EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

acetyl propionyl
2,3-pentadione

Supplier Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:pentane-2,3-dione
CAS Number: 600-14-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:1341-45-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:209-984-8
FDA UNII:K4WBE45SCM
Nikkaji Web:J69.485A
Beilstein Number:1699638
MDL:MFCD00009313
CoE Number:2039
XlogP3-AA:0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:100.11716000
Formula:C5 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
At least 93%; secondary component 2-3% 2,5-diethylcyclohexadien-1,4-dione (dimer of 2,3-pentadione). (JECFA)
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:410 2,3-pentadione
FLAVIS Number:07.060 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:07.060 pentane-2,3-dione
FEMA Number:2841 2,3-pentadione
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):600-14-6 ; 2,3-PENTANEDIONE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow to yellow green clear liquid (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: -52.00 to -51.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 108.00 to 112.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:20.000000 mmHg @ 20.00 °C.
Vapor Density:3.4 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 66.00 °F. TCC ( 18.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.850
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 66700 mg/L @ 15 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 glycerin
Similar Items:note
pentane-2,4-dione
1,5-pentane dione
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: buttery
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:12 hour(s) at 100.00 %
pungent sweet buttery creamy caramellic nutty cheesy
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. pungent sweet butter creamy caramel nutty cheese
Luebke, William tgsc, (1987)
Odor sample from: Fritzsche Dodge & Olcott, Inc.
buttery nutty toasted caramellic buttery
Odor Description:Buttery, nutty, toasted, caramellic, diacetyl and acetoin notes
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 1, 57, (1997)
Flavor Type: toasted
toasted buttery caramellic marshmallow molasses
Taste Description: at 5.00 ppm. Toasted, buttery and caramellic with marshmallow and molasses nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 22, No. 1, 57, (1997)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Sigma-Aldrich
2,3-Pentanedione, ≥96%, FCC, FG
Odor Description:almond; butter; caramel; cheese; chocolate; creamy; nutty; fruity; sweet; coffee
Taste Description:creamy sweet butter brown fruity
Symrise
Pentandione-2,3
Taste Description:sweet, buttery, creamy, milky, toffee, with a fruity nuance
Useful in: brown caramel, brown nuts, brown coffee, brown others, dairy, savory meat, fruity red, fruity yellow, sweet others, alcoholics.
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Acetyl Propionyl Natural
Odor Description:Buttery, nutty, toasted, caramellic, diacetyl and acetoin notes
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
A.C.S. International
Pentanedione-2,3
Odor: butter toasted caramelic molasses
Operational Capabilities
Advanced Biotech
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL
93% min. (mixed keto-enol)
Odor: Sweet, buttery
Advanced Biotech
ACETYL PROPIONYL SYNTHETIC
93% min.
Odor: Sweet, buttery
Alfrebro
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL
Odor: Penetrating, Buttery
Ambles Nature et Chimie
2.3-PENTANEDIONE
Anhui Haibei
Acetyl Propionyl
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
2,3-Pentadione
Artiste
Acetyl Propionyl Natural
Augustus Oils
Acetyl Propionyl
Services
Aurochemicals
ACETYL PROPIONYL, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
2,3-Pentanedione
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Natural Acetyl propionyl
Berjé
Acetyl Propionyl Natural
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
2,3-Pentanedione
Carbosynth
For experimental / research use only.
2,3-Pentanedione
Charkit Chemical
PENTANEDIONE, 2,3- P0050 FEMA 2841
DeLong Chemicals America
2,3-Pentanedione
Diffusions Aromatiques
2-3 PENTANEDIONE
Elan Inc.
