EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

levulinic acid
4-oxovaleric acid

Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:4-oxopentanoic acid
CAS Number: 123-76-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:204-649-2
FDA UNII:RYX5QG61EI
Nikkaji Web:J10.067F
Beilstein Number:0506796
MDL:MFCD00002796
CoE Number:23
XlogP3:-0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:116.11636000
Formula:C5 H8 O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:606 levulinic acid
FLAVIS Number:08.023 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.023 4-oxovaleric acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:4-oxovaleric acid
FEMA Number:2627 levulinic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: LEVULINIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow to brown clear liquid (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.13800 to 1.14800 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.469 to 9.553
Refractive Index:1.43500 to 1.44500 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 30.00 to 33.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 245.00 to 246.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.011000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 280.00 °F. TCC ( 137.78 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.490
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils
 water, 6.746e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:400 hour(s) at 20.00 %
sweet caramellic acidic buttery
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. sweet caramel acidic acetoin buttery
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
Odor sample from: Sigma-Aldrich
sweet guaiacol creamy acidic vanilla
Odor Description:Sweet, guaiacol-like, creamy, acidic and slight vanillin-like
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
Flavor Type: acidic
acidic sweet creamy dairy
Taste Description: at 70.00 ppm. Acidic, sweet, creamy and slight dairy
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
Levulinic Acid
Advanced Biotech
LEVULINIC ACID NATURAL
99% min.
Odor: Whiskey
Augustus Oils
Levulinic Acid
Services
Aurochemicals
LEVULINIC ACID, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Levulinic acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-
Charkit Chemical
LEVULINIC ACID
De Monchy Aromatics
Levulinic Acid
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Levulinic Acid
Fleurchem
levulinic acid natural
Frutarom
LEVULINIC ACID
Grau Aromatics
LEVULINIC ACID
Indukern F&F
LEVULINIC ACID
Odor: SMOKY, CARAMEL
Inoue Perfumery
LEVULINIC ACID
Lluch Essence
LEVULINIC ACID 97%
Odor: ACIDIC, BURNT, SWEATY
M&U International
LEVULINIC ACID, Kosher
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Levulinic Acid 98.0% (MIN)
Natural
Odor: sweet caramel acidic acetoin buttery
Penn A Kem
Levulinic Acid
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID FCC, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID, Kosher
Penta International
LEVULINIC ACID, NATURAL, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
Levulinic acid, ≥97%, FG
Odor: wine-like
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Levulinic acid, natural, 99%, FG
Odor: caramel
SRS Aromatics
LEVULINIC ACID
Synerzine
Levulinic Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Levulinic Acid >97.0%(GC)(T)
Vigon International
Levulinic Acid
Odor: MILD CARAMELLIC ODOR-ALMOST ODORLESS
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 1850 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1977j)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 450 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD607-952

oral-rat LD50 1850 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 847, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 847, 1979.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic, flavor and fragrance agents
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 190.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -53.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -14.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -14.00000
fruit ices: -14.00000
gelatins / puddings: -4.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -53.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):123-76-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :11579
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
4-oxopentanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000123762
RTECS:OI1575000 for cas# 123-76-2
 
References:
 4-oxopentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:123-76-2
Pubchem (cid):11579
Pubchem (sid):134974742
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00720
FooDB:FDB003296
Export Tariff Code:2918.19.9000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
FAO:Levulinic acid
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
acidic
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
anisic
ortho-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
caramellic
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
cheesy
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
creamy
butyl lactate
FL/FR
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
creamy lactone
FL/FR
3-
heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
para-
vanillyl alcohol
FL/FR
veratraldehyde
FL/FR
earthy
1-
nonen-3-ol
FL/FR
3-
octanol
FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
ethyl undecylenate
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
fermented
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
floral
champaca absolute
FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
vanilla carboxylate
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
ivy dioxolane
FR
milky
laevo-
glutamine
CS
mushroom
3-
octen-2-ol
FL/FR
phenolic
para-alpha-
dimethyl styrene
FL/FR
spicy
4-
methyl guaiacol
FL/FR
sweet
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
tonka
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
mint lactone
FL/FR
octahydrocoumarin
FL/FR
vanilla
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanilla cresol
FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
vanillylidene acetone
FL/FR
vegetable
methional
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
butyl laurate
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
woody
guaiacwood acetates
FR
guaiacyl acetate
FL/FR
(-)-
guaiol
FR
gurjun balsam oil
FR
methyl sandal
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
allyl methyl trisulfide
FL
2-
butyl thiophene
FL
6-
decenoic acid
FL
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
2,5-
dithiahexane
FL
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
FL
3-
methyl crotonic acid
FL
S-
methyl thiopropionate
FL
3-(
methyl thio) methyl thiophene
FL
acidic
acidic
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
amber
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
anisic
ortho-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
vanillylidene acetone
FL/FR
bitter
glyceryl tributyrate
FL
brown
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
buttery
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
diacetyl
FL
cabbage
methyl 2-thiofuroate
FL
caramellic
creme brulee flavor
FL
pyruvaldehyde
FL
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
cheesy
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
massoia bark oil CO2 extract
FL
(R)-
massoia lactone
FL
6-
methyl coumarin
FL
octahydrocoumarin
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
creamy lactone
FL/FR
custard flavor
FL
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
mint lactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
octyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
para-
vanillyl alcohol
FL/FR
veratraldehyde
FL/FR
dairy
butyl lactate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
earthy
1-
nonen-3-ol
FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
ethyl undecylenate
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
2,4-
octadien-1-ol
FL
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
fermented
methyl thio isovalerate
FL
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
acetyl isovaleryl
FL
blueberry cheesecake flavor
FL
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
3-
heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
FL/FR
vanilla carboxylate
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
milky
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-3-(
methyl thio) butanone
FL
mushroom
3-
octen-2-ol
FL/FR
musty
3-
octanol
FL/FR
oily
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
sour
butyric acid
FL/FR
spicy
benzylidene acetone
FL
para-alpha-
dimethyl styrene
FL/FR
sweet
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
toasted
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
tomato
methional
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanilla
ice cream flavor
FL
4-
methyl guaiacol
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
butyl laurate
FL/FR
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-furoate
FL
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
woody
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
guaiacyl acetate
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLbutterscotch
FLcaramel
FLmaple
 skin conditioning
FLsugar brown sugar
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 bread wheat bread
Search PMC Picture
 papaya fruit
Search Trop Picture
 quince fruit
Search Trop Picture
 rice
Search Trop Picture
 sake
Search PMC Picture
 
Synonyms:
 acetopropionic acid
3-acetyl propionic acid
beta-acetyl propionic acid
3-acetyl propionsaeure
3-acetylpropionic acid
b-acetylpropionic acid
3-acetylpropionsaeure
 acidum laevulinicum
 antithermin
3-ketobutane-1-carboxylic acid
 laevulic acid
 laevulinic acid
 levulic acid
 levulinic acid natural
4-ketopentanoic acid
4-oxopentanoic acid
gamma-oxopentanoic acid
 pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-
 propionic acid, 3-acetyl-
4-ketovaleric acid
4-oxovaleric acid
g-ketovaleric acid
gamma-ketovaleric acid
 valeric acid, 4-oxo-
 

Articles:

PubMed:Sunflower-based biorefinery: Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production from crude glycerol, sunflower meal and levulinic acid.
PubMed:Efficacy of wash solutions in recovering Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil.
PubMed:Tolerance of the nanocellulose-producing bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus to lignocellulose-derived acids and aldehydes.
PubMed:Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.
PubMed:Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat.
PubMed:Reductions of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on beef trim by lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatments.
PubMed:Transfer of foodborne pathogens during mechanical slicing and their inactivation by levulinic acid-based sanitizer on slicers.
PubMed:Efficacy of a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Based Sanitizer on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Eggshells.
PubMed:Evaluation of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a sanitizer for use in processing Georgia-grown cantaloupes.
PubMed:Additive approach for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables using bacteriophage cocktail and produce wash.
PubMed:Efficacy of sanitizers in reducing Salmonella on pecan nutmeats during cracking and shelling.
PubMed:Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.
PubMed:Feasibility of anaerobic digestion from bioethanol fermentation residue.
PubMed:Reactivity of thermally treated α-dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed:Sanitizer efficacy against murine norovirus, a surrogate for human norovirus, on stainless steel surfaces when using three application methods.
PubMed:Evaluation of sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella on in-shell pecans and pecan nutmeats.
PubMed:Efficacy of a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate-based sanitizer on inactivation of human norovirus surrogates.
PubMed:Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic Acid coatings.
PubMed:Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed:Effect of pretreatment severity on the conversion of barley straw to fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds.
PubMed:Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package.
PubMed:Organic acids associated with saccharification of cellulosic wastes during solid-state fermentation.
PubMed:Efficacy of washing meat surfaces with 2% levulinic, acetic, or lactic acid for pathogen decontamination and residual growth inhibition.
PubMed:Efficacy of levulinic acid-sodium dodecyl sulfate against Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Cryptosporidium parvum.
PubMed:Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 on alfalfa seeds by levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed:Thermal degradation characteristics and antioxidant activity of fructose solution with heating temperature and time.
PubMed:Hydrolysis behavior of bamboo fiber in formic acid reaction system.
PubMed:Sucrose: A prospering and sustainable organic raw material.
PubMed:Inactivation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and poultry skin by combinations of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
PubMed:Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats containing sodium levulinate, sodium lactate, or a combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate.
PubMed:Ester hydroxy derivatives of methyl oleate: tribological, oxidation and low temperature properties.
PubMed:Interference by methyl levulinate in determination of total fat in low-fat, high-sugar products by gas chromatographic fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis.
PubMed:Marginal zinc deficiency and changes in behavioral salt taste threshold and salt preference in mice.
PubMed:[Turnover of microsomal hemeproteins in the guinea pig liver during food sensitization].
PubMed:[Influence of theophylline on hexachlorobenzene induced porphyria (author's transl)].
 
Notes:
inhibits 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Found in beet, caramel etc. Also reported in papaya (Carica papaya), wheat bread, rice bran, sake and Chinese quince fruit (Chaenomeles legenaria). Also prod. by lychee (Litchi chinensis), Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) and Phyllophora spp. Flavour ingredient
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2018 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy