furfural
2-furfuraldehyde

Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name: furan-2-carbaldehyde
CAS Number: 98-01-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 202-627-7
FDA UNII: DJ1HGI319P
Nikkaji Web: J3.981K
Beilstein Number: 0105755
MDL: MFCD00003229
CoE Number: 2014
XlogP3: 0.40 (est)
Molecular Weight: 96.08528000
Formula: C5 H4 O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 450 furfural
Flavis Number: 13.018 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 13.018 furfural
FEMA Number: 2489 furfural
FDA Mainterm: FURFURAL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear oily liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity: 1.15600 to 1.16200 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.619 to 9.669
Refractive Index: 1.52200 to 1.52800 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -36.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 161.00 to 162.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 72.00 °C. @ 25.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure: 2.234000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 3.31 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 137.00 °F. TCC ( 58.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.410
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 7.70E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: bready
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity: 4 hour(s) at 100.00 %
 sweet woody almond bread baked
Odor Description:
at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol.
sweet woody almond fragrant baked bread
Luebke, William tgsc, (1995)
 sweet brown woody bready caramellic phenolic
Odor Description:
Sweet, brown, woody, bready, caramellic, with a slight phenolic nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 18, No. 2, 38, (1993)
Flavor Type: brown
 brown sweet woody bready nutty caramellic burnt astringent
Taste Description:
at 30.00 ppm.
Brown, sweet, woody, bready, nutty, caramellic with a burnt astringent nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 18, No. 2, 38, (1993)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Frutarom
FURFURAL (FURFURALDEHYDE) REDIST ≥99.00%, NI, Kosher
Odor Description: Almond, Caramel, Sweet, Woody
Suggested Uses: Bakery, Cocoa, Coffee, Cranberry, Dairy Products, Meat
Taste Description: brown sweet woody bready nutty caramel burnt
Sigma-Aldrich
Furfural, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Odor Description: almond; woody; sweet
Taste Description: brown sweet woody bready nutty caramel burnt
Moellhausen
FURFURAL
Odor Description: fresh, aromatic, bitter almond note
Taste Description: sweet caramel-like, nutty, baked bread, almond
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: solvents
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
FURFURAL NATURAL
98% min.
Advanced Biotech
FURFURAL SYNTHETIC
96% min.
Allan Chemical
Furfural
Artiste
Furfural Natural
Augustus Oils
Furfural
Services
Aurochemicals
FURFURAL, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Fufural
CG Herbals
Furfuraldehyde
Charkit Chemical
FURFURAL REDISTILLED (FURALDEHYDE, 2-) FEMA 2489
Charkit Chemical
FURFURAL REDISTILLED (FURFURALDEHYDE) F0050 2489
Charkit Chemical
FURFURAL
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Furfural
Endeavour Specialty Chemicals
2-Furaldehyde 98% F&F
Speciality Chemical Product Groups
Fleurchem
furfural natural
Frutarom
FURFURAL (FURFURALDEHYDE) REDIST
≥99.00%, NI, Kosher
Odor: Almond, Caramel, Sweet, Woody
Use: Suggested Uses: Bakery, Cocoa, Coffee, Cranberry, Dairy Products, Meat
H. Interdonati, Inc.
Furfural Natural, Kosher
Featured Products
Indukern F&F
FURFURAL NATURAL
Odor: SWEET, BREADY
Indukern F&F
FURFURAL
Odor: SWEET, BREADY
Inoue Perfumery
FURFURAL
Lluch Essence
FURFURALDEHYDE NATURAL
Lluch Essence
FURFURALDEHYDE
M&U International
NAT. FURFURAL
M&U International
2-FURALDEHYDE, Kosher
Moellhausen
FURFURAL
Odor: fresh, aromatic, bitter almond note
Flavor: sweet caramel-like, nutty, baked bread, almond
Penn A Kem
2-Furaldehyde
Penta International
FURFURAL FCC GRADE
Penta International
FURFURAL-REFINED FLAVOR GRADE, Kosher
Penta International
FURFURAL, NATURAL, Kosher
Perfumery Laboratory
Furfural
Odor: Sweet, almond, woody with a pronounced note of fragrant bread
Reincke & Fichtner
Furfural natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Furfural
Robinson Brothers
2-Furaldehyde F&F
https://www.robinsonbrothers.uk/chemistry-competences
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Furfural 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Furfural, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Odor: almond; woody; sweet
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Furfural, natural, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Odor: almond; woody; sweet
Taytonn
Furfural (Furfuraldehyde) Redist
Odor: Almond, Caramellic/ Caramel, Sweet, Woody
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Furfural >98.0%(GC)
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
Furfural
Treatt
Furfural
Vigon International
Furfural Natural
WEN International
FURFURAL Natural
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 21 - Harmful in contact with skin.
R 23 - Toxic by inhalation.
R 25 - Toxic if swallowed.
R 36/37 - Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
R 40 - Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
gavage-rat LD50 [sex: M,F] M:145 - 204 F:90 - 119 mg/kg
(Brown, 1982)

oral-rat LD50 65 mg/kg
Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna. Vol. 13, Pg. 371, 1980.

oral-mouse LD50 400 mg/kg
Biochemical Journal. Vol. 34, Pg. 1196, 1940.

intravenous-mouse LD50 152 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 102 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

oral-guinea pig LD50 541 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)" LIVER: "HEPATITIS (HEPATOCELLULAR NECROSIS), ZONAL" BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 32(5), Pg. 158, 1967.

oral-rabbit LD50 7031 mg/kg
Industrial Medicine and Surgery. Vol. 41, Pg. 31, 1972.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 1200 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 743, 1978.

oral-dog LD50 950 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.

intravenous-dog LD50 250 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

parenteral-frog LDLo 23000 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 21, Pg. 65, 1923.

intravenous-mouse LD50 152 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

oral-rabbit LDLo 800 mg/kg
PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: MYDRIASIS (PUPILLARY DILATION): EYE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 21, Pg. 65, 1923.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 620 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 148 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 119 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

subcutaneous-dog LD50 214 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

subcutaneous-guinea pig LDLo 100 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 500 mg/kg
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 32(5), Pg. 158, 1967.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 175 ppm/6H
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50, Pg. A359, 1989.

inhalation-dog LC50 370 ppm/6H
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.