ACETYL PROPIONYL
Kosher
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
2,3-Pentanedione
Ernesto Ventós
2,3-PENTANEDIONE NATURAL
Odor: BUTTER, CHEESE, PUNGENT
Ernesto Ventós
2,3-PENTANEDIONE
Odor: BUTTER, CHEESE, PUNGENT
FCI SAS
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL EU
Flavor: Butter
Fleurchem
acetyl propionyl natural
Frutarom
2,3-PENTANEDIONE 98 FCC
H. Interdonati, Inc.
Acetylpropionyl Natural, Kosher
Featured Products
Indukern F&F
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL
Odor: BUTTER, CHEESE, OILY
Indukern F&F
ACETYL PROPIONYL
Odor: BUTTER, CHEESE, OILY
Jiangyin Healthway
Acetyl Propionyl Natural99%
New functional food ingredients
Jinan Enlighten Chemical Technology(Wutong Aroma )
2,3-Pentanedione, Kosherk
Kingchem Laboratories
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL
Kingchem Laboratories
ACETYL PROPIONYL SYNTH
Lluch Essence
ACETYL PROPIONYL NATURAL
Lluch Essence
ACETYL PROPIONYL
M&U International
2,3-PENTANEDIONE, Kosher
M&U International
NAT. 2,3-PENTANEDIONE
Moellhausen
2,3-PENTANEDIONE
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Acetyl Propionyl
Odor: Buttery, nutty, toasted, caramellic, diacetyl and acetoin notes
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Acetyl Propionyl
Natural
Odor: Buttery, nutty, toasted, caramellic, diacetyl and acetoin notes
Natural Advantage
Acetyl Propionyl Nat
Flavor: buttery, creamy, fatty, oily
Riverside Aromatics LTD.is the exclusive distributor for Europe in UK for any non-US based inquiries
O'Laughlin Industries
2,3-PENTANEDIONE
O'Laughlin Industries
ACETYL PROPRIONYL NATURAL
OQEMA
Acetyl Propionyl natural
Pearlchem Corporation
Acetyl Propionyl
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Acetyl Proprionyl Natural
R C Treatt & Co Ltd
Acetyl Propionyl
Reincke & Fichtner
Acetyl Propionyl natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Acetyl Propionyl
Riverside Aromatics
2,3-PENTANEDIONE NATURAL
Robertet
Acetyl propionyl naturel
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
2,3-Pentanedione ≥96%
Sigma-Aldrich
2,3-Pentanedione, ≥96%, FCC, FG
Odor: almond; butter; caramel; cheese; chocolate; creamy; nutty; fruity; sweet; coffee
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
2,3-Pentanedione, natural, ≥96%, FG
Odor: almond; butter; caramel; cheese; chocolate; creamy; nutty; fruity; sweet; coffee
Sunaux International
2,3-Pentanedione
Symrise
Pentandione-2,3
Flavor: sweet, buttery, creamy, milky, toffee, with a fruity nuance
Useful in: brown caramel, brown nuts, brown coffee, brown others, dairy, savory meat, fruity red, fruity yellow, sweet others, alcoholics.
Synerzine
acetyl propionyl (natural)
Synerzine
acetyl propionyl (synthetic)
Taytonn
2,3-Pentanedione
Odor: Buttery, Caramellic/ Caramel, Sweet
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
2,3-Pentanedione >97.0%(GC)
The Lermond Company
ACETYL PROPIONYL
Tianjin Danjun International
2,3-Pentanedione
Vigon International
Acetyl Propionyl FCC Pure
Vigon International
Acetyl Propionyl Natural FCC (2,3-Pentanedione)
Odor: Pungent sweet butter creamy caramel nutty cheese
WholeChem
Acetyl Propionyl, Natural
WholeChem
Acetyl Propionyl
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 11 - Highly flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Human Experience:
4 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3000 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1977d)

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 2500 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 699, 1979.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for acetyl propionyl usage levels up to:
  0.0800 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 130.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -9.60000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.60000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -3.30000
fruit ices: -3.30000
gelatins / puddings: -0.28000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -5.90000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 11 (FGE.11): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical group 10 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 1 (FGE.11Rev1) - Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical group 10 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of secondary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols, ketones, ketals and esters with a second secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group belonging to chemical group 10 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):600-14-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :11747
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 1224
WGK Germany:1
pentane-2,3-dione
Chemidplus:0000600146
RTECS:SA1850000 for cas# 600-14-6
 
References:
 pentane-2,3-dione
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:600-14-6
Pubchem (cid):11747
Pubchem (sid):134976376
Flavornet:600-14-6
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB31598
FooDB:FDB008229
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01434
Export Tariff Code:2914.19.0000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
butter starter distillates
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
animal
costus valerolactone
FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
acetoin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
apple butter fragrance
FR
butter fragrance
FR
butter oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
iso
butyl lactate
FL/FR
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
cheesy
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
chocolate
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
cocoa
cocoa butter fragrance
FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
creamy
2,3-
butane diol
FR
butyl lactate
FL/FR
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
creamy lactone
FL/FR
cyclotene propionate
FL/FR
3-
heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
FL/FR
(Z)-gamma-
jasmolactone
FR
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
para-
vanillyl alcohol
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
earthy
1-
nonen-3-ol
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
fatty
butter esters
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
7-
decen-4-olide
FL/FR
ethyl undecylenate
FL/FR
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
fermented
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
floral
acetophenone
FL/FR
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
leerall
FR
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
(S)-delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
2-
nonanone
FL/FR
prenyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone butyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL/FR
hay
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
herbal
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
marine
marine pyridine
FR
melon
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
watermelon ketone
FR
milky
laevo-
glutamine
CS
mushroom
3-
octen-2-ol
FL/FR
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
nutty
2-
ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
(-)-(E,R)-
filbertone
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
oily
butter acids
FL/FR
plastic
1-
phenyl-1,2-propane dione
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl thiazole
FL/FR
soapy
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
sweet
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
mint lactone
FL/FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
whiskey lactone
FL/FR
tropical
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
vanilla
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
vanillylidene acetone
FL/FR
vegetable
methional
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
octyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
woody
amber carbinol
FR
santall
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
(E)-
aconitic acid
FL
allyl methyl trisulfide
FL
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
butter nut rum flavor
FL
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
cyclotene propionate
FL/FR
(S)-delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
7-
decen-4-olide
FL/FR
6-
decenoic acid
FL
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
ethyl butyryl lactate
FL
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
3-(
methyl thio) hexanal
FL
4,5-
octane dione
FL
(E)-2-
octen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
prenyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
sodium 4-methyl-2-oxovalerate
FL
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
alliaceous
3-
tetrahydrothiophenone
FL
amber
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
anisic
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
vanillylidene acetone
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bitter
glyceryl tributyrate
FL
brown
beeswax absolute
FL/FR
2-oxo
butyric acid
FL/FR
burnt
2-
methyl quinoxaline
FL
buttery
acetoin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
bovolide
FL
butter cream frosting flavor
FL
butter enhancers
FL
sweet
butter flavor
FL
butter flavor
FL
creamy
butter flavor
FL
butter maple flavor
FL
butter nut vanilla flavor
FL
butter oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
butter pecan flavor
FL
butter praline flavor
FL
butter starter distillates
FL/FR
butter toffee flavor
FL
butter vanilla nut flavor
FL
iso
butyl lactate
FL/FR
butyl laevo-lactate
FL/FR
butyroin
FL
diacetyl
FL
ghee flavor
FL
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenoic acid
FL
cabbage
methyl 2-thiofuroate
FL
caramellic
butter rum toffee flavor
FL
caramel furanone
FL
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
toasted
maple nut flavor
FL
toasted
marshmallow flavor
FL
3-
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
FL
1-
phenyl-1,2-propane dione
FL/FR
toasted
praline flavor
FL
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
nonanone
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
chocolate
chocolate butter cream flavor
FL
citrus
bergamot oil
FL/FR
butter lemon orange flavor
FL
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
(R)-
massoia lactone
FL
6-
methyl coumarin
FL
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
corn chip
2-
acetyl thiazole
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
acetoin butyrate
FL
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl ethyl carbinol
FL
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
butter esters
FL/FR
butter fat enzyme modified with added butyric acid
FL
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
creamy lactone
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
5,5-
dibutyl dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
FL
divanillin
FL
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
mint lactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
octyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
para-
vanillyl alcohol
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
dairy
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
butyl lactate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
4-
pentenoic acid
FL
earthy
1-
nonen-3-ol
FL/FR
fatty
butter acids
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
diacetyl trimer
FL
ethyl undecylenate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
2,4-
octadien-1-ol
FL
(E,E)-2,4-
undecadienal
FL
2,4-
undecadienal
FL
floral
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
acetyl isovaleryl
FL
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
3-
heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
strawberry furanone butyrate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
green
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
FL
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL/FR
(Z)-6-
nonenal
FL/FR
2,3-
octane dione
FL
herbal
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
5-
hydroxymethyl furfural
FL
honey
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
milky
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
mushroom
3-
octen-2-ol
FL/FR
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
butter pecan cake flavor
FL
coffee furanone
FL/FR
2-
ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
filbert heptenone
FL/FR
(-)-(E,R)-
filbertone
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
powdery
acetophenone
FL/FR
solvent
2-
ethyl furan
FL
sour
butyric acid
FL/FR
spicy
allspice oil
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
benzylidene acetone
FL
spiced
butter rum flavor
FL
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon butter pecan flavor
FL
cinnamon nut butter rum flavor
FL
clove bud oil
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
sweet
honey distillates
FL
vanilla butter nut flavor
FL
vanilla oleoresin bali
FL/FR
tomato
methional
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-furoate
FL
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
winey
5-
ethyl-2-methyl pyridine
FL
woody
whiskey lactone
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLalmond toasted almond
FLbread
FRbutter
FLcaramel
FLchocolate cocoa
FRcoffee
FLmarshmallow
FRpeach
FRpeanut
FRpine
FLtea
FRtoffee
FLtomato
FRvanilla
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond roasted almond
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 beef
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 beer
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 bread wheat bread
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 cocoa
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 coffee aroma
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 filbert
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 lavender oil spike spain @ 0.425%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 malt
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 pea
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 peach fruit
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 peanut
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 pecan
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 potato chip
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 rum
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 shoyu
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 tamarind fruit oil
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 tamarind seed oil
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 whiskey
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 wine red wine
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 wine white wine
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 yogurt
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Synonyms:
 acetyl propanal
 acetyl propanal FCC
 acetyl propionyl
 acetyl propionyl FCC
 acetyl propionyl FCC natural
 acetyl propionyl FCC pure
 acetyl propionyl natural
 acetyl propionyl naturel
 acetyl propionyl synthetic
 acetyl propionyl, natural
 acetyl proprionyl natural
 acetylpropanal
 acetylpropionyl
beta,gamma-dioxopentane
2,3-pentadione
 pentan-2,3-dione
2,3-pentandione FCC
 pentandione-2,3
2,3-pentane dione
 pentane-2,3-dione
2,3-pentanedione
2,3-pentanedione (acetyl propionyl)
 

Articles:

US Patents:3,952,024 - Furfurylthioacetone
PubMed:Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.
PubMed:Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of sardine (Sardinops melanostica) by solid phase microextraction.
PubMed:Solid-phase microextraction method development for headspace analysis of volatile flavor compounds.
PubMed:Aroma comparisons of traditional and mild yogurts: headspace gas chromatography quantification of volatiles and origin of alpha-diketones.
PubMed:Sensory investigation of yogurt flavor perception: mutual influence of volatiles and acidity.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.
PubMed:Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.
PubMed:Cardiac hypoxia imaging: second-generation analogues of 64Cu-ATSM.
PubMed:Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.
PubMed:Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:Computational design of short-chain dehydrogenase Gox2181 for altered coenzyme specificity.
PubMed:Chromatographic analysis of methylglyoxal and other ▒-dicarbonyls using gas-diffusion microextraction.
PubMed:Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.
PubMed:Mechanistic insights into the LsrK kinase required for autoinducer-2 quorum sensing activation.
PubMed:LuxS affects biofilm maturation and detachment of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Eikenella corrodens.
PubMed:Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.
PubMed:Still searching for better butter flavoring.
PubMed:LuxS influences Escherichia coli biofilm formation through autoinducer-2-dependent and autoinducer-2-independent modalities.
PubMed:AI-2 analogs and antibiotics: a synergistic approach to reduce bacterial biofilms.
PubMed:Construction of self-cloning bottom-fermenting yeast with low vicinal diketone production by the homo-integration of ILV5.
PