levulinic acid
4-oxovaleric acid
 
Notes:
inhibits 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Found in beet, caramel etc. Also reported in papaya (Carica papaya), wheat bread, rice bran, sake and Chinese quince fruit (Chaenomeles legenaria). Also prod. by lychee (Litchi chinensis), Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) and Phyllophora spp. Flavour ingredient
  • Advanced Biotech
  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements. Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients. The strength of the company is built on both its comprehensive knowledge base, and extensive stocks of raw materials for both fragrance and flavour use. To complement its range of conventional and Organic Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals, Augustus also offers a steadily increasing range of its own, UK manufactured Natural Extracts, Absolutes, Resinoids and Natural Chemicals. These again are fully tested and certificated, and very tightly quality controlled. Augustus is committed to promoting the use of natural ingredients, wherever the potential lies and to provide an environment of support and trust to both our customers and suppliers.
      Email: Enquiries
      Email: Sales
      Email: web site enquiries
      Voice: +44 (0)1420 590555
      Fax: +44 (0)1420 592420
      Services
      Product(s):
      Levulinic Acid
       
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email: Mr. Jia
      Email: Mr. Guo
      Voice: 86-10-68418738
      Fax: 86-10-68418739
      Mr. Guo86-10-68483445
      Mr. Guo86-10-68418739
      News
      Product(s):
      10359 Levulinic acid
       
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve and our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Personal care ingredients now include a substantial array of luxury and exotic components. Substantial inroads have been made in the nutraceutical and resins markets, with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. And we continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions.
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 203-299-3220
      Fax: 203-299-1355
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      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      LEVULINIC ACID
       
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      Resources
      History
      Product(s):
      W126 levulinic acid
       
  • Fleurchem
    • Fleurchem, Inc.
      Have A Flavorful Day
      A leading global manufacturer and supplier of ingredients for Flavors, Fragrances, AromaTherapy, Foods, Beverages, Personal Care Products, and other uses.
      Operating out of the 200,000 sq. ft., former Hercules/PFW facility in Middletown, NY; Fleurchem produces a full range of natural isolates, synthetic chemicals & specialities, essential oils and flavors. Additionally, the company performs toll manufacturing, as well as custom chemical synthesis for a wide range of clients.
      Email: Information
      US Voice: 845-341-2100
      US Fax: 845-341-2121
      Product(s):
      levulinic acid natural
       
  • Indukern F&F
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
      Linkedin
      Product(s):
      LEVULINIC ACID 97%
       
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax: +86-21-32515502 64204960
      US Voice: 908-359-9000
      US Fax: 908-359-9002
      News
      Product(s):
      A0372 LEVULINIC ACID, Kosher
       
  • Penta International
  • Sigma-Aldrich
  • SRS Aromatics
    • SRS Aromatics Ltd
      For over 25 years
      Bringing flavour and fragrance into your world.
      As suppliers / distributors of ingredients to the fragrance and flavour industries, our goal is to provide high quality materials at competitive prices with an exceptional level of service. Established in 1984, SRS Aromatics Ltd is an independent family owned business which has become very well-respected within the fragrance and flavour industry as a reliable and trustworthy partner. Over the years this has allowed the company to develop strong relationships with many global manufacturers; several of whom we represent in the UK. A core aim of our business is to work extremely closely with both our suppliers and customers to maximise service levels with minimum disruption to supply.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +44 (0) 1284 704076
      Fax: +44 (0) 1284 760819
      Twitter
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      Product(s):
      LEVULINIC ACID
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      Facebook
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      Linkedin
      RSS
      Product(s):
      L0042 Levulinic Acid >97.0%(GC)(T)
       
  • Vigon International
    • Vigon International, Inc.
      Passion for Simplicity
      Manufacturer and supplier of high quality flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      The growth and success of Vigon is due in large part to a unique corporate concept that Vigon has developed and established within the industry: Creative Partnerships. This partnership concept has been and continues to be the foundation and guiding principle for all of Vigon's activities.
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 570-476-6300
      US Fax: 570-476-1110
      Facebook
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      Newsletter
      Blog
      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      501685 Levulinic Acid
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
    Flavor Demo Formulas
4-oxopentanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 123-76-2Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 204-649-2
FDA UNII: RYX5QG61EI
Nikkaji Web: J10.067F
Beilstein Number: 0506796
MDL: MFCD00002796
CoE Number: 23
XlogP3: -0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight: 116.11636000
Formula: C5 H8 O3
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 606  levulinic acid
Flavis Number: 08.023 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 08.023  4-oxovaleric acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: 4-oxovaleric acid
FEMA Number: 2627  levulinic acid
FDA Mainterm: LEVULINIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: yellow to brown clear liquid (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.13400 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.43960 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 30.00 to  33.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 245.00 to  246.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.011000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 280.00 °F. TCC ( 137.78 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.490
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils
 water, 6.746e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength: medium
 sweet  caramellic  acidic  buttery  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
sweet caramel acidic acetoin buttery
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
 sweet  guaiacol  creamy  acidic  vanilla  
Odor Description:
Sweet, guaiacol-like, creamy, acidic and slight vanillin-like
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
 acidic  sweet  creamy  dairy  
Taste Description:
at 70.00 ppm.  
Acidic, sweet, creamy and slight dairy
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
Substantivity: 400 Hour(s)
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Aceto
Levulinic Acid
Advanced Biotech
LEVULINIC ACID NATURAL
99% min.
Odor: Whiskey
Augustus Oils
Levulinic Acid
Services
Aurochemicals
LEVULINIC ACID, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Levulinic acid
Charkit Chemical
LEVULINIC ACID
CTC Organics
levulinic acid
De Monchy Aromatics
Levulinic Acid
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Levulinic Acid
Fleurchem
levulinic acid natural
Grau Aromatics
LEVULINIC ACID
Indukern F&F
LEVULINIC ACID
Odor: SMOKY, CARAMEL
CROP CALENDAR
Inoue Perfumery
LEVULINIC ACID
Lluch Essence
LEVULINIC ACID 97%
Odor: ACIDIC, BURNT, SWEATY
M&U International
LEVULINIC ACID, Kosher
Penn A Kem
Levulinic Acid
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID FCC, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID, NATURAL, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
Levulinic acid, ≥97%, FG
Odor: wine-like
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Levulinic acid, natural, 99%, FG
Odor: caramel
SRS Aromatics
LEVULINIC ACID
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Levulinic Acid >97.0%(GC)(T)
Vigon International
Levulinic Acid
Odor: MILD CARAMELLIC ODOR-ALMOST ODORLESS
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  1850 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1977j)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  450 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD607-952

