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.
PubMed:Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.
PubMed:Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts.
PubMed:Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: a risk factor for prevalent gout with SLC2A9 genotype-specific effects on serum urate and risk of gout.
PubMed:Spray-dried structured lipid containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for use in infant formulas.
PubMed:Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of selected natural sweeteners available on the Polish market.
PubMed:The Effect of a Low Fructose and Low Glycemic Index/Load (FRAGILE) Dietary Intervention on Indices of Liver Function, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
PubMed:Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.
PubMed:Human-relevant levels of added sugar consumption increase female mortality and lower male fitness in mice.
PubMed:Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.
PubMed:High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.
PubMed:Maladaptive immune and inflammatory pathways lead to cardiovascular insulin resistance.
PubMed:The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline.
PubMed:Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.
PubMed:Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.
PubMed:Acute effects of fructose consumption on uric acid and plasma lipids in patients with impaired renal function.
PubMed:High sugar intake and development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation in mice: a protective role for PPAR- δ agonism.
PubMed:"Healthy" discussions about risk: The Corn Refiners Association's strategic negotiation of authority in the debate over high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:Fructose in perspective.
PubMed:Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: a critical review.
PubMed:Stability of three commonly compounded extemporaneous enrofloxacin suspensions for oral administration to exotic animals.
PubMed:Long-term ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate did not induce obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance: a two-generation study in mice.
PubMed:Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.
PubMed:Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on the acidogenicity, adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.
PubMed:[Dietary therapy for obesity].
PubMed:Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.
PubMed:Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?
PubMed:Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from the recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies.
PubMed:Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine.
PubMed:Immobilised enzymes in biorenewables production.
PubMed:Challenging the fructose hypothesis: new perspectives on fructose consumption and metabolism.
PubMed:Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?
PubMed:Fructose: it's "alcohol without the buzz".
PubMed:Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.
PubMed:Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes.
PubMed:Analysis of sugar degradation products with α-dicarbonyl structure in carbonated soft drinks by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS.
PubMed:Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.
PubMed:Industrial use of immobilized enzymes.
PubMed:Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.
PubMed:Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Diagnosis and treatment of an insulinoma in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).
PubMed:Effect of adulteration versus storage on volatiles in unifloral honeys from different floral sources and locations.
PubMed:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: clinical implications and treatment.
PubMed:Potential health risks from beverages containing fructose found in sugar or high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:Countries that use large amounts of high fructose corn syrup have higher rates of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.
PubMed:Reversal of the deleterious effects of chronic dietary HFCS-55 intake by PPAR-δ agonism correlates with impaired NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
PubMed:Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.
PubMed:A perspective on diet and gout.
PubMed:[Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].
PubMed:Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
PubMed:Fructose, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup: modern scientific findings and health implications.
PubMed:Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1.
PubMed:Effects on uric acid, body mass index and blood pressure in adolescents of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.
PubMed:Does fructose consumption contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?
PubMed:Bite of Arsenic, with Kathryn Cottingham. Interviewed by Ashley Ahearn.
PubMed:Effects of perinatal exposure to palatable diets on body weight and sensitivity to drugs of abuse in rats.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup causes vascular dysfunction associated with metabolic disturbance in rats: protective effect of resveratrol.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed:Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.
PubMed:Ecologically appropriate xenobiotics induce cytochrome P450s in Apis mellifera.
PubMed:Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.
PubMed:The Role of Overweight and Obesity in the Cardiorenal Syndrome.
PubMed:Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser perforation as skin pretreatment to improve sugar infusion process of frozen blueberries.
PubMed:Effects of phenylbutazone on gene expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the oral, glandular gastric, and bladder mucosae of healthy horses.
PubMed:Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Nutrigenomics of hepatic steatosis in a feline model: effect of monosodium glutamate, fructose, and Trans-fat feeding.
PubMed:A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes.
PubMed:Glp-1 analog, liraglutide, ameliorates hepatic steatosis and cardiac hypertrophy in C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet.
PubMed:Role of fructose-containing sugars in the epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
PubMed:Vitamin D deficiency in obese rats exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increases hepatic resistin and Toll-like receptor activation.