inhalation-human TCLo 310 ug/m3
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 26(6), Pg. 3, 1961.

inhalation-mouse TCLo 370 ppm/6H
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Carcinogenicity
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.0010 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "wash off the skin contact":
  0.0010 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "no skin contact":
  0.0500 % Restriction.
Recommendation for furfural usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 440.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 460.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 9700 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:540 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: II
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -17.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -4.00000
beverages(alcoholic): -10.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -45.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -13.00000
fruit ices: -13.00000
gelatins / puddings: -0.80000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -12.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 25.0000060.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 25.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): -0.25000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): -0.25000
Confectionery (05.0): 25.00000700.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 5.0000025.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 25.0000063.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 25.00000-
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 15.0000028.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 17.0000030.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): -25.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): -25.00000
 
Safety References:
Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) reference(s):
The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavor ingredient.View pdf
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to Furfural and Furfural Diethylacetal.
View page or View pdf
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 13 (FGE.13); Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 66 (FGE.66)[1]:Consideration of furfuryl alcohol and related flavouring substances evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting) structurally related to Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side chain substituents and heteroatoms evaluated by EFSA in FGE.13 (2005)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 218: alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes and precursors from subgroup 4.2 of FGE.19: Furfural derivatives - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13Rev1: Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14
View page or View pdf
Consideration of sulfur-substituted furan derivatives used as flavouring agents evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to a subgroup of substances within the group of Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.13Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 67 (FGE.67): Consideration of 40 furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers evaluated by JECFA at the 65th meeting (JECFA, 2006b) and re-evaluated at the 69th meeting (JECFA, 2009c)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 218, Revision 1 (FGE.218Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes and precursors from subgroup 4.2 of FGE.19: Furfural derivatives.
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13Rev2): Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 67, Revision 1 (FGE.67Rev.1): Consideration of 40 furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers evaluated by JECFA at the 65th meeting (JECFA, 2006b) and re-evaluated at the 69th meeting (JECFA, 2009c)
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of furfuryl and furan derivatives belonging to chemical group 14 when used as flavourings for all animal species and categories
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ECHA (ESR): View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 98-01-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7362
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WISER: UN 1199
WGK Germany: 2
 furan-2-carbaldehyde
Chemidplus: 0000098011
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 98-01-1
 
References:
 furan-2-carbaldehyde
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 98-01-1
Pubchem (cid): 7362
Pubchem (sid): 134970962
Flavornet: 98-01-1
Pherobase: View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C14279
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB32914
FooDB: FDB010897
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB01459
Export Tariff Code: 2932.12.0000
Haz-Map: View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
Formulations/Preparations:
•grade: technical, refined. •natural, synthetic, industrial, 98% grades
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
buttery
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
diethyl malate
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
maltyl propionate
FL/FR
menthone lactone
FL/FR
5-
methyl furfural
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
earthy
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
fermented
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
floral
coranol (Firmenich)
FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
ethyl linalool
FR
ethyl linalyl acetal
FR
ethyl linalyl acetate
FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
ho wood oil
FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ortho-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
bread thiophene
FL/FR
methyl nonane dione
FL/FR
3-
methyl-2-butenal
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
herbal
lovage tincture
FL/FR
minty
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
musty
2-
acetyl pyrrole
FL/FR
nutty
3,5-
cocoa pyrazine
FL/FR
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
phenolic
ethyl vanillate
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
spicy
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl heptadienone
FL/FR
sulfurous
benzothiazole
FL/FR
tobacco
methyl benzoxole
FL/FR
woody
pinacol
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
2-
acetyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine
FL
diethyl malate
FL/FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
menthone lactone
FL/FR
4-
methoxybenzoyl oxyacetic acid
FL
2-
methoxythiazole
FL
methyl nonane dione
FL/FR
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
anisic
anisic
ortho-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
bready
2-
propionyl thiazole
FL
brown
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
5-
methyl furfural
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
burnt
furfuryl alcohol
FL
buttery
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
caramel nut cream flavor
FL
caramel nut fudge flavor
FL
cyclotene
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
maltyl propionate
FL/FR
maple nut flavor
FL
pyruvaldehyde
FL
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
chocolate
chocolate caramel nut flavor
FL
citrus
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
cocoa
butyraldehyde
FL
coffee
coffee distillates
FL
diisoamyl thiomalate
FL
2-
thiophene thiol
FL
corn
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-2-thiazoline
FL
creamy
ethyl vanillate
FL/FR
floral
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
acetyl isovaleryl
FL
banana nut bread flavor
FL
bread thiophene
FL/FR
(E,E)-
methyl sorbate
FL
3-
methyl-2-butenal
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
green
linalool oxide
FL/FR
methyl heptadienone
FL/FR
herbal
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
lovage tincture
FL/FR
meaty
benzothiazole
FL/FR
metallic
2,5-
dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane
FL
minty
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
musty
2-
ethoxythiazole
FL
nutty
2-
acetyl pyrrole
FL/FR
3,5-
cocoa pyrazine
FL/FR
coffee furanone
FL/FR
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
methyl benzoxole
FL/FR
peanut brittle flavor
FL
peanut oxazole
FL
roasted
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
spicy
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
sulfurous
2-
naphthyl mercaptan
FL
sweet
agave flavor
FL
caramel dione
FL
waxy
furfuryl octanoate
FL
winey
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
 acorn 
 amyrisFL/FR
 angelicaFL/FR
 beef roasted beef 
 beerFL
 bread baked bread 
 calamus 
 caramelFL
 carawayFL/FR
 cinnamonFL
 coffeeFL
 cranberryFL
 cypress 
 eucalyptusFL/FR
 neroli 
 nutFL
 orris iris 
 petitgrainFL/FR
 tobacco tabac tabaco leaf 
 vetiver 
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 allspice plant
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 amyris wood oil @ <0.10%
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 anise seed
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 apple fruit
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 apricot fruit
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 basil plant
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 bread white bread
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 cacao bean
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 cacao exocarp
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 calamus
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 caraway seed
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 cassia plant
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 chamomile sweet false chamomile plant
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 cherry morello cherry
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 cichorium intybus l. root extract @ 2.80%
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon bark
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 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon root bark
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 clove bud
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 clove fruit
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 clove plant
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 coffee arabica coffee bean
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 coffee bean
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander seed
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 corn plant
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 corn shoot
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 cornmint plant
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 cranberry fruit
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 dill plant
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 eschweilera coriacea (a. p. dc.) mori flower oil brazil @ 1.00%
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 ginger rhizome oil
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 grapefruit
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 guava fruit
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 hyssop shoot
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 kohlrabi stem
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 lavender oil spike spain @ 9.485%
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 lemon balm tissue culture
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 lemongrass plant
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 lime fruit
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 lovage root
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 malpighia glabra l. fruit oil @ 56.80%
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 malt
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 mango sap
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 mastic fruit oil @ 0.04%
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 mustard white mustard
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 nutmeg seed
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 oat hull husk
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 orange fruit
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 osmanthus absolute @ trace%
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 pimento leaf
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 plum fruit
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 potato chip
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 potato plant
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 pumpkin
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rice cakes
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 rice petiole
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 roselle calyx
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 rugula herb
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 rum
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 spearmint oil
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 tamarind fruit oil
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 tamarind seed oil
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 tea black tea
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 tomato fruit
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 tricholoma matsutake
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 vanilla
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 water mint leaf
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 whiskey malt whiskey
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Synonyms:
2-formyl furan
 formylfuran
2-furaldehyde
2-furan aldehyde
2-furan carbonal
2-furan carboxaldehyde
 furan-2-carbaldehyde
 furan-2-carboxaldehyde
2-furanaldehyde
2-furancarbonal
2-furancarboxaldehyde
2-furfural
 furfural (furfuraldehyde) redist
 furfural (natural)
 furfural crude
 furfural natural
 furfural synthetic
 furfural-refined flavor grade
 furfuraldehyde
2-furfuraldehyde
a-furfuraldehyde
alpha-furfuraldehyde
 furfuryl aldehyde
a-furole
2-furyl aldehyde
2-furyl carboxaldehyde
2-furyl methanal
2-furylcarboxaldehyde
2-furylmethanal
 pyromucic aldehyde
 

Articles:

PubMed: Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.
PubMed: Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).
PubMed: Effect of maturity stage and storage on flavor compounds and sensory description of berrycactus (Myrtillocactus geometrizans).
PubMed: Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed: Physicochemical and flavor characteristics of flavoring agent from mungbean protein hydrolyzed by bromelain.
PubMed: Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.
PubMed: Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).
PubMed: Honey collected from different floras of Chandigarh Tricity: a comparative study involving physicochemical parameters and biochemical activities.
PubMed: Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed: Chemical and biochemical study of industrially produced San Simón da Costa smoked semi-hard cow's milk cheeses: Effects of storage under vacuum and different modified atmospheres.
PubMed: Study on the role of precursors in coffee flavor formation using in-bean experiments.
PubMed: Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.
PubMed: Prediction of sensory properties of Brazilian Arabica roasted coffees by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography and partial least squares.
PubMed: Impact of forced-aging process on madeira wine flavor.
PubMed: The chemical characterization of the aroma of dessert and sparkling white wines (Pedro Ximénez, Fino, Sauternes, and Cava) by gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative analysis.
PubMed: Determination of volatile flavor components in danggui cultivars by solvent free injection and hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.
PubMed: Physicochemical model to interpret the kinetics of aroma extraction during wine aging in wood. Model limitations suggest the necessary existence of biochemical processes.
PubMed: Reduction of stale flavor development in low-heat skim milk powder via epicatechin addition.
PubMed: Inhibition of key aroma compound generated during ultrahigh-temperature processing of bovine milk via epicatechin addition.
PubMed: 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone levels in fortified Madeira wines: relationship to sugar content.
PubMed: Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.
PubMed: Evolution of chemical and sensory properties during aging of top-fermented beer.
PubMed: 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone: a key odorant of the typical aroma of oxidative aged Port wine.
PubMed: Thresholds of carcinogenicity of flavors.
PubMed: Furfural-cysteine model reaction in food grade nonionic oil/water microemulsions for selective flavor formation.
PubMed: Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.
PubMed: Volatile flavor constituents of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit.
PubMed: Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.
PubMed: Structured fluids as microreactors for flavor formation by the Maillard reaction.
PubMed: Volatile flavor components of rice cakes.
PubMed: The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.
PubMed: [The quantitative composition of natural and technologically changed aromas of plants. IV. Enzymic and thermal reaction products formed during the processing of tomatoes (author's transl)].
PubMed: [Flavor enhancement in rye bread by pre-baking].
PubMed: [Shortened dough preparation of wheat bread and its effect on the flavor. 1. Carbonyl compounds and ethanol].
PubMed: Microbial Lipid Production from Corn Stover via Mortierella isabellina.
PubMed: Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.
PubMed: Investigation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Baby Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.
PubMed: Bamboo: A new source of carbohydrate for biorefinery.
PubMed: Conversion of xylose into furfural using lignosulfonic Acid as catalyst in ionic liquid.
PubMed: Modified Method Combining in Situ Detoxification with Simultaneous Saccharification and Cofermentation (SSCF) as a Single Step for Converting Exploded Rice Straw into Ethanol.
PubMed: Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.
PubMed: Some qualitative properties of different monofloral honeys.
PubMed: Physico-chemical and sensory changes during the storage of lal peda.
PubMed: Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.
PubMed: Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using β-glycosidase.
PubMed: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and derivatives formed during acid hydrolysis of conjugated and bound phenolics in plant foods and the effects on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.
PubMed: Industrial robust yeast isolates with great potential for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.
PubMed: Sequential extrusion-ozone pretreatment of switchgrass and big bluestem.
PubMed: Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and steam-exploded Salix with recirculation of liquid digestate.
PubMed: Validation of a HPLC method for determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in crude palm oil.
PubMed: Tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis to inhibitors produced during dilute acid hydrolysis of soybean meal.
PubMed: Characterisation of volatile compounds in a smoke flavouring from rice husk.
PubMed: Physicochemical parameters and sensory properties of honeys from Buenos Aires region.
PubMed: Kinetics of browning, phenolics, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in commercial sparkling wines.
PubMed: Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.
PubMed: Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.
PubMed: Sequential extrusion-microwave pretreatment of switchgrass and big bluestem.
PubMed: Synthesis of the Insecticide Prothrin and Its Analogues from Biomass-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural.
PubMed: Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.
PubMed: Production and purification of xylooligosaccharides from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre by a non-isothermal process.
PubMed: Hydroxymethylfurfural: a possible emergent cause of honey bee mortality?
PubMed: In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.
PubMed: Comparison of an HPTLC method with the Reflectoquant assay for rapid determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey.
PubMed: Application of a high-throughput process analytical technology metabolomics pipeline to Port wine forced ageing process.
PubMed: New approaches to determination of HMF.
PubMed: Developing an effective means to reduce 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from caramel colour.
PubMed: Simultaneous analysis of furfural metabolites from Rehmanniae radix preparata by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.
PubMed: Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation of a 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural derivative, asfural, from enzyme-treated asparagus extract.
PubMed: Impacts of selected dietary polyphenols on caramelization in model systems.
PubMed: Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.
PubMed: Identification of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) in Cava sparkling wines by LC-DAD-MS/MS and NMR spectrometry.
PubMed: Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.
PubMed: Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw using various ionic liquids.
PubMed: The decay of ascorbic acid in a model wine system at low oxygen concentration.
PubMed: Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.
PubMed: Detection of extraction artifacts in the analysis of honey volatiles using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
PubMed: Wheat bran biorefinery--a detailed investigation on hydrothermal and enzymatic treatment.
PubMed: Preliminary studies of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of coconut fibers.
PubMed: Changes of antioxidant activity and formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey during thermal and microwave processing.
PubMed: Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.
PubMed: Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.
PubMed: Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).
PubMed: Indirect competitive ELISA based on monoclonal antibody for the detection of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in milk, compared with HPLC.
PubMed: Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.
PubMed: Port wine oxidation management: a multiparametric kinetic approach.
PubMed: Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean.
PubMed: Industrially applicable strategies for mitigating acrylamide, furan, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in food.
PubMed: Effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural derived from processed Cornus officinalis on the prevention of high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and its mechanism.
PubMed: Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.
PubMed: Rapid determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by DART ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Short communication: possible mechanism for inhibiting the formation of polymers originated from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by sulfite groups in the dairy thermal process.
PubMed: Jujube honey from China: physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents.
PubMed: Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.
PubMed: An efficient method for the determination of furan derivatives in apple cider and wine by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector.
PubMed: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera.
PubMed: Reactivity of thermally treated α-dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed: Untangling the chemistry of port wine aging with the use of GC-FID, multivariate statistics, and network reconstruction.
PubMed: Volatile profiling of high quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.): chemical indices of roasting.
PubMed: Determination of metabolites of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in human urine after oral application.
PubMed: Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.
PubMed: Effect of adulteration versus storage on volatiles in unifloral honeys from different floral sources and locations.
PubMed: Influence of the industrial processing and the floral origin into the volatile constituents of honeybee-collected pollen.
PubMed: Contribution of ALDH1A1 isozyme to detoxification of aldehydes present in food products.
PubMed: Influence of processing on the volatile profile of strawberry spreads made with isomaltulose.
PubMed: Dry vs soaked wood: modulating the volatile extractible fraction of oak wood by heat treatments.
PubMed: A comparison of different dilute solution explosions pretreatment for conversion of distillers' grains into ethanol.
PubMed: Characterisation of tequila according to their major volatile composition using multilayer perceptron neural networks.
PubMed: Characterisation of commercial aromatised vinegars: phenolic compounds, volatile composition and antioxidant activity.
PubMed: Controlling the Maillard reaction by reactant encapsulation: sodium chloride in cookies.
PubMed: Reporter gene mutation in the livers of gpt delta mice treated with 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, a contaminant of various foods.
PubMed: Okara promoted acrylamide and carboxymethyl-lysine formation in bakery products.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides and furfural derivatives in Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Sensomics analysis of taste compounds in balsamic vinegar and discovery of 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde as a novel sweet taste modulator.
PubMed: Short communication: simultaneous analysis of reducing sugars and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde at a low concentration by high performance anion exchange chromatography with electrochemical detector, compared with HPLC with refractive index detector.
PubMed: Identification and mode of action of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-hmf) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in vinegars.
PubMed: Quantification of furanic compounds in coated deep-fried products simulating normal preparation and consumption: optimisation of HS-SPME analytical conditions by response surface methodology.
PubMed: Application of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics to study the effect of location and botanical origin on volatile profile of unifloral American honeys.
PubMed: Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.
PubMed: Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine metabolites of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).
PubMed: The potential for oligosaccharide production from the hemicellulose fraction of biomasses through pretreatment processes: xylooligosaccharides (XOS), arabinooligosaccharides (AOS), and mannooligosaccharides (MOS).
PubMed: Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of furanic compounds in honey and vegetable oils.
PubMed: In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.
PubMed: Determination of very low levels of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in natural honey: comparison between the HPLC technique and the spectrophotometric white method.
PubMed: 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.
PubMed: In vivo detoxification of furfural during lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.
PubMed: Mutagenicity of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in V79 cells expressing human SULT1A1: identification and mass spectrometric quantification of DNA adducts formed.
PubMed: On-fiber furan formation from volatile precursors: a critical example of artefact formation during Solid-Phase Microextraction.
PubMed: Effect of maturity stage and storage on flavor compounds and sensory description of berrycactus (Myrtillocactus geometrizans).
PubMed: Survey of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commercial honey of different floral origin.
PubMed: Discrimination of Chinese vinegars based on headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry of volatile compounds and multivariate analysis.
PubMed: Effect of temperature and some added compounds on the stability of blood orange marmalade.
PubMed: Kinetics of 3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose in unifloral honeys.
PubMed: Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed: Demonstration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities from sugar-amino acid maillard reaction products.
PubMed: Study of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its metabolite 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural on induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci in wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2.
PubMed: Optimization of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production from wheat straw by a microwave-assisted process.
PubMed: Changes in the initial stages of a glucose-proline Maillard reaction model system influences dairy product quality during thermal processing.
PubMed: Nematicidal activity of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal from Ailanthus altissima against Meloidogyne javanica.
PubMed: Simultaneous quantitation of 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole, 2- and 4-methylimidazoles, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in beverages by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF.
PubMed: The potential of biodetoxification activity as a probiotic property of Lactobacillus reuteri.
PubMed: Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.
PubMed: Maillard reaction and protein cross-linking in relation to the solubility of milk powders.
PubMed: Intestinal carcinogenesis of two food processing contaminants, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, in transgenic FVB min mice expressing human sulfotransferases.
PubMed: Effect of pretreatment severity on the conversion of barley straw to fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds.
PubMed: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in food.
PubMed: Determination of low-molecular mass phenols in red wines: the influence of chips, staves and micro-oxygenation aging tank.
PubMed: Biological pretreatment with a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain of Trametes versicolor enhances the biofuel potential of canola straw.
PubMed: Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of a molecularly imprinted polymer by grafting on silica supports: a selective sorbent for patulin toxin.
PubMed: Mead production: tradition versus modernity.
PubMed: Thermal decomposition of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and its further transformations in the presence of glycine.
PubMed: Hydroxymethyl-substituted furans: mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains engineered for expression of various human and rodent sulphotransferases.
PubMed: Artificial aging of Uva di Troia and Primitivo wines using oak chips inoculated with Penicillium purpurogenum.
PubMed: Application of fuzzy expert system approach on prediction of some quality characteristics of grape juice concentrate (Pekmez) after different heat treatments.
PubMed: Identification of H₂O₂ as a major antimicrobial component in coffee.
PubMed: Physicochemical and flavor characteristics of flavoring agent from mungbean protein hydrolyzed by bromelain.
PubMed: Characterization of odor-active compounds of various cherry wines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.
PubMed: Fructo-oligosaccharide production from inulin through partial citric or phosphoric acid hydrolyses.
PubMed: Aiming for the complete utilization of sugar-beet pulp: Examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion.
PubMed: Acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction.
PubMed: Effects of lard on the formation of volatiles from the Maillard reaction of cysteine with xylose.
PubMed: Fast quantitation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey using planar chromatography.
PubMed: Kinetic study of the thermal hydrolysis of Agave salmiana for mezcal production.
PubMed: Reversible and covalent binding of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) with lysine and selected amino acids.
PubMed: Vitamin C and sugar levels as simple markers for discriminating Spanish honey sources.
PubMed: Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.
PubMed: Application of solid phase-microextraction (SPME) and electronic nose techniques to differentiate volatiles of sesame oils prepared with diverse roasting conditions.
PubMed: Detection of volatile spoilage metabolites in fermented cucumbers using nontargeted, comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS).
PubMed: Effect of antibrowning agents on browning and intermediate formation in the glucose-glutamic acid model.
PubMed: Toxicology and risk assessment of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in food.
PubMed: Application of factorial designs to study factors involved in the determination of aldehydes present in beer by on-fiber derivatization in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.
PubMed: A comparative study of kinetic and connectionist modeling for shelf-life prediction of Basundi mix.
PubMed: Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).
PubMed: Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.
PubMed: A new method for the determination of carbonyl compounds in wines by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Standardization of pre-treatments for the preparation of dried arils from wild pomegranate.
PubMed: nematicidal carboxylic acids and aldehydes from Melia azedarach fruits.
PubMed: Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data.
PubMed: Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.
PubMed: Use of microfungi in the treatment of oak chips: possible effects on wine.
PubMed: The optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of cotton stalk in xylose production.
PubMed: Exogenous methyl jasmonate diminishes the formation of lipid-derived compounds in boiled potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).
PubMed: Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed: Optimization of combined microwave-hot air roasting of malt based on energy consumption and neo-formed contaminants content.
PubMed: Glucose reversion reaction kinetics.
PubMed: Chemical and biochemical study of industrially produced San Simón da Costa smoked semi-hard cow's milk cheeses: Effects of storage under vacuum and different modified atmospheres.
PubMed: Isolation and structural characterization of anthocyanin-furfuryl pigments.
PubMed: Isolation and structure elucidation of an interaction product of aminotadalafil found in an illegal health food product.
PubMed: Does the pelleting process affect the nutritive value of a pre-starter diet for suckling piglets? Ex vivo studies on mineral absorption.
PubMed: Quantitative determination of caffeine, formic acid, trigonelline and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in soluble coffees by 1H NMR spectrometry.
PubMed: Kinetics of the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation reaction in Chinese rice wine.
PubMed: Estimation of dietary intake of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and related substances from coffee to Spanish population.
PubMed: In vitro antioxidant activity of 5-HMF isolated from marine red alga Laurencia undulata in free-radical-mediated oxidative systems.
PubMed: Physico-chemical studies on adulteration of honey in Nigeria.
PubMed: Genotoxic activities of the food contaminant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using different in vitro bioassays.
PubMed: Study on the role of precursors in coffee flavor formation using in-bean experiments.
PubMed: Dilute-acid pretreatment of distillers' grains and corn fiber.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in milk by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection.
PubMed: Semicarbazide is non-specific as a marker metabolite to reveal nitrofurazone abuse as it can form under Hofmann conditions.
PubMed: Assessment of hydroxymethylfurfural intake in the Spanish diet.
PubMed: Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.
PubMed: Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana.
PubMed: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural increase adenoma and flat ACF number in the intestine of Min/+ mice.
PubMed: Improved method to measure aldehyde adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandialdehyde as model compounds.
PubMed: Identification of an interfering substrate in apple juice and improvement for determination of patulin with high-performance liquid chromatography analyses.
PubMed: Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using derivatization combined with polymer monolith microextraction by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Conversion of the common food constituent 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into a mutagenic and carcinogenic sulfuric acid ester in the mouse in vivo.
PubMed: Development and validation of an HPLC method to quantify 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene in peritoneal dialysis fluids.
PubMed: Complementary multianalytical approach to study the distinctive structural features of the main humic fractions in solution: gray humic acid, brown humic acid, and fulvic acid.
PubMed: Evaluation of the DNA damaging effect of the heat-induced food toxicant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in various cell lines with different activities of sulfotransferases.
PubMed: Production of xylooligosaccharides by controlled acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials.
PubMed: Influence of roasting on the antioxidant activity and HMF formation of a cocoa bean model systems.
PubMed: Wheat straw autohydrolysis: process optimization and products characterization.
PubMed: Impact of forced-aging process on madeira wine flavor.
PubMed: Comparative lipidomics of four strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals different responses to furfural, phenol, and acetic acid.
PubMed: Evaluation of antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice and its sour concentrate processed by conventional evaporation.
PubMed: Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey.