oral-rat LD50  1850 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 847, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 847, 1979.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 190.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -53.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -14.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -14.00000
fruit ices: -14.00000
gelatins / puddings: -4.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -53.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 123-76-2
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 11579
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 4-oxopentanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000123762
RTECS: OI1575000 for cas# 123-76-2
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 4-oxopentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 123-76-2
Pubchem (cid): 11579
Pubchem (sid): 134974742
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00720
FooDB: FDB003296
Export Tariff Code: 2918.19.9000
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: Levulinic acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
acidic
acidic
2-ethyl butyric acidFL/FR
aldehydic
 acetyl nonyrylFL/FR
anisic
ortho-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
bitter
5(6)-decenoic acidFL/FR
buttery
 acetoinFL/FR
 acetyl butyrylFL/FR
 acetyl isobutyrylFL/FR
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
 butyl butyryl lactateFL/FR
caramellic
2-oxobutyric acidFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
cheesy
 butyric acidFL/FR
2-methyl hexanoic acidFL/FR
isovaleric acidFL/FR
coconut
 coconut decanone methylFR
delta-decalactoneFL/FR
delta-2-dodecenolactoneFL/FR
delta-nonalactoneFL/FR
gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
delta-octalactoneFL/FR
delta-undecalactoneFL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-decalactoneFL/FR
creamy
 butyl lactateFL/FR
gamma-butyrolactoneFL/FR
 creamy lactoneFL/FR
3-heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanoneFL/FR
para-vanillic acidFL/FR
para-vanillyl alcoholFL/FR
 veratraldehydeFL/FR
earthy
1-nonen-3-olFL/FR
3-octanolFL/FR
fatty
(Z)-dairy lactoneFL/FR
 ethyl undecylenateFL/FR
4-methyl octanoic acidFL/FR
fermented
 butyl laevo-lactateFL/FR
floral
 champaca absoluteFR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
fruity
 acetoin acetateFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 methyl (Z)-5-octenoateFL/FR
 octyl butyrateFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
 vanilla carboxylateFL/FR
green
isobutyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
isobutyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
(Z)-4-hepten-1-olFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenalFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
 ivy dioxolaneFR
milky
laevo-glutamineCS
mushroom
3-octen-2-olFL/FR
phenolic
para-alpha-dimethyl styreneFL/FR
4-methyl guaiacolFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla oleoresin baliFL/FR
tonka
6-amyl-alpha-pyroneFL/FR
 mint lactoneFL/FR
 octahydrocoumarinFL/FR
vanilla
ortho-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin isobutyrateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 vanilla cresolFR
 vanillinFL/FR
 vanillin propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 vanillylidene acetoneFL/FR
vegetable
 methionalFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
 butyl laurateFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
 ethyl palmitateFL/FR
2-methyl heptanoic acidFL/FR
 methyl laurateFL/FR
 nonanoic acidFL/FR
2-nonanolFL/FR
 octyl isobutyrateFL/FR
delta-tetradecalactoneFL/FR
2-tridecanoneFL/FR
 undecanoic acidFL/FR
woody
 guaiacwood acetatesFR
 guaiacyl acetateFL/FR
(-)-guaiolFR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 methyl sandalFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 allyl methyl trisulfideFL
2-butyl thiopheneFL
6-decenoic acidFL
ortho-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
2,5-dithiahexaneFL
delta-2-dodecenolactoneFL/FR
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetalFL
3-methyl crotonic acidFL
S-methyl thiopropionateFL
dextro,laevo-3-(methyl thio) butanoneFL
3-(methyl thio) methyl thiopheneFL
acidic
2-ethyl butyric acidFL/FR
aldehydic
 acetyl nonyrylFL/FR
amber
isobutyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
anisic
ortho-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
 vanillylidene acetoneFL/FR
bitter
 glyceryl tributyrateFL
brown
2-oxobutyric acidFL/FR
buttery
 butyl laevo-lactateFL/FR
 diacetylFL
delta-tetradecalactoneFL/FR
cabbage
 methyl 2-thiofuroateFL
caramellic
 creme brulee flavorFL
 pyruvaldehydeFL
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
cheesy
isovaleric acidFL/FR
coconut
delta-decalactoneFL/FR
 massoia bark oil CO2 extractFL
(R)-massoia lactoneFL
6-methyl coumarinFL
 octahydrocoumarinFL/FR
delta-octalactoneFL/FR
creamy
 acetoinFL/FR
 acetyl butyrylFL/FR
 acetyl isobutyrylFL/FR
6-amyl-alpha-pyroneFL/FR
 butyl butyryl lactateFL/FR
 creamy lactoneFL/FR
 custard flavorFL
5(6)-decenoic acidFL/FR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 mint lactoneFL/FR
delta-nonalactoneFL/FR
 octyl isobutyrateFL/FR
delta-undecalactoneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
para-vanillic acidFL/FR
para-vanillyl alcoholFL/FR
 veratraldehydeFL/FR
dairy
 butyl lactateFL/FR
 methyl (Z)-5-octenoateFL/FR
earthy
1-nonen-3-olFL/FR
fatty
(Z)-dairy lactoneFL/FR
 ethyl undecylenateFL/FR
4-methyl octanoic acidFL/FR
 nonanoic acidFL/FR
2,4-octadien-1-olFL
2-tridecanoneFL/FR
fermented
 methyl thio isovalerateFL
fruity
 acetoin acetateFL/FR
 acetyl isovalerylFL
 blueberry cheesecake flavorFL
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
3-heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanoneFL/FR
 vanilla carboxylateFL/FR
green
isobutyl methyl ketoneFL/FR
(Z)-4-hepten-1-olFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenalFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
lactonic
gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
milky
gamma-butyrolactoneFL/FR
mushroom
3-octen-2-olFL/FR
musty
3-octanolFL/FR
oily
2-methyl hexanoic acidFL/FR
sour
 butyric acidFL/FR
spicy
 benzylidene acetoneFL
para-alpha-dimethyl styreneFL/FR
 vanilla oleoresin baliFL/FR
toasted
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
tomato
 methionalFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin isobutyrateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
vanilla ice cream flavorFL
4-methyl guaiacolFL/FR
 vanillinFL/FR
 vanillin propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
 butyl laurateFL/FR
epsilon-decalactoneFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
 ethyl palmitateFL/FR
2-methyl heptanoic acidFL/FR
 methyl laurateFL/FR
2-nonanolFL/FR
 octyl 2-furoateFL
 octyl butyrateFL/FR
 undecanoic acidFL/FR
woody
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 guaiacyl acetateFL/FR
 
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Potential Uses:
 butterscotchFL
 caramelFL
 mapleFL
 skin conditioning 
 sugar brownFL
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 bread wheat bread
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 papaya fruit
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 quince fruit
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 rice
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 sake
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Synonyms:
 acetopropionic acid
3-acetyl propionic acid
beta-acetyl propionic acid
3-acetyl propionsaeure
3-acetylpropionic acid
b-acetylpropionic acid
3-acetylpropionsaeure
 acidum laevulinicum
 antithermin
3-ketobutane-1-carboxylic acid
 laevulic acid
 laevulinic acid
 levulic acid
 levulinic acid natural
4-ketopentanoic acid
4-oxopentanoic acid
gamma-oxopentanoic acid
 pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-
 propionic acid, 3-acetyl-
4-ketovaleric acid
4-oxovaleric acid
g-ketovaleric acid
gamma-ketovaleric acid
 valeric acid, 4-oxo-
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Articles:
PubMed: Sunflower-based biorefinery: Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production from crude glycerol, sunflower meal and levulinic acid.
PubMed: Efficacy of wash solutions in recovering Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil.
PubMed: Tolerance of the nanocellulose-producing bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus to lignocellulose-derived acids and aldehydes.
PubMed: Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.
PubMed: Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat.
PubMed: Reductions of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on beef trim by lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatments.
PubMed: Transfer of foodborne pathogens during mechanical slicing and their inactivation by levulinic acid-based sanitizer on slicers.
PubMed: Efficacy of a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Based Sanitizer on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Eggshells.
PubMed: Evaluation of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a sanitizer for use in processing Georgia-grown cantaloupes.
PubMed: Additive approach for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables using bacteriophage cocktail and produce wash.
PubMed: Efficacy of sanitizers in reducing Salmonella on pecan nutmeats during cracking and shelling.
PubMed: Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.
PubMed: Feasibility of anaerobic digestion from bioethanol fermentation residue.
PubMed: Reactivity of thermally treated α-dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed: Sanitizer efficacy against murine norovirus, a surrogate for human norovirus, on stainless steel surfaces when using three application methods.
PubMed: Evaluation of sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella on in-shell pecans and pecan nutmeats.
PubMed: Efficacy of a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate-based sanitizer on inactivation of human norovirus surrogates.
PubMed: Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic Acid coatings.
PubMed: Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed: Effect of pretreatment severity on the conversion of barley straw to fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds.
PubMed: Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package.
PubMed: Organic acids associated with saccharification of cellulosic wastes during solid-state fermentation.
PubMed: Efficacy of washing meat surfaces with 2% levulinic, acetic, or lactic acid for pathogen decontamination and residual growth inhibition.
PubMed: Efficacy of levulinic acid-sodium dodecyl sulfate against Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Cryptosporidium parvum.
PubMed: Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 on alfalfa seeds by levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed: Thermal degradation characteristics and antioxidant activity of fructose solution with heating temperature and time.
PubMed: Hydrolysis behavior of bamboo fiber in formic acid reaction system.
PubMed: Sucrose: A prospering and sustainable organic raw material.
PubMed: Inactivation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and poultry skin by combinations of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed: Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats containing sodium levulinate, sodium lactate, or a combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate.
PubMed: Ester hydroxy derivatives of methyl oleate: tribological, oxidation and low temperature properties.
PubMed: Interference by methyl levulinate in determination of total fat in low-fat, high-sugar products by gas chromatographic fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis.
PubMed: Marginal zinc deficiency and changes in behavioral salt taste threshold and salt preference in mice.
PubMed: [Turnover of microsomal hemeproteins in the guinea pig liver during food sensitization].
PubMed: [Influence of theophylline on hexachlorobenzene induced porphyria (author's transl)].
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