PubMed:High dietary fructose intake: Sweet or bitter life?
PubMed:Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women.
PubMed:High fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.
PubMed:Metabolic and behavioural effects of sucrose and fructose/glucose drinks in the rat.
PubMed:Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion.
PubMed:The impact of fructose on renal function and blood pressure.
PubMed:The role of salt in the pathogenesis of fructose-induced hypertension.
PubMed:Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic.
PubMed:Obesity and energy balance: is the tail wagging the dog?
PubMed:Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans cells immobilized in chitosan beads. Fungal pullulan production by immobilized cells.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup. What's all the fuss about?
PubMed:Flow through a mechanical distraction enterogenesis device: a pilot test.
PubMed:Identification of the medicinal off-flavor compound formed from ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal.
PubMed:A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: carbohydrates and natural products.
PubMed:Isolation, purification, and characterization of thermophilic T80 isoenzyme of xylose isomerase from the xerophyte Cereus pterogonus.
PubMed:Effect of trans-fat, fructose and monosodium glutamate feeding on feline weight gain, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipokine and lipid profile.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable xylose isomerase from Opuntia vulgaris mill.
PubMed:Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.
PubMed:Electrospun gold nanofiber electrodes for biosensors.
PubMed:Is there a link between soft drinks and erectile dysfunction?
PubMed:Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.
PubMed:Dietary fructose, salt absorption and hypertension in metabolic syndrome: towards a new paradigm.
PubMed:The effect of fructose on renal biology and disease.
PubMed:Fructose induced lipogenesis: from sugar to fat to insulin resistance.
PubMed:Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data.
PubMed:Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.
PubMed:How does the consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup impact the health of children and adolescents?
PubMed:Anaerobic biotransformation of high concentrations of chloroform by an enrichment culture and two bacterial isolates.
PubMed:The health implications of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose: what do we really know?
PubMed:Fructose: pure, white, and deadly? Fructose, by any other name, is a health hazard.
PubMed:Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.
PubMed:Fructose, exercise, and health.
PubMed:Elevated dietary sugar and the heart: experimental models and myocardial remodeling.
PubMed:Sodas, high fructose corn syrup, and obesity: Let's focus on the right target.
PubMed:Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:The effects of high fructose syrup.
PubMed:Increased fructose intake as a risk factor for dementia.
PubMed:Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.
PubMed:Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions.
PubMed:Ultrasonic viscosity measurement using the shear-wave reflection coefficient with a novel signal processing technique.
PubMed:The role of high-fructose corn syrup in metabolic syndrome and hypertension.
PubMed:Cisapride treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.
PubMed:Fructose consumption: recent results and their potential implications.
PubMed:Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.
PubMed:Development of a novel fluorescent tag O-2-[aminoethyl]fluorescein for the electrophoretic separation of oligosaccharides.
PubMed:Phosphine intoxication following oral exposure of horses to aluminum phosphide-treated feed.
PubMed:Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence.
PubMed:Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.
PubMed:The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Effect of dietary monosodium glutamate on HFCS-induced hepatic steatosis: expression profiles in the liver and visceral fat.
PubMed:Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity.
PubMed:Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.
PubMed:The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.
PubMed:Soft drink consumption and obesity: it is all about fructose.
PubMed:Evaluation of strategies for anaerobic bioremediation of high concentrations of halomethanes.
PubMed:Multiple abnormalities of myocardial insulin signaling in a porcine model of diet-induced obesity.
PubMed:Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.
PubMed:Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.
PubMed:Elevated curdlan production by a mutant of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749.
PubMed:Reusable ultrasonic tissue mimicking hydrogels containing nonionic surface-active agents for visualizing thermal lesions.
PubMed:Honey bee foraging preferences, effects of sugars, and fruit fly toxic bait components.
PubMed:Hardening of high-protein nutrition bars and sugar/polyol-protein phase separation.
PubMed:Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship?
PubMed:Determination of an economical medium for growth of Lactobacillus fermentum using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high-fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera).
PubMed:Interrelationships of added sugars intake, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity in adults in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2005.
PubMed:Effects of science and the media on consumer perceptions about dietary sugars.
PubMed:National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States.
PubMed:The effect of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on triglycerides and uric acid.
PubMed:Fructose and satiety.
PubMed:Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.
PubMed:Misconceptions about high-fructose corn syrup: is it uniquely responsible for obesity, reactive dicarbonyl compounds, and advanced glycation endproducts?
PubMed:The state of the science on dietary sweeteners containing fructose: summary and issues to be resolved.
PubMed:The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.
PubMed:Diabetes of the liver: the link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and HFCS-55.
PubMed:Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.
PubMed:Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar.
PubMed:Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?
PubMed:Fructose: should we worry?
PubMed:Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.
PubMed:Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.
PubMed:Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?
PubMed:Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.
PubMed:Fructose consumption and consequences for glycation, plasma triacylglycerol, and body weight: meta-analyses and meta-regression models of intervention studies.
PubMed:Practice and mechanism of HPLC oligosaccharide separation with a cyclodextrin bonded phase.
PubMed:Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.
PubMed:Perspectives on obesity and sweeteners, folic acid fortification and vitamin D requirements.
PubMed:Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.
PubMed:Dietary fructose consumption among US children and adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
PubMed:Diet-induced insulin resistance impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognition in middle-aged rats.
PubMed:Deletion of xylR gene enhances expression of xylose isomerase in Streptomyces lividans TK24.
PubMed:Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants.
PubMed:Effect of consuming different caloric sweeteners on bone health and possible mechanisms.
PubMed:Carbohydrate issues: type and amount.
PubMed:Thermoinactivation mechanism of glucose isomerase.
PubMed:Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.
PubMed:Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Impact of sugar replacers on cognitive performance and function in rats.
PubMed:Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice.
PubMed:Hepato-pancreato-biliary fat: the good, the bad and the ugly.
PubMed:The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague-Dawley rats on bone mass and strength.
PubMed:A short history of beverages and how our body treats them.
PubMed:Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.
PubMed:No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.
PubMed:Much ado about high-fructose corn syrup in beverages: the meat of the matter.
PubMed:Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.
PubMed:Carbohydrate consumption and esophageal cancer:an ecological assessment.
PubMed:Properties of low-moisture viscoplastic materials consisting of oil droplets dispersed in a protein-carbohydrate-glycerol matrix: effect of oil concentration.
PubMed:Patient perspectives: barriers to complementary and alternative medicine therapies create problems for patients and survivors.
PubMed:Effects of sucromalt on postprandial responses in human subjects.
PubMed:A new methodology based on GC-MS to detect honey adulteration with commercial syrups.
PubMed:Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.
PubMed:A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain.
PubMed:Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference?
PubMed:Hormonal responses to a fast-food meal compared with nutritionally comparable meals of different composition.
PubMed:Infantile scurvy: an old diagnosis revisited with a modern dietary twist.
PubMed:Spray-dried multilayered emulsions as a delivery method for omega-3 fatty acids into food systems.
PubMed:Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.
PubMed:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predisposing factors and the role of nutrition.
PubMed:Laboratory environment effects on the reproduction and mortality of adult screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae).
PubMed:The 'skinny' on childhood obesity: how our western environment starves kids' brains.
PubMed:Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women.
PubMed:Oral and oropharyngeal perceptions of fluid viscosity across the age span.
PubMed:Obesity and diabetes: the roles that prices and policies play.
PubMed:Cyclodextrins found in enzyme- and heat-processed starch-containing foods.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a new perspective on honey adulteration detection.
PubMed:Examining the influence of substrates and temperature on maximum specific growth rate of denitrifiers.
PubMed:An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane.
PubMed:Added sweeteners. Are high-fructose corn syrup and other sweeteners fueling the American obesity epidemic?
PubMed:Reproduction of severe gastroesophageal ulcers (GEU) in gnotobiotic swine infected with porcine Helicobacter pylori-like bacteria.
PubMed:Application of Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy to the discrimination between Irish artisanal honey and such honey adulterated with various sugar syrups.
PubMed:Increasing the protein content of ice cream.
PubMed:Use of force plate analysis to assess the analgesic effects of etodolac in horses with navicular syndrome.
PubMed:Safety assessment of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an ingredient added to cigarette tobacco.
PubMed:Properties of low moisture composite materials consisting of oil droplets dispersed in a protein-carbohydrate-glycerol matrix: effect of continuous phase composition.
PubMed:Adverse effects of dietary fructose.
PubMed:Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.
PubMed:Detection of royal jelly adulteration using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.
PubMed:A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.
PubMed:Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.
PubMed:Sugar-cellulose composites VII. A comparative assessment of corn syrup as a fiber substitute in paper.
PubMed:Honey in combination with vacuum impregnation to prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples.
PubMed:An anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutritional supplement for hypoalbuminemic hemodialysis patients: a pilot/feasibility study.
PubMed:Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.
PubMed:Effect of media composition and growth conditions on production of beta-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger C-6.
PubMed:Detection of sugar adulterants in apple juice using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Dietary modulation of parathion-induced neurotoxicity in adult and juvenile rats.
PubMed:Prevalence, symptoms and outcome of constipation in infants and toddlers.
PubMed:Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia.
PubMed:Effects of dietary fructose on liver steatosis in overfed mule ducks.
PubMed:The obesity epidemic in the United States.
PubMed:Dried fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants.
PubMed:The fat of the land: do agricultural subsidies foster poor health?
PubMed:Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.
PubMed:High-fructose corn syrup and the obesity epidemic.
PubMed:Is high fructose corn syrup the cause of obesity?
PubMed:Utilization of various carbohydrate sources as affected by age in the chick.
PubMed:Synthesis of the sialic acid (-)-KDN and certain epimers from (-)-3-dehydroshikimic acid or (-)-quinic acid.
PubMed:The epidemic of obesity and changes in food intake: the Fluoride Hypothesis.
PubMed:Beverage consumption and risk of obesity among Native Americans in Arizona.
PubMed:Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment.
PubMed:Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.
PubMed:Added thermogenic and satiety effects of a mixed nutrient vs a sugar-only beverage.
PubMed:Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.
PubMed:Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects.
PubMed:Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome.
PubMed:Isolation of a mutant strain of Pseudomonas sp ATCC 31461 exhibiting elevated polysaccharide production.
PubMed:Glucose-to-fructose conversion at high temperatures with xylose (glucose) isomerases from Streptomyces murinus and two hyperthermophilic Thermotoga species.
PubMed:Effect of double homogenization and whey protein concentrate on the texture of ice cream.
PubMed:Heat resistance of juice spoilage microorganisms.
PubMed:Mixed submerged fermentation with two filamentous fungi for cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme production.
PubMed:A glucose/hydrogen peroxide biofuel cell that uses oxidase and peroxidase as catalysts by composite bulk-modified bioelectrodes based on a solid binding matrix.
PubMed:Cooperative action of alpha-glucanotransferase and maltogenic amylase for an improved process of isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) production.
PubMed:Effects of pentoxifylline on pulmonary function and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.
PubMed:Effect of ingestion of honey on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis.
PubMed:Efficacy of partially hydrolyzed corn syrup solids as a replacement for lactose in manufactured liquid diets for neonatal pigs.
PubMed:Polysaccharide production by immobilized Aureobasidium pullulans cells in batch bioreactors.
PubMed:Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.
PubMed:Extraction and analysis of lead in sweeteners by flow-injection Donnan dialysis with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.
PubMed:Acute toxicity and mutagenicity study on branched corn syrup and evaluation of its laxative effect in humans.
PubMed:Oral vaccination of sexually mature pigs with Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51.
PubMed:Polysaccharide production by a reduced pigmentation mutant of Aureobasidium pullulans NYS-1.
PubMed:Effect of culture medium pH on bacterial gellan production.
PubMed:Control of fumonisin: effects of processing.
PubMed:Batch and fed-batch carotenoid production by Rhodotorula glutinis-Debaryomyces castellii co-cultures in corn syrup.
PubMed:Identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup and high-fructose corn syrup in apple juice by capillary gas chromatography: PVM 4:1999.
PubMed:Description of the long-term lipogenic effects of dietary carbohydrates in male Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed:Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in stocker calves.
PubMed:Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in bull elk.
PubMed:Ability of casamino acids to support gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461.
PubMed:Risk of infant botulism from corn syrup.
PubMed:Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fluid ingestion: influence of glycemic response on 10-km treadmill running performance in the heat.
PubMed:The interaction between dietary fructose and magnesium adversely affects macromineral homeostasis in men.
PubMed:Effect of L-glucose and D-tagatose on bacterial growth in media and a cooked cured ham product.
PubMed:Effect of nitrogen source on pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown in a batch bioreactor.
PubMed:Survival of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in egg powders as affected by water activity and temperature.
PubMed:Effects of orally administered enteric-coated omeprazole on gastric acid secretion in horses.
PubMed:Generalized linearization of kinetics of glucose isomerization to fructose by immobilized glucose isomerase.
PubMed:Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.
PubMed:Lowering the pH optimum of D-xylose isomerase: the effect of mutations of the negatively charged residues.
PubMed:Fate of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in liquid sweeteners.
PubMed:Effects of cigarette smoking through a partially occluded filter.
PubMed:Chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.
PubMed:Effect of ranitidine on intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals.
PubMed:Solvent and viscosity effects on the rate-limiting product release step of glucoamylase during maltose hydrolysis.
PubMed:Long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine prevents age-related reduction in renal function.
PubMed:Microbiological quality of cooked chicken breasts containing commercially available shelf-life extenders.
PubMed:Crystal structure of thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis refined at 1.7 A resolution.
PubMed:Oral sensory discrimination of fluid viscosity.
PubMed:Surveillance of fumonisins in UK maize-based foods and other cereals.
PubMed:Enhancement of intestinal water absorption and sodium transport by glycerol in rats.
PubMed:Molecular analysis of the fructose transporter gene (GLUT5) in isolated fructose malabsorption.
PubMed:beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.
PubMed:Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.
PubMed:Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source.
PubMed:Amylolytic enzymes and products derived from starch: a review.
PubMed:[Cariogenic carbohydrates in maltodextrin-containing breast milk food substitutes].
PubMed:The nutritional management of acute diarrhea in young infants: effect of carbohydrate ingested.
PubMed:Normative data for commercial pineapple juice from concentrate.
PubMed:Immobilization of D-xylose (D-glucose) isomerase from a Chainia species.
PubMed:Determination of honey authenticity by anion-exchange liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Co-determination of sodium metabisulfite and starch in corn syrup by flow injection coulometry.
PubMed:Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals.
PubMed:Effect of carbohydrate composition on fluid balance, gastric emptying, and exercise performance.
PubMed:Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.
PubMed:High-speed chromatographic analysis of high-fructose corn syrup for process monitoring.
PubMed:Effects of carbonated and noncarbonated beverages at specific intervals during treadmill running in the heat.
PubMed:Effect of sucralfate on healing of subclinical gastric ulcers in foals.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetic disposition of intravenous and oral pentoxifylline in horses.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic detection of a variety of inexpensive sweeteners added to pure orange juice.
PubMed:The effect of L-carnitine and soybean oil on performance and nitrogen and energy utilization by neonatal and young pigs.
PubMed:Immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity to malathion.
PubMed:Intestinal water absorption from select carbohydrate solutions in humans.
PubMed:Use of nutritional support formula as a gastrointestinal contrast agent for MRI.
PubMed:Effect of inclusion of beans in a mixed diet for the treatment of Peruvian children with acute watery diarrhea.
PubMed:Rifampin disposition in the horse: effects of age and method of oral administration.
PubMed:Mineral balances in humans as affected by fructose, high fructose corn syrup and sucrose.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.
PubMed:[Effect of carbohydrate structure on glucose utilization and biosynthesis of lipids, proteins and glucagon in rats].
PubMed:Dietary management of malnourished children with a new enteral feeding.
PubMed:Enhancing the thermostability of glucose isomerase by protein engineering.
PubMed:An epizootic of peroneal and tibial neuropathy in Walker Hound pups.
