EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

caramel furanone
4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one

Sponsors

Name:3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-one
CAS Number: 28664-35-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:87021-36-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:249-136-4
Nikkaji Web:J68.557G
MDL:MFCD00059957
CoE Number:11834
XlogP3-AA:0.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:128.12736000
Formula:C6 H8 O3
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:243 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
FLAVIS Number:10.030 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:10.030 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one
FEMA Number:3634 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to pale yellow liquid to solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 25.00 to 29.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 93.00 to 95.00 °C. @ 2.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 81.00 °C. @ 6.00 mm Hg
Flash Point:> 212.00 °F. TCC ( > 100.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.296 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 2.228e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
Stability:
 alcoholic fine fragrance, good
 antiperspirant, fair
 fabric softener, fair
 hypochlorite bleach, poor
 liquid detergent, fair
 perborate powder detergent, poor
 soap, fair
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength:very high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.01 % solution or less
Substantivity: > 400 hour(s) at 3.00 % in propylene glycol
sweet caramellic maple sugar burnt sugar coffee
Odor Description:at 0.01 % in propylene glycol. extremely sweet strong caramel maple burnt sugar coffee
Luebke, William tgsc, (1998)
Odor sample from: Sigma-Aldrich
sweet caramellic maple sugar brown sugar cotton candy
Odor Description:Sweet, caramellic, maple, brown sugar, cyclotene and cotton candy
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 4, 75, (1997)
Flavor Type: caramellic
sweet maple sugar brown sugar cotton candy sugar burnt sugar
Taste Description: sweet maple brown sugar cotton candy burnt sugar
sweet caramellic maple sugar brown sugar cotton candy
Taste Description: at 50.00 ppm. Sweet, caramellic, maple, brown sugary and cotton candy
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 4, 75, (1997)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
CARAMEL FURANONE SYNTHETIC
97% min.
Odor: Caramel, Sweet
Anhui Haibei
3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone
Odor: Extremely sweet strong caramel maple burnt sugar coffee
Aromiens International
Caramel Furanone Natural
Aromiens International
Caramel Furanone
Artiste
Caramel Furanone Natural
Available as solutions (1%, 5%, 15%, etc.) in various solvents.
Aurochemicals
FENUGREEK LACTONE, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Caramel furanone
Berjé
Caramel Furanone 100%
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
CARAMEL FURANONE (3% IN TRIACETIN)
DeLong Chemicals America
4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Excellentia International
Caramel Furanone (4,5-Dimethyl-3-Hydroxy-2(5H)-Furanone) Natural
Frutarom
4-5-DIMETHYL 3 HYDROXY FURANONE
H. Interdonati, Inc.
Caramel Furanone Kosher
Featured Products
Kun Shan P&A
Caramel Furanone
M&U International
FENUGREEK LACTONE, Kosher
M&U International
NAT.FENUGREEK LACTONE
M&U International
SOTOLONE, Kosher
Penta International
CARAMEL FURANONE, PURE, Kosher
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Caramel Furanone (all solutions)
Reincke & Fichtner
4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Riverside Aromatics
FENUGREEK LACTONE [SOTOLONE]
Robertet
Sotolone
Sigma-Aldrich
4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one, ≥97%, FG
Odor: caramel; celery; maple; tobacco; earthy; green; meaty; wine-like; nutty; seedy; smoky
Certified Food Grade Products
Soda Aromatic
Sugar Lactone
Odor: very powerful, roasted sugar-like
SRS Aromatics
SUGAR LACTONE PURE
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5H-furanone
Treatt
4-Methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone
Vigon International
Fenugreek Lactone (Sotolone)
Odor: Extremely Strong,Fenugreek,Lovage,Maple
Vigon International
Sotolone Natural (dimethyl Oxyfurone)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 20/22 - Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
R 36/37 - Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 07 - Keep container tightly closed.
S 09 - Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 35 - This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 46 - If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
Recommendation for caramel furanone usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 1.80 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.10 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 12
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -10.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -10.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: -10.00000
fish products: -10.00000
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: -10.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -10.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: -10.00000
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -10.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: -10.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 217: alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.1 of FGE.19: Lactones[1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 217, Revision 1 (FGE.217Rev1). Consideration of genotoxic potential for a,-unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.1 of FGE.19: Lactones
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (chemical group 13) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):28664-35-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :62835
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-one
Chemidplus:0028664359
 
References:
Leffingwell:Chirality or Article
 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:28664-35-9
Pubchem (cid):62835
Pubchem (sid):135021025
Flavornet:28664-35-9
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB31306
FooDB:FDB003360
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01572
Export Tariff Code:2905.32.0000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
acidic
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
balsamic
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
2-iso
butyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
caramel furanone solution
FL/FR
caramel pentadione
FL/FR
coffee dione
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
cyclotene hydrate
FL/FR
diethyl malate
FL/FR
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl cyclopentenolone
FL/FR
ethyl furaneol
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
5-
ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one
FL/FR
fenugreek absolute
FL/FR
fenugreek oleoresin
FL/FR
immortelle absolute
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
maltyl propionate
FL/FR
maple furanone
FL/FR
menthone lactone
FL/FR
5-
methyl furfural
FL/FR
iso
propenyl pyrazine
FL/FR
rosefuran
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone solution
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
chocolate
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
citrus
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
coconut
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
creamy
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
ethereal
ethyl 4-pentenoate
FL/FR
ethyl pyruvate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
fermented
ethyl (E)-2-crotonate
FL/FR
floral
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
fruity
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
(E)-
ethyl tiglate
FL/FR
osmanthus flower absolute
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadien-1-ol
FL/FR
violet leaf absolute
FL/FR
hay
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
herbal
butyl levulinate
FL/FR
3-
propylidene phthalide
FL/FR
honey
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
melon
melon heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
moldy
strawberry furanone methyl ether
FL/FR
musty
3-
acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furan
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
1,2-
cyclohexane dione
FL/FR
2,3-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty cyclohexenone
FL/FR
phenolic
4-
methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
roasted
fenugreek resinoid
FL/FR
spicy
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
(E)-
tiglic acid
FL/FR
sweet
2-
hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
FL/FR
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
vegetable
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
2-
acetyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine
FL
allyl 2-furoate
FL
benzyl disulfide
FL
1,2-
cyclohexane dione
FL/FR
diethyl malate
FL/FR
2,5-
diethyl tetrahydrofuran
FL
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl 4-pentenoate
FL/FR
5-
ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one
FL/FR
furfuryl acetone
FL
2-
hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
FL/FR
mango furanone
FL
menthone lactone
FL/FR
osmanthus flower absolute
FL/FR
rosefuran
FL/FR
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
levulinic acid
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-
tartaric acid
FL
apple
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadien-1-ol
FL/FR
balsamic
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
brown
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
fenugreek oleoresin
FL/FR
5-
methyl furfural
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
(E)-
tiglic acid
FL/FR
burnt
furfuryl alcohol
FL
iso
propenyl pyrazine
FL/FR
buttery
butter maple flavor
FL
diacetyl
FL
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
caramel furanone solution
FL/FR
caramel pentadione
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
cyclotene hydrate
FL/FR
ethyl furaneol
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
5-
ethyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl cyclohexen-2-one
FL
fenugreek absolute
FL/FR
fenugreek resinoid
FL/FR
honey maple flavor
FL
lucuma flavor
FL
maltol
FL/FR
maltyl propionate
FL/FR
maple furanone
FL/FR
3-
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
FL
pyruvaldehyde
FL
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone solution
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
coffee
coffee dione
FL/FR
2-
thiophene thiol
FL
corn
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-2-thiazoline
FL
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
fatty
(E,E)-2,4-
undecadienal
FL
2,4-
undecadienal
FL
floral
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
(E)-
ethyl tiglate
FL/FR
furfuryl valerate
FL
2-
pentanoyl furan
FL
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
green
2-iso
butyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
immortelle absolute
FL/FR
melon heptenal
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
3-
propylidene phthalide
FL/FR
violet leaf absolute
FL/FR
herbal
butyl levulinate
FL/FR
5-
hydroxymethyl furfural
FL
honey
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
jammy
ethyl cyclopentenolone
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
meaty
2-
mercaptomethyl pyrazine
FL
milky
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
moldy
strawberry furanone methyl ether
FL/FR
musty
ethyl (E)-2-crotonate
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
3-
acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furan
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
3,5(6)-
cocoa pyrazine
FL
coffee furanone
FL/FR
2,3-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty cyclohexenone
FL/FR
peanut oxazole
FL
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
FL/FR
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
phenolic
4-
methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol
FL/FR
roasted
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
rummy
ethyl pyruvate
FL/FR
spicy
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
sweet
caramel dione
FL
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
molasses flavor
FL
dextro-
sorbitol
FL
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
toasted
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
furfuryl octanoate
FL
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
woody
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLallspice
FLbanana
FRbay rum
FLblackberry
FLbutterscotch
FLcaramel
FLcinnamon
FLcoconut
FLcoffee
FLcotton candy
FLcranberry
FL/FRfenugreek
FLfig
 fir
FRfir balsam
 gingerbread
FRhoneysuckle
FLmango
FLmaple
FLmelon
FLmulberry
FRmusk
FLnut
FLpapaya
FRpassion fruit
FLpeach
FLpina colada
FLpineapple
FLpomegranate
FLpumpkin
FLsugar brown sugar
FRtobacco
FLtoffee
FRtonka bean
FLvanilla
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 coffee
Search PMC Picture
 fenugreek seed
Search Trop Picture
 honey buckwheat honey
PbMd Search PMC Picture
 maple
Search PMC Picture
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop Picture
 sake
Search PMC Picture
 sherry
Search PMC Picture
 tobacco virginia tobacco
Search Picture
 wine rice wine
Search Picture
 
Synonyms:
 caramel furanone 100%
 caramel furanone natural
 caramel furanone pure
 caramel furanone synthetic
 caramel furanone, neat
 caramel lactone
 dimethyl oxyfurone
4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydro-2-furanone
4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone
2,3-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-5-one
 fenugreek lactone
2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-penten-4-olide
2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-buten-1,4-olide
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl furan-2(5H)-one
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5-hydrofuran-2-one
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-one
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one
 soloton
 sotolon (Givaudan)
 sotolone
 sugar lactone
 

Articles:

US Patents:4,428,886 - Novel intermediates for the preparation of .alpha.-hydroxycarbonyl compounds
PubMed:UHPLC quantification of sotolon in white wine.
PubMed:Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.
PubMed:Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. on monosodium glutamate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats.
PubMed:Effect of grain type and toasting conditions of barrels on the concentration of the volatile substances released by the wood and on the sensory characteristics of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo.
PubMed:Analytical characterization of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odor families and the concept of fruitiness of wines.
PubMed:Characterization of odor-active compounds in Californian chardonnay wines using GC-olfactometry and GC-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:4-Hydroxyisoleucine: effects of synthetic and natural analogues on insulin secretion.
 
Notes:
Can get some extraordinary blends if you shade it well. Key flavour compd. found in raw cane sugar, aged sake, coffee, fenugreek, lovage and wines Sotolon (also known as sotolone) is a lactone and an extremely powerful aroma compound, with the typical smell of fenugreek or curry at high concentrations and maple syrup, caramel, or burnt sugar at lower concentrations. (Wikipedia)
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