PubMed: Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.
PubMed: Dietary exposure to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Norwegian food and correlations with urine metabolites of short-term exposure.
PubMed: Quality evaluation of different honey samples produced in Peshawar valley.
PubMed: [Analysis of volatile components in Qingshanlvshui tea using solid-phase microextraction/accelerated solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.
PubMed: Isotope labeling studies on the formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) from sucrose by pyrolysis-GC/MS.
PubMed: Changes in the chemical composition of reduced cooked musts during the heating process.
PubMed: Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity.
PubMed: Importance of chip selection and elaboration process on the aromatic composition of finished wines.
PubMed: Impact of caramelization on the glass transition temperature of several caramelized sugars. Part II: Mathematical modeling.
PubMed: Chemical composition and inhibitory parameters of essential oil and extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.
PubMed: A novel yellow pigment, furpipate, derived from lysine and furfural.
PubMed: The chemical characterization of the aroma of dessert and sparkling white wines (Pedro Ximénez, Fino, Sauternes, and Cava) by gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative analysis.
PubMed: Estimation of hydroxymethylfurfural availability in breakfast cereals. Studies in Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Separation and determination of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers and their hydrolysates in the flaxseed extract by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Liquid chromatography multi-stage mass spectrometry for the analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in foods.
PubMed: Production and characterization of functional substances from a by-product of rice bran oil and protein production by a compressed hot water treatment.
PubMed: Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.
PubMed: Evolution of hydroxymethylfurfural content of honeys from different climates: influence of induced granulation.
PubMed: Smoke-derived taint in wine: effect of postharvest smoke exposure of grapes on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of wine.
PubMed: Investigation of acrylamide in curries made from coconut milk.
PubMed: Beta-damascenone, a suitable heat load indicator during wort boiling?
PubMed: Fermentation of dried distillers' grains and solubles (DDGS) hydrolysates to solvents and value-added products by solventogenic clostridia.
PubMed: Effects of Eucalyptus globulus wood autohydrolysis conditions on the reaction products.
PubMed: Properties of extracts from defatted rice bran by its subcritical water treatment.
PubMed: Formation of furan and methylfuran from ascorbic acid in model systems and food.
PubMed: The effect of various drying techniques on apricot volatiles analysed using direct thermal desorption-GC-TOF/MS.
PubMed: Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed: Production of ethanol from soybean hull hydrolysate by osmotolerant Candida guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075.
PubMed: Browning of furfural and amino acids, and a novel yellow compound, furpipate, formed from lysine and furfural.
PubMed: Enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides from cotton stalks.
PubMed: Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.
PubMed: The potential antimutagenic and antioxidant effects of Maillard reaction products used as "natural antibrowning" agents.
PubMed: Formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid during roasting of coffee.
PubMed: Inhibition of polyphenoloxidase activity by mixtures of heated cysteine derivatives with carbonyl compounds.
PubMed: Isolation and identification of potential cancer chemopreventive agents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa).
PubMed: Antioxidant constituents and a new triterpenoid glycoside from Flos Lonicerae.
PubMed: Furfural from Pine Needle Extract Inhibits the Growth of a Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Alternaria mali.
PubMed: Maillard reaction indicators in diets usually consumed by adolescent population.
PubMed: Butanol production from agricultural residues: Impact of degradation products on Clostridium beijerinckii growth and butanol fermentation.
PubMed: Effect of pH on the Maillard reaction of [13C5]xylose, cysteine, and thiamin.
PubMed: Influence of epicatechin reactions on the mechanisms of Maillard product formation in low moisture model systems.
PubMed: Production and composition of cider spirits distilled in "alquitara".
PubMed: Hydrolysis of sorghum straw using phosphoric acid: evaluation of furfural production.
PubMed: Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw.
PubMed: Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfual in coffee, dried fruits and urine.
PubMed: Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals.
PubMed: Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.
PubMed: Relationship between acrylamide and thermal-processing indexes in commercial breakfast cereals: a survey of Spanish breakfast cereals.
PubMed: Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades.
PubMed: Recycling of distillery effluents in alcoholic fermentation: role in inhibition of 10 organic molecules.
PubMed: Identification and urinary excretion of metabolites of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural in human subjects following consumption of dried plums or dried plum juice.
PubMed: Diets rich in Maillard reaction products affect protein digestibility in adolescent males aged 11-14 y.
PubMed: Physicochemical model to interpret the kinetics of aroma extraction during wine aging in wood. Model limitations suggest the necessary existence of biochemical processes.
PubMed: Improved method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in baby foods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee.
PubMed: Degradation kinetics of the antioxidant additive ascorbic acid in packed table olives during storage at different temperatures.
PubMed: Radioprotective-antimutagenic effects of rosemary phenolics against chromosomal damage induced in human lymphocytes by gamma-rays.
PubMed: Reduction of stale flavor development in low-heat skim milk powder via epicatechin addition.
PubMed: 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural: a selective inhibitor of DNA polymerase lambda and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase.
PubMed: Protocol for early detection and evaluation of inhibitory wastewater using combined aerobic respirometric and anaerobic batch techniques.
PubMed: GLR1 plays an essential role in the homeodynamics of glutathione and the regulation of H2S production during respiratory oscillation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Isolation of mutagenic beta-carboline derivatives after nitrite treatment of maillard reaction mixtures and analysis of these compounds from foodstuffs and human urine.
PubMed: Browning of model orange juice solution: factors affecting the formation of decomposition products.
PubMed: Temperature effect on lactose crystallization, maillard reactions, and lipid oxidation in whole milk powder.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of a furfural reductase (FFR) from Escherichia coli strain LYO1--an enzyme important in the detoxification of furfural during ethanol production.
PubMed: Honey in combination with vacuum impregnation to prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples.
PubMed: Analysis of potential and free furfural compounds in milk-based formulae by high-performance liquid chromatography. Evolution during storage.
PubMed: Chemometric characterization of the cypriot spirit "zivania".
PubMed: Effect of storage period under variable conditions on the chemical and physical composition and colour of Spanish refrigerated orange juices.
PubMed: Evolution of aroma compounds from orange juice stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
PubMed: Single laboratory validation of a method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by using solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Inhibition of key aroma compound generated during ultrahigh-temperature processing of bovine milk via epicatechin addition.
PubMed: Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.
PubMed: A sphingolipid and tyrosinase inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed: Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.
PubMed: Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route.
PubMed: Manufacture of fermentable sugar solutions from sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzed with phosphoric acid at atmospheric pressure.
PubMed: 1H NMR studies on Italian balsamic and traditional balsamic vinegars.
PubMed: Browning and decomposed products of model orange juice.
PubMed: Decomposition kinetics of maltose in subcritical water.
PubMed: Variation in cell wall composition among forage maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and its impact on digestibility: analysis of neutral detergent fiber composition by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on composition of cider brandy in phenolic and furanic compounds.
PubMed: Qualitative investigation on hydrothermal treatment of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) bark for production of useful chemicals.
PubMed: Antioxidative activities of volatile extracts from green tea, oolong tea, and black tea.
PubMed: Simultaneous quantitative analysis of maillard reaction precursors and products by high-performance anion exchange chromatography.
PubMed: Evolution of chemical and sensory properties during aging of top-fermented beer.
PubMed: Structural identification of nonvolatile dimerization products of glucosamine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.
PubMed: 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone: a key odorant of the typical aroma of oxidative aged Port wine.
PubMed: 2-Furoylmethyl amino acids and hydroxymethylfurfural as indicators of honey quality.
PubMed: Phenolic diterpenes, flavones, and rosmarinic acid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. Antioxidant activity.
PubMed: Racemic and enantiopure synthesis and physicochemical characterization of the novel taste enhancer N-(1-carboxyethyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridinium-3-ol inner salt.
PubMed: Influence of seasonal variation on kinetics of time temperature integrators for thermally processed milk.
PubMed: Generation of thiols by biotransformation of cysteine-aldehyde conjugates with baker's yeast.
PubMed: Thermal decomposition of specifically phosphorylated D-glucoses and their role in the control of the Maillard reaction.
PubMed: Radioprotective Effects Against Chromosomal Damage Induced in Human Lymphocytes by gamma-Rays as a Function of Polymerization Grade of Grape Seed Extracts.
PubMed: Kinetics of hydroxymethylfurfural, lactulose and furosine formation in milk with different fat content.
PubMed: Radioprotective effects in vivo of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves against X-ray-induced chromosomal damage: comparative study versus several flavonoids and sulfur-containing compounds.
PubMed: Modeling of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse with hydrochloric acid.
PubMed: Comparison of the evolution of low molecular weight phenolic compounds in typical Sherry wines: Fino, Amontillado, and Oloroso.
PubMed: Evolution of phenolic compounds during an experimental aging in wood of Sherry vinegar.
PubMed: Caramelization of maltose solution in presence of alanine.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources.
PubMed: Interactions between cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and furfural derivatives and their impact on food color changes.
PubMed: Role of aldehydic derivatives in the condensation of phenolic compounds with emphasis on the sensorial properties of fruit-derived foods.
PubMed: Antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated from mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
PubMed: Thresholds of carcinogenicity of flavors.
PubMed: Identification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese by gas chromatography/olfactometry.
PubMed: Reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol by ethanologenic strains of bacteria and its effect on ethanol production from xylose.
PubMed: Furfural-cysteine model reaction in food grade nonionic oil/water microemulsions for selective flavor formation.
PubMed: Influence of oak wood on the aromatic composition and quality of wines with different tannin contents.
PubMed: Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.
PubMed: Volatile flavor constituents of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit.
PubMed: Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.
PubMed: Some furfural derivatives as nitrification inhibitors.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed: Lack of effect of furfural on unscheduled DNA synthesis in the in vivo rat and mouse hepatocyte DNA repair assays and in precision-cut human liver slices.
PubMed: Formation kinetics of hydroxymethylfurfural, lactulose and furosine in milk heated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.
PubMed: [Evaluation of commercial UHT milk and optimization of industrial process].
PubMed: [Efficacy evaluation of the molasses supplementation in normal and depleted rats diet].
PubMed: Detoxification of dilute acid hydrolysates of lignocellulose with lime.
PubMed: Supercritical fluid extraction of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde from raisins.
PubMed: Derivative spectrophotometric determination of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and furfural in Locust bean extract.
PubMed: Effects of some hydrocolloids and water activity on nonenzymic browning of concentrated orange juice.
PubMed: Improved water solubility of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in sweetener blends.
PubMed: Formation and Degradation of Furfuryl Alcohol, 5-Methylfurfuryl Alcohol, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Their Ethyl Ethers in Barrel-Aged Wines.
PubMed: Structured fluids as microreactors for flavor formation by the Maillard reaction.
PubMed: Use of UV absorbance To monitor furans in dilute acid hydrolysates of biomass.
PubMed: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural: assessment of mutagenicity, DNA-damaging potential and reactivity towards cellular glutathione.
PubMed: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of Maillard compounds in store-brand and name-brand ultra-high-temperature-treated cows' milk.
PubMed: Effects of Ca(OH)(2) treatments ("overliming") on the composition and toxicity of bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates.
PubMed: Determination of aldehydes in food by high-performance liquid chromatography with biosensor coupling and micromembrane suppressors.
PubMed: Volatile compounds produced from monosodium glutamate in common food cooking.
PubMed: Origin of carbohydrate degradation products in L-Alanine/D-[(13)C]glucose model systems.
PubMed: Effects of the sniffing port air makeup in gas chromatography-olfactometry.
PubMed: Influence of storage conditions on the formation of some volatile compounds in white fortified wines (Vins doux naturels) during the aging process.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives. Fifty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed: Confirmation of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in apple juice by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Effects of thermal processing and storage on available lysine and furfural compounds contents of infant formulas.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays of flavan-3-ols (Procyanidins) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera): comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds.
PubMed: Effect of alcohol compounds found in hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Effect of hexanal and iron on color development in a glucose/phenylalanine model system.
PubMed: A comparison of color formation and maillard reaction products of a lactose-lysine and lactose-N(alpha)-acetyllysine model system.
PubMed: Solubilization of Hydrophilic Compounds in Copolymer Aggregates.
PubMed: Identification and effects of maize silk volatiles on cultures of Aspergillus flavus.
PubMed: Hydroxymethylfurfural and furosine reaction kinetics in tomato products.
PubMed: Reinvestigation of the reaction between 2-furancarboxaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone.
PubMed: Study of the formation mechanisms of some volatile compounds during the aging of sweet fortified wines.
PubMed: Volatile flavor components of rice cakes.
PubMed: Effects of L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine on 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and 5-methylfurfural formation and browning in buffer solutions containing either rhamnose or glucose and arginine.
PubMed: Progress of browning reactions during storage of liquid infant milks.
PubMed: Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.
PubMed: Analysis of furanone, pyranone, and new heterocyclic colored compounds from sugar-glycine model Maillard systems.
PubMed: Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and patulin in apple juice by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Distribution and metabolism of (5-hydroxymethyl)furfural in male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice after oral administration.
PubMed: Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.
PubMed: Sensory perception is related to the rate of change of volatile concentration in-nose during eating of model gels.
PubMed: Volatile components formed from reaction of sugar and beta-alanine as a model system of cookie processing.
PubMed: The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.
PubMed: [Identification of volatile compounds of hawthorn by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)].
PubMed: Measurement of aldehydes in low density lipoprotein by high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Rapid reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of patulin in apple juice.
PubMed: Bioactivation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde to an electrophilic and mutagenic allylic sulfuric acid ester.
PubMed: Lack of aberrant crypt promotion and of mutagenicity in extracts of cooked casein, a colon cancer-promoting food.
PubMed: Reactions of furfural and methylfurfural with DNA.
PubMed: Metabolism and excretion of [14C]furfural in the rat and mouse.
PubMed: Inactivation and repair of bacteriophage lambda by furfural.
PubMed: Semiautomatic determination of furanic aldehydes in food and pharmaceutical samples by a stopped-flow injection analysis method.
PubMed: Effect of furfural on plasmid DNA.
PubMed: Detection and determination of interfering 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in the analysis of caramel-coloured pharmaceutical syrups.
PubMed: Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers.
PubMed: Reaction of furfural and methylfurfural with DNA: use of single-strand-specific nucleases.
PubMed: An unusually heavy contamination of honey products by Clostridium botulinum type F and Bacillus alvei.
PubMed: Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment.
PubMed: Effects of monosaccharides and disaccharides on the formation of food mutagens in model systems.
PubMed: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Furfural (CAS No. 98-01-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed: Specificity of the in vitro interaction of methylfurfural with DNA.
PubMed: Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural as the major degradation product of glucose in infusion fluids.
PubMed: Effect of storage on mutagenicity, absorbance and content of furfural in the ribose-lysine maillard system.
PubMed: Specificity of the interaction of furfural with DNA.
PubMed: Metabolic transit and toxicity of Maillard reaction products.
PubMed: Influence of water activity and reaction temperature of ribose-lysine and glucose-lysine Maillard systems on mutagenicity, absorbance and content of furfurals.
PubMed: Comparative mutagenicity of nine brands of coffee to Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA102, and TA104.
PubMed: [Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural during the storage and processing of food products].
PubMed: [Determination of individual purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate-rich food].
PubMed: Desmutagenic effect of alpha-dicarbonyl and alpha-hydroxycarbonyl compounds against mutagenic heterocyclic amines.
PubMed: Rapid and complete urinary elimination of [14C]-5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde administered orally or intravenously to rats.
PubMed: The role of mutagenicity testing in the ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial discharges into the aquatic environment.
PubMed: Mutagen formation in browning model systems.
PubMed: Volatile food attractants forOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) from oats.
PubMed: Furfural accumulation in stored orange juice concentrates.
PubMed: Clastogenicity of furans found in food.
PubMed: High performance liquid chromatography of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in spirits and honey.
PubMed: Effect of malondialdehyde on nitrosamine formation.
PubMed: Hydroxymethylfurfural and honey adulteration.
PubMed: Influence of constituents of country liquor on the induced toxicity of some muscle relaxants in mice and phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations of rats: a preliminary report.
PubMed: Charcoal column/thin layer chromatographic method for high fructose corn sirup and spectrophotometric method for hydroxymethylfurfural in honey: collaborative studies.
PubMed: Methods for determinging carbohydrates, hydroxymethylfurfural, and proline in honey: collaborative study.
PubMed: Spectrophotometric method for hydroxymethylfurfural in honey.
PubMed: [Kinetics of furfural formation as related to heating, concentration and storage of orange juices and concentrates].
PubMed: [The quantitative composition of natural and technologically changed aromas of plants. IV. Enzymic and thermal reaction products formed during the processing of tomatoes (author's transl)].
PubMed: The sugars of honey--a review.
PubMed: [Sensory and chemical changes of dried foods under the influence of extreme storage conditions. 3. Chemical changes (authors transl)].
PubMed: Correlation between the carcinogenicities of nitrofuran derivatives and their destructive actions on sebaceous glands of mouse skin.
PubMed: [Hygienic standards for hydroxymethylfurfural in food products].
PubMed: Coatings as barriers to prevent polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of silage.
PubMed: [Shortened dough preparation of wheat bread and its effect on the flavor. 1. Carbonyl compounds and ethanol].
PubMed: [Hygienic evaluation of the hydroxymethylfurfurol content in the daily food ration of man].
PubMed: The anaerobic decomposition of ascorbic acid in the pH range of foods and in more acid solutions.
PubMed: Observations on the detection of dimethyl- and diethyl-nitrosamines in foods with particular reference to alcoholic beverages.
PubMed: [New methods of evaluation, interpretation and prediction of changes of organoleptic qualities of food. 2. Evaluation by reaction kinetics of organoleptic changes in food caused by thermal processes].
PubMed: [The influence of storage conditions on the development of hydroxymethylfurfural in tomato products].
PubMed: [Determination of free fufurol-acetone monomer in organo-mineral plastic concrete].
PubMed: CARBONYL COMPOUNDS IN TOASTED OAT FLAKES.
PubMed: [STUDY OF SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF HONEYS GATHERED BY CERTAIN BRAZILIAN MELIPONINAE].
 
Notes:
Flavour ingredient. Present in coffee, calamus, matsutake mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake), pumpkin, malt, peated malt, Bourbon vanilla, Lamb's lettuce, pimento leaf and various fruits, e.g. apple, apricot, sweet cherry, morello cherry, orange, grapefruit, Chinese quince and a common consit of essential oils Furfural is an organic compound derived from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust. (Wikipedia)
 
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