PubMed:Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.
PubMed:Effect of fructose consumption during lactation on sow and litter performance and sow plasma constituents.
PubMed:Frozen desserts and glycemic response in well-controlled NIDDM patients.
PubMed:Effects of high-fructose (90%) corn syrup on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
PubMed:[Nutritional recovery in marasmus using soy formula enriched with L-methionine].
PubMed:Risk factors for infant botulism in the United States.
PubMed:Body fluid and endometrial concentrations of ketoconazole in mares after intravenous injection or repeated gavage.
PubMed:Mechanism of thermoinactivation of immobilized glucose isomerase.
PubMed:The protective effects of sucralfate and ranitidine in foals experimentally intoxicated with phenylbutazone.
PubMed:Effects of cassava variety and processing on energy and protein digestibility and utilization by young children.
PubMed:Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.
PubMed:Nutritional value for young children of grain amaranth and maize-amaranth mixtures: effect of processing.
PubMed:Enzymatic production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose in aqueous ethanol.
PubMed:Effects of feeding sows fat or fructose during late gestation and lactation.
PubMed:Effect of dietary fructose on broiler chick performance.
PubMed:Influence of selected carbohydrate drinks on cycling performance and glycogen use.
PubMed:Osmolalities of selected enteral products and carbohydrate modules used to treat inherited metabolic disorders.
PubMed:Food additives and contaminants. An update.
PubMed:Thin layer chromatographic determination of deoxynivalenol in processed grain products.
PubMed:The effects of sucrose, fructose, and high-fructose corn syrup meals on plasma glucose and insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.
PubMed:Separation of dansyl hydrazine-derivatized oligosaccharides by liquid chromatography.
PubMed:[Caries-inducing activity of corn syrup in experimental dental caries].
PubMed:Yield and composition of milk and weight gain of nursing pigs from sows fed diets containing fructose or dextrose.
PubMed:Response of plasma glucose, fructose and insulin to dietary glucose and fructose in the lactating sow.
PubMed:Carbohydrate composition of candy bars.
PubMed:Corn syrup sugars: in vitro and in vivo digestibility and clinical tolerance in acute diarrhea of infancy.
PubMed:An immobilized two-enzyme system (fungal alpha-amylase/glucoamylase) and its use in the continuous production of high conversion maltose-containing corn syrups.
PubMed:Verification of authenticity of apple juice.
PubMed:Mass spectrometric 13C/12C determinations to detect high fructose corn syrup in orange juice: collaborative study.
PubMed:Effects of osmolality of liquid nutrient diets on plasma equilibration of water and carbohydrate in Yucatan miniature swine.
PubMed:Plasma glucose and insulin after fructose an high-fructose corn syrup meals in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Malnutrition associated with a formula of barley water, corn syrup, and whole milk.
PubMed:Nutritive value of elemental formula with reduced osmolality.
PubMed:Triglyceride integrated concentrations: effect of variation of source and amount of dietary carbohydrate.
PubMed:Availability of oral carbohydrates to neonatal calves.
PubMed:Isolation of maltopentaose from corn syrup by chromatography on granulated hydroxylapatite.
PubMed:Screening and prevention of nutritional anemia during infancy. A prospective study of food fortification.
PubMed:Carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio is relatively uniform among honeys.
PubMed:Letter: The use of high-fructose corn syrup as a sweetener.
PubMed:Effect of varying ratios of fat and protein in fiber-free semisynthetic diets on fecal output of pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).
PubMed:[Solute charge in milk feeding of babies with diarrhea].
PubMed:Economical factors in the assessment of various cellulosic substances as chemical and energy resources.
PubMed:[Usefulnes of cervical mucus of cattle for pregnancy tests].
PubMed:Fermentability of corn syrups with different dextrose equivalents added to various grape juices.
PubMed:[Corn syrup as a medium for embedding microscopic preparations].
PubMed:Acid-enzyme converted corn syrup in infant feeding.
tsca definition 2008: a complex combination obtained by the hydrolysis of cornstarch by the action of acids or enzymes. it consists primarily of d-glucose, maltose and maltodextrins.
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