aconitic acid
1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
 
Notes:
Aconitic acid is an organic acid. The two isomers are cis-aconitic acid and trans-aconitic acid. The conjugate base of cis-aconitic acid, cis-aconitate is an intermediate in the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. It is acted upon by aconitase. (Wikipedia)
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 499-12-7Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 207-877-0
FDA UNII: 93371T1BXP
Nikkaji Web: J71.033D
Beilstein Number: 1725828
CoE Number: 33
XlogP3-AA: -1.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 174.10902000
Formula: C6 H6 O6
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: JECFA evaluated aconitic acid (CASrn as in Register). (Z)- or (E)- isomer not specified by CASrn in Register.
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1007 Aconitic Acid View-review
JECFA Food Flavoring: 627  aconitic acid
Flavis Number: 08.033 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 08.033  prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
FEMA Number: 2010  aconitic acid
FDA Mainterm: ACONITIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1007 Aconitic acid.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to yellow crystals (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Additional Assay Information: tridodecylamine: max 0.10 mg/kg
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 195.00 to  196.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 542.00 to  543.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 564.00 °F. TCC ( 295.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.179 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 333000 mg/L @ 15 °C (exp)
 alcohol
Similar Items: note
(E)-aconitic acid
(Z)-aconitic acid
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
 nutty  musty  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
very mild nutty musty
 vegetable  musty  nutty  dry  toasted  
Odor Description:
Vegetative, musty and nutty with a dry, toasted nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 21, No. 3, 51, (1996)
 nutty  vegetable  musty  caramellic  
Taste Description:
at 25.00 ppm.  
Nutty, vegetative, musty and slightly caramellic
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 21, No. 3, 51, (1996)
  
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
CTC Organics
aconitic acid
Parchem
aconitic acid
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-mouse LD50  180 mg/kg
U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00189

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants
Recommendation for aconitic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.012 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 0.6000015.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 0.200002.00000
beverages(alcoholic): -20.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -26.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: -0.60000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 0.6000030.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 499-12-7
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 309
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Chemidplus: 0000499127
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References:
 prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 499-12-7
Pubchem (cid): 309
Pubchem (sid): 134977779
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00072
FooDB: FDB008304
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: Aconitic acid
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 sulfuryl octanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl butyrateFL/FR
 sulfuryl decanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl hexanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl isobutyrateFL/FR
 sulfuryl propionateFL/FR
 valeraldehyde dibutyl acetalFL/FR
 valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
alcoholic
 propyl alcoholFL/FR
aldehydic
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
amber
 ambroxanFL/FR
balsamic
2-acetyl furanFL/FR
(E)-benzyl tiglateFL/FR
 propyl benzoateFL/FR
bready
 coffee furanoneFL/FR
 furfuralFL/FR
buttery
 acetyl butyrylFL/FR
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
3,4-hexane dioneFL/FR
camphoreous
 bornyl isobutyrateFL/FR
caramellic
 cycloteneFL/FR
 ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl cyclopentenoloneFL/FR
 fenugreek absoluteFL/FR
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
chocolate
 chocolate pyrazine AFL/FR
 cocoa hexenalFL/FR
 cocoa pentenalFL/FR
2,5-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methoxy-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl butyraldehydeFL/FR
2,4,5-trimethyl thiazoleFL/FR
citrus
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
coconut
alpha-angelica lactoneFL/FR
 coconut naphthalenoneFL/FR
delta-decalactoneFL/FR
gamma-heptalactoneFL/FR
gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
coffee
 cichorium intybus root extractFL/FR
 coffea arabica seed extractFL/FR
 furfuryl mercaptanFL/FR
1-hydroxy-2-butanoneFL/FR
2-methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
 popcorn pyrimidineFL/FR
coumarinic
 coumaneFL/FR
creamy
 butyl lactateFL/FR
earthy
2-ethyl-3-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
3-octanolFL/FR
ethereal
 acetalFL/FR
fatty
 coconut absoluteFL/FR
fermented
 valeraldehydeFL/FR
floral
para-cresyl laurateFL/FR
 hawthorn carbinolFL/FR
ortho-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
fruity
 allyl 2-ethyl butyrateFL/FR
isoamyl nonanoateFL/FR
 benzaldehydeFL/FR
 benzyl butyrateFL/FR
 bread thiopheneFL/FR
 ethyl (Z)-4-heptenoateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
3-methyl-2-butenalFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl acetateFL/FR
 tropical thiazoleFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
 valeriana officinalis root extractFL/FR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
1-heptanolFL/FR
2-heptyl furanFL/FR
 lilac acetaldehydeFL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-yl acetateFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 tiglaldehydeFL/FR
herbal
 apium graveolens seed extractFL/FR
2-pentyl acetateFL/FR
 sulfurolFL/FR
mushroom
3-octen-2-olFL/FR
musty
2-acetyl pyrroleFL/FR
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
 cocoa butenalFL/FR
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
 menthofuranFL/FR
 strawberry furanone methyl etherFL/FR
naphthyl
para-methyl anisoleFL/FR
ortho-methyl anisoleFL/FR
nutty
3-acetyl pyridineFL/FR
2-acetyl-3-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl-5-methyl furanFL/FR
3,5-cocoa pyrazineFL/FR
3,6-cocoa pyrazineFL/FR
2,3-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
4,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazolineFL/FR
2-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-ethyl-4-methyl thiazoleFL/FR
 filbert heptenoneFL/FR
 filbert heptenone BFL/FR
 filbert pyrazineFL/FR
(E)-filbertoneFL/FR
2,6-lutidineFL/FR
 methoxymethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
5-methyl quinoxalineFL/FR
2-methyl thio-3,5 or 6-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-ethoxypyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-propyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty cyclohexenoneFL/FR
 nutty quinoxalineFL/FR
(Z)-3-octen-2-oneFL/FR
 sesame absoluteFL/FR
 shoyu pyrazineFL/FR
2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,4,5-trimethyl oxazoleFL/FR
2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 vinyl sulfurolFL/FR
para-alpha-dimethyl styreneFL/FR
popcorn
2-acetyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl pyridineFL/FR
2-acetyl thiazoleFL/FR
sulfurous
 benzothiazoleFL/FR
 furfuryl thioacetateFL/FR
S-furfuryl thioformateFL/FR
tobacco
(E,E/E,Z)-tobacco cyclohexenoneFL/FR
tonka
6-amyl-alpha-pyroneFL/FR
 whiskey lactoneFL/FR
tropical
delta-dodecalactoneFL/FR
 mesityl oxideFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl alcoholFL/FR
woody
4-hydroxybenzaldehydeFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 santalyl acetateFL/FR
 santalyl butyrateFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 acetyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL
2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineFL
2-acetyl-2-pyrrolineFL
2-acetyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
(E)-aconitic acidFL
 allyl 2-ethyl butyrateFL/FR
 bornyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 butyramideFL
 chocolate pyrazine AFL/FR
 chocolate pyrazine BFL
 coconut naphthalenoneFL/FR
 coumaneFL/FR
 cyclohexyl methyl pyrazineFL
2,5-diethyl thiazoleFL
2,5-diethyl-4-methyl thiazoleFL
6,7-dihydro-2,3-dimethyl-5H-cyclopentapyrazineFL
6,7-dimethyl dihydrocyclopentapyrazineFL
 dimethyl dihydrocyclopentapyrazineFL
2,5-dimethyl thiazoleFL
2-ethoxy-3-isopropyl pyrazineFL
 ethyl (Z)-4-heptenoateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
2-ethyl thiazoleFL
2-ethyl-3-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-butyl) thiazolineFL
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl) thiazolineFL
(E)-filbertoneFL/FR
3-(2-furyl) acroleinFL
 hawthorn carbinolFL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-heptadien-1-olFL
2,4-heptadien-1-olFL
2-hexyl-5 or 6-keto-1,4-dioxaneFL
2-hydroxyisophoroneFL
2-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
 methyl 2-(methyl thio) acetateFL
ortho-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
4-methyl-1-pentanolFL
2-methyl-2-thiazolineFL
2-methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-ethoxypyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-5-ethoxypyrazineFL
2-methyl-6-ethoxypyrazineFL
(Z)-3-octen-2-oneFL/FR
 peanut dithiazineFL
3-pentanolFL
2-propyl pyridineFL
 pyrazines mixtureFL
 pyrazinyl methyl sulfideFL
 pyrroleFL
para-salicylic acidFL
 santalyl butyrateFL/FR
 sulfuryl butyrateFL/FR
 sulfuryl decanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl hexanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl isobutyrateFL/FR
 thiazoleFL
(E,E/E,Z)-tobacco cyclohexenoneFL/FR
 valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
ortho-vinyl anisoleFL
5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-thiazineFL
 sulfuryl formateFL
 sulfuryl octanoateFL/FR
 sulfuryl propionateFL/FR
 valeraldehyde dibutyl acetalFL/FR
alcoholic
 propyl alcoholFL/FR
aldehydic
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
alliaceous
2-methyl thioacetaldehydeFL
 tropical thiazoleFL/FR
apple
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
balsamic
(E)-benzyl tiglateFL/FR
bitter
 cocoa pyrazines base (mixture of pyrazines)FL
 methyl ethoxypyrazineFL
 paullinia cupana seed extractFL
bready
 bread crust distillateFL
2-propionyl thiazoleFL
brown
 furfuralFL/FR
1-hydroxy-2-butanoneFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl acetateFL/FR
burnt
2-methyl quinoxalineFL
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,4,5-trimethyl oxazoleFL/FR
buttery
 butyroinFL
3,4-hexane dioneFL/FR
camphoreous
ortho-methyl anisoleFL/FR
caramellic
 cycloteneFL/FR
 fenugreek absoluteFL/FR
citrus
2-pentyl acetateFL/FR
cocoa
 cocoa distillatesFL
 cocoa hexenalFL/FR
coconut
delta-decalactoneFL/FR
coffee
 cichorium intybus root extractFL/FR
 coffea arabica seed extractFL/FR
 coffee distillatesFL
 difurfuryl etherFL
2-ethyl-4-methyl thiazoleFL/FR
 furfuryl mercaptanFL/FR
2-isopropyl pyrazineFL
corn
2-acetyl pyridineFL/FR
2-acetyl thiazoleFL/FR
2-acetyl-2-thiazolineFL
 popcorn pyrimidineFL/FR
creamy
 acetyl butyrylFL/FR
6-amyl-alpha-pyroneFL/FR
alpha-angelica lactoneFL/FR
delta-dodecalactoneFL/FR
4-hydroxybenzaldehydeFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
dairy
 butyl lactateFL/FR
earthy
2-methyl-3-propyl pyrazineFL/FR
 tamarind distillatesFL
fatty
 coconut absoluteFL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-decadienalFL
2-heptyl furanFL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-nonadienalFL
fishy
4,5-dimethyl thiazoleFL
floral
 cocoa pentenalFL/FR
fruity
 benzaldehydeFL/FR
 benzyl butyrateFL/FR
 bread thiopheneFL/FR
2,4-hexadien-1-olFL
 lilac acetaldehydeFL/FR
(E,E)-methyl sorbateFL
 methyl valerateFL/FR
3-methyl-2-butenalFL/FR
 propyl benzoateFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 tiglaldehydeFL/FR
 valeriana officinalis root extractFL/FR
fusel
2-methyl butyraldehydeFL/FR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 celery distillatesFL
 cocoa butenalFL/FR
 dihydroxyacetophenone (mixed isomers)FL
2,5-dimethyl thiopheneFL
2-hexyl pyridineFL
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
4-methyl thiazoleFL
2-methyl-5-isopropyl pyrazineFL
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-yl acetateFL/FR
2-propyl pyrazineFL
 propylene glycol acetone ketalFL
2-vinyl pyrazineFL
herbal
 apium graveolens seed extractFL/FR
jammy
 ethyl cyclopentenoloneFL/FR
lactonic
gamma-heptalactoneFL/FR
gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
meaty
 benzothiazoleFL/FR
2,6-dimethyl thiophenolFL
 sulfurolFL/FR
metallic
2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dithianeFL
mushroom
3-octen-2-olFL/FR
musty
2,5-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,3-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-ethoxythiazoleFL
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
 menthofuranFL/FR
3-octanolFL/FR
 propionaldehydeFL
 shoyu pyrazineFL/FR
 strawberry furanone methyl etherFL/FR
2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
naphthyl
para-methyl anisoleFL/FR
nutty
 acetalFL/FR
2-acetyl furanFL/FR
3-acetyl pyridineFL/FR
2-acetyl pyrroleFL/FR
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
2-acetyl-3-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl-5-methyl furanFL/FR
2-butyl-2-butenalFL
3,6-cocoa pyrazineFL/FR
3,5-cocoa pyrazineFL/FR
3,5(6)-cocoa pyrazineFL
 coffee furanoneFL/FR
3,5-diethyl-2-methyl pyrazineFL
2,5-diethyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL
4,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazolineFL/FR
2,4-dimethyl-5-vinyl thiazoleFL
2-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
1-ethyl-2-acetyl pyrroleFL
 filbert heptenoneFL/FR
 filbert heptenone BFL/FR
 filbert pyrazineFL/FR
european hazelnut oleoresinFL
2,6-lutidineFL/FR
2-methoxy-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 methoxymethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
5-methyl quinoxalineFL/FR
2-methyl thio-3,5 or 6-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty cyclohexenoneFL/FR
 nutty quinoxalineFL/FR
 nutty thiazoleFL
 peanut oxazoleFL
 sesame absoluteFL/FR
 sesame distillatesFL
 tetrahydrofurfuryl alcoholFL/FR
2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,4,5-trimethyl thiazoleFL/FR
 vinyl sulfurolFL/FR
popcorn
2-propionyl-2-thiazolineFL
potato
 mesityl oxideFL/FR
roasted
2-acetyl pyrazineFL/FR
 ethyl 3-(furfuryl thio) propionateFL
 furfuryl thioacetateFL/FR
smoky
 prosopis juliflora wood extractFL
solvent
1-heptanolFL/FR
spicy
para-alpha-dimethyl styreneFL/FR
sulfurous
S-furfuryl thioformateFL/FR
sweet
2-acetyl-3-methyl thiopheneFL
toasted
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
vegetable
2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazineFL/FR
waxy
para-cresyl laurateFL/FR
winey
isoamyl nonanoateFL/FR
5-ethyl-2-methyl pyridineFL
 valeraldehydeFL/FR
woody
 ambroxanFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 santalyl acetateFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 whiskey lactoneFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 aconitum napellus
Search Trop  Picture
 barley root
Search Trop  Picture
 beet plant
Search Trop  Picture
 corn root
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 corn shoot
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 achilleaic acid
 achilleic acid
2-carboxy glutaconic acid
3-carboxy-2-pentene dioic acid
3-carboxy-2-pentenedioic acid
3-carboxyglutaconic acid
 citridic acid
 citridinic acid
 equisetic acid
 glutaconic acid, 3-carboxy-
2-pentenedioic acid, 3-carboxy-
 prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
1,2,3-propene tricarboxylic acid
1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid
 pyrocitric acid
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Articles:
PubMed: Effects of nitrogen treatments and harvesting stages on the aconitic acid, invert sugar and fiber in sweet sorghum cultivars.
PubMed: Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.
PubMed: Metabonomic analysis of the toxic effects of TM208 in rat urine by HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS.
PubMed: A HPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based urinary metabolomic approach to identification of potential biomarkers of metabolic syndrome.
PubMed: Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates As Revealed by Metabolomics Studies: An Underlying Mechanism to Reduce Lipid Accretion by Whey Protein Ingestion?
PubMed: Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats.
PubMed: Guidance of growth mode and structural character in organic-inorganic hybrid materials - a comparative study.
PubMed: On-line capillary electrophoresis enrichment by combining chitosan trapping with surfactant assisted sample stacking for the ultratrace determination of organic acids in Plateau alfalfa roots.
PubMed: Biochemistry of microbial itaconic acid production.
PubMed: Different methods of detaching adherent cells significantly affect the detection of TRAIL receptors.
PubMed: Anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Antifungal activity of homoaconitate and homoisocitrate analogs.
PubMed: Metabolic profiling reveals sphingosine-1-phosphate kinase 2 and lyase as key targets of (phyto-) estrogen action in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and not in MCF-12A.
PubMed: Cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and phenolic compounds from the seeds of Alisma orientale.
PubMed: Analysis of urinary metabolic signatures of early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after surgical removal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Metabolomic profiling of the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease rat model.
PubMed: Metabolic profiling and predicting the free radical scavenging activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves according to harvest time by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
PubMed: [Analysis of transporter function and development to clinical application].
PubMed: Effects of nitrogen treatments and harvesting stages on the aconitic acid, invert sugar and fiber in sweet sorghum cultivars.
PubMed: Application of NMR-based metabolomics to the investigation of salt stress in maize (Zea mays).
PubMed: Urinary metabonomics study in a rat model in response to protein-energy malnutrition by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: LC-MS analysis of low molecular weight organic acids derived from root exudation.
PubMed: Biochemical characterisation of aconitase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed: Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.
PubMed: Flavonoid glucuronides and a chromone from the aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides.
PubMed: Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.
PubMed: [Metabonomic profiling of plasma metabolites in Wistar rats to study the effect of aging by means of GC/TOFMS-based techniques].
PubMed: A novel monoclonal antibody specific to peptide pdnaelvlltlgqawqg.
PubMed: Synthesis and properties of polycarboxylate-type green surfactants with S- or N-linkages.
PubMed: Biotechnological production of itaconic acid and its biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus.
PubMed: A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome differentiation signal.
PubMed: Microbiology: Signals for change.
PubMed: Aconitate and methyl aconitate are modulated by silicon in powdery mildew-infected wheat plants.
PubMed: Abnormal tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites in isovaleric acidaemia.
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody specific to human CAD protein.
PubMed: A high-throughput method to measure NaCl and acid taste thresholds in mice.
PubMed: Antifeedants of Indian barnyard millet, Echinochloa frumentacea link, against brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).
PubMed: Metabolite profiling of blood from individuals undergoing planned myocardial infarction reveals early markers of myocardial injury.
PubMed: Cloning and functional characterization of the cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CAD) gene from Aspergillus terreus.
PubMed: Metabonomic analysis of hepatitis B virus-induced liver failure: identification of potential diagnostic biomarkers by fuzzy support vector machine.
PubMed: Tricarballylate catabolism in Salmonella enterica. The TcuB protein uses 4Fe-4S clusters and heme to transfer electrons from FADH2 in the tricarballylate dehydrogenase (TcuA) enzyme to electron acceptors in the cell membrane.
PubMed: The three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein of Shewanella oneidensis complexed with trans-aconitate: insights into its biological function.
PubMed: Bacillus decisifrondis sp. nov., isolated from soil underlying decaying leaf foliage.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration].
PubMed: Isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of mouth-drying and astringent nitrogen-containing phytochemicals isolated from red currants (Ribes rubrum).
PubMed: Detection of new fumonisin mycotoxins and fumonisin-like compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed: The FAD-dependent tricarballylate dehydrogenase (TcuA) enzyme of Salmonella enterica converts tricarballylate into cis-aconitate.
PubMed: High-speed counter-current chromatography for the study of defense metabolites in wheat. Characterization of 5,6-O-methyl trans-aconitic acid.
PubMed: Efficient preparation and improved sensitivity of molecularly imprinted polymers using room temperature ionic liquids.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase from Aspergillus terreus TN484-M1.
PubMed: Antiproliferative properties of chemically modified recombinant IFN-alpha2b.
PubMed: Allelopathic effects of aconitic acid on wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (Ipomoea grandifolia).
PubMed: Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei.
PubMed: Chemical interactions of Brachiaria plantaginea with Commelina bengalensis and Acanthospermum hispidum in soybean cropping systems.
PubMed: Depressive symptoms and taste reactivity in humans.
PubMed: 3-Isopropylmalate is the major endogenous substrate of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trans-aconitate methyltransferase.
PubMed: Basolateral localization of flounder Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter (fNaDC-3) in the kidney of Pleuronectes americanus.
PubMed: Efficient scavenger receptor-mediated hepatic targeting of proteins by introduction of negative charges on the proteins by aconitylation: the influence of charge density and size of the proteins molecules.
PubMed: HPMA copolymers with pH-controlled release of doxorubicin: in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity.
PubMed: Unexpected anthracycline-mediated alterations in iron-regulatory protein-RNA-binding activity: the iron and copper complexes of anthracyclines decrease RNA-binding activity.
PubMed: Massive and selective delivery of lipid-coated cationic lipoplexes of oligonucleotides targeted in vivo to hepatic endothelial cells.
PubMed: The influence of charge clustering on the anti-HIV-1 activity and in vivo distribution of negatively charged albumins.
PubMed: [Effect of organic acids on soil chemical behavior of lead and cadmium and their toxicity to plants].
PubMed: The methylcitric acid pathway in Ralstonia eutropha: new genes identified involved in propionate metabolism.
PubMed: The applicability of rat and human liver slices to the study of mechanisms of hepatic drug uptake.
PubMed: [Characteristics of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase functioning in pea leaves during salt stress].
PubMed: Distinct reactions catalyzed by bacterial and yeast trans-aconitate methyltransferases.
PubMed: In vitro conversion of propionate to pyruvate by Salmonella enterica enzymes: 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (PrpD) and aconitase Enzymes catalyze the conversion of 2-methylcitrate to 2-methylisocitrate.
PubMed: [The use of liposomal form of phenylimide of cis-aconitic acid in herpes therapy].
PubMed: A novel selection regime for differentiation defects demonstrates an essential role for the stumpy form in the life cycle of the African trypanosome.
PubMed: The use of transgenic Trypanosoma brucei to identify compounds inducing the differentiation of bloodstream forms to procyclic forms.
PubMed: Resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus to the inhibitory action of negatively charged albumins on virus binding to CD4.
PubMed: Anti-HIV-1 activity of combinations and covalent conjugates of negatively charged human serum albumins (NCAs) and AZT.
PubMed: Molecular mechanisms of the adsorption of a model protein (human serum albumin) on poly(methylidene malonate 2.1.2) nanoparticles.
PubMed: Lactoferrin. Antiviral activity of lactoferrin.
PubMed: Lectin-mediated drug targeting: preparation, binding characteristics, and antiproliferative activity of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated doxorubicin on Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Citrate promotes attachment of Prevotella nigrescens (intermedia) ATCC 25261 to hydroxyapatite.
PubMed: Mild acid stress as a differentiation trigger in Trypanosoma brucei.
PubMed: Cell density triggers slender to stumpy differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms in culture.
PubMed: Commitment to differentiation and cell cycle re-entry are coincident but separable events in the transformation of African trypanosomes from their bloodstream to their insect form.
PubMed: Massive targeting of liposomes, surface-modified with anionized albumins, to hepatic endothelial cells.
PubMed: Detection and molecular analysis of plant- and insect-associated bacteria harboring aconitate isomerase involved in biosynthesis of trans-aconitic acid as antifeedant in brown planthoppers.
PubMed: Enzymes and symmetrical molecules.
PubMed: Fermentation of trans-aconitate via citrate, oxaloacetate, and pyruvate by Acidaminococcus fermentans.
PubMed: Antiviral effects of milk proteins: acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro.
PubMed: Preliminary determination of a molecular basis of chronic fatigue syndrome.
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of conjugates of (modified) human serum albumin and liposomes: drug carriers with an intrinsic anti-HIV activity.
PubMed: Comparative pharmacokinetic, immunologic and hematologic studies on the anti-HIV-1/2 compounds aconitylated and succinylated HSA.
PubMed: A new patient with alpha-ketoglutaric aciduria and progressive extrapyramidal tract disease.
PubMed: Ability of Acidaminococcus fermentans to oxidize trans-aconitate and decrease the accumulation of tricarballylate, a toxic end product of ruminal fermentation.
PubMed: Emendation of the description of Acidaminococcus fermentans, a trans-aconitate- and citrate-oxidizing bacterium.
PubMed: Kinetics of enzymes with iso-mechanisms: dead-end inhibition of fumarase and carbonic anhydrase II.
PubMed: Crystal structures of aconitase with trans-aconitate and nitrocitrate bound.
PubMed: Studies on compounds promoting the in vitro transformation of Trypanosoma brucei from bloodstream to procyclic forms.
PubMed: Experimental visceral leishmaniasis: role of trans-aconitic acid in combined chemotherapy.
PubMed: Altered intracellular polyamines in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei: transformation to procyclic trypomastigotes.
PubMed: Novel, negatively charged, human serum albumins display potent and selective in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.
PubMed: Automated docking in crystallography: analysis of the substrates of aconitase.
PubMed: Transport of tricarballylate by intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles from steers.
PubMed: Immunotargeting of daunomycin to localized and metastatic human colon adenocarcinoma in athymic mice.
PubMed: Effects of birth asphyxia on urinary organic acid excretion.
PubMed: Phloretin and citrate promote the differentiation rate from epimastigote to metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.
PubMed: Alterations in Krebs cycle enzyme activities and carbohydrate catabolism in two strains of Trypanosoma brucei during in vitro differentiation of their bloodstream to procyclic stages.
PubMed: Inhibition of protein synthesis results in super-induction of procyclin (PARP) RNA levels.
PubMed: Tumor reactive cis-aconitylated monoclonal antibodies coupled to daunorubicin through a peptide spacer are unable to kill tumor cells.
PubMed: Daunorubicin coupled to monoclonal antibodies via a cis-aconitic anhydride linker: biochemical and cytotoxic properties revisited.
PubMed: Evaluation of antileishmanial activity of trans-aconitic acid.
PubMed: Erythrocyte membrane-bound daunorubicin as a delivery system in anticancer treatment.
PubMed: Effect of tricarballylic acid, a nonmetabolizable rumen fermentation product of trans-aconitic acid, on Mg, Ca and Zn utilization of rats.
PubMed: The arrhythmogenic effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) is inhibited by PAF antagonist and by substances influencing eicosanoids.
PubMed: Repression and reactivation of the variant surface glycoprotein gene in Trypanosoma brucei.
PubMed: Genetic mapping, distribution, and properties of an aconitase isozyme in Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae).
PubMed: The effect of citrate/cis-aconitate on oxidative metabolism during transformation of Trypanosoma brucei.
PubMed: Trypanosoma brucei: cis-aconitate and temperature reduction as triggers of synchronous transformation of bloodstream to procyclic trypomastigotes in vitro.
PubMed: Production of tricarballylic acid by rumen microorganisms and its potential toxicity in ruminant tissue metabolism.
PubMed: 17O electron nuclear double resonance characterization of substrate binding to the [4Fe-4S]1+ cluster of reduced active aconitase.
PubMed: Trypanosoma brucei: differentiation of in vitro-grown bloodstream trypomastigotes into procyclic forms.
PubMed: [Pharmacological effect of the organic acid of Achillea alpina].
PubMed: Enrichment and Isolation of Rumen Bacteria That Reduce trans- Aconitic Acid to Tricarballylic Acid.
PubMed: Presence and regulation of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.
PubMed: pH profiles and isotope effects for aconitases from Saccharomycopsis lipolytica, beef heart, and beef liver. alpha-Methyl-cis-aconitate and threo-Ds-alpha-methylisocitrate as substrates.
PubMed: Mutagenic investigation of flavourings: dimethyl succinate, ethyl pyruvate and aconitic acid are negative in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test.
PubMed: Wheat pasture poisoning. I. An evaluation of cereal pastures as related to tetany in beef cows.
PubMed: Citrate utilization by Escherichia coli: plasmid- and chromosome-encoded systems.
PubMed: Organic acids or urine in multiple sclerosis.
PubMed: Fluorometric determination of carbodiimides with trans-aconitic acid.
PubMed: The effect of thermal history on the transition temperature of citric acid glass.
PubMed: Metabolism of trans-Aconitic Acid in Maize : II. Regulatory Properties of Two Compartmented Forms of Citrate Dehydrase.
PubMed: Metabolism of trans-Aconitic Acid in Maize : I. PURIFICATION OF TWO MOLECULAR FORMS OF CITRATE DEHYDRASE.
PubMed: Stimulating effect of citrate and cis-Aconitate on the transformation of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms to procyclic forms in vitro.
PubMed: Kinetic studies of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aconitate hydratases from rat liver.
PubMed: Structural basis for aconitase activity inactivation by butanedione and binding of substrates and inhibitors.
PubMed: cis- and trans-Aconitic acids as inhibitors of glutamate decarboxylase.
PubMed: [Oxidation of Krebs cycle substrates by Eurytrema pancreaticum mitochondria].
PubMed: Regulation of citrate synthase in Brevibacterium flavum, a glutamate-producing bacterium.
PubMed: The structure and function of ribonuclease T1. XXIII. Inactivation of ribonuclease T1 by reversible blocking of amino groups with cis-aconitic anhydride and related dicarboxylic acid anhydrides.
PubMed: Urinary organic acid profiles of Reye's syndrome patients.
PubMed: Growth and synthesis of rubratoxin by Penicillium rubrum in a chemically defined medium fortified with organic acids and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
PubMed: [The identification of cis- and trans-aconitic acid with paper chromatographic methods. 30. The chemistry and physiology of metaboloically, chemically important acids].
PubMed: Gas-liquid chromatography of organic acids in citrus tissues.
PubMed: Phthalonic acid, an inhibitor of alpha-oxoglutarate transport in mitochondria.
PubMed: Stimulation of citrate oxidation and transport in human placental mitochondria by L-malate.
PubMed: Regulation of progesterone biosynthesis in human placental mitochondria by Krebs cycle metabolites.
PubMed: Effect of acetic and trans-aconitic acids on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.
PubMed: Inhibition of Mn2+ of citrate supported progesterone biosynthesis in mitochondrial fractions of human term placentae.
PubMed: [2 methods of preparing solvent systems for the chromatographic separation of organic acids].
PubMed: Purification and kinetic properties of ATP: citrate oxaloacetate lyase from rat brain.
PubMed: [The significance of the cis-aconitic acid for the biological inactivation of the 3,4-benzopyrene cancerogenesis (author's transl)].
PubMed: [Prevention of 3,4-benzpyrene carcinogenesis by naturally occurring and synthetic compounds].
PubMed: Reinforced polycarboxylate cements.
PubMed: The mechanism of aconitase action. Evidence for an enzyme isomerization by studies of inhibition by tricarboxylic acids.
PubMed: Oxidation, accumulation, and turnover of citrate in normal and diabetic rats.
PubMed: [Biochemical characteristics of the facultatively parasitic strain Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus].
PubMed: Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the variable regions of light chains derived from two homogeneous rabbit anti-pneumococcal antibodies.
PubMed: Urinary excretion of non-nitrogenous organic acids by healthy infants and children.
PubMed: Separation and determination of 14C-labelled intermediates of the citric acid cycle and related compounds.
PubMed: Modulation of mitochondrial adenylate kinase by citric-acid-cycle intermediates.
PubMed: The magnitude of enzyme transition state analog binding constants.
PubMed: Rapid sampling of yeast cells and automated assays of adenylate, citrate, pyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate pools.
PubMed: [Physicochemical methods of studying aconitine and the prospects for utilizing them in toxicological analysis].
PubMed: Effects of modifying urea hydrolysis in acute nephrectomy on survival, ammonia in cecal contents and blood metabolites.
PubMed: Organic acids and iron translocation in maize genotypes.
PubMed: Effects of urea in rats deprived of arginine.
PubMed: Transport of tricarboxylic acids in Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed: Fluorocitrate inhibition of aconitate hydratase and the tricarboxylate carrier of rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed: Separation of Krebs cycle intermediates on a low-bleed gas chromatographic column. Temperature dependence of methylene unit values.
PubMed: Sarcosomal aconitase of silkworm.
PubMed: [Effect of organic acids on the activity of malate synthase from Acinetobacter calco-aceticus].
PubMed: The content of trans-aconitic acid in Asarum europaeum L. determined by means of a chromatogram spectrophotometer.
PubMed: Colorimetric determination of aconitic acid in Avena sativa (oat).
PubMed: alpha-Methyl-cis-aconitic acid. Aconitase substrate. II. Substrate properties and aconitase mechanism.
PubMed: Alpha-methyl-cis-aconitic acid, cis-aconitase substrate. I. Synthesis.
PubMed: Trans-Aconitic Acid in Range Grasses in Early Spring.
PubMed: Isolation of trans-Aconitic Acid from the Moss Mnium affine.
PubMed: Triethyl alpha-fluoroaconitate.
PubMed: Selective antibacterial activity of aconitic acid.
PubMed: [Formation of an ester of aconitic acid during the stabilization of plant material and during the extraction of organic acids by ethyl alcohol].
PubMed: Biosynthesis of itaconic acid in Aspergillus terreus. III. The properties and reaction mechanism of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase.
PubMed: [Colorimetric microdetermination of citric acid and of cis-aconitic acid].
PubMed: Aconitic acid, a by-product in the manufacture of sugar.
PubMed: The effect of pH on the stability of cis-aconitic acid in dilute solution.
PubMed: Some pharmacological properties of the monoanilide of aconitic acid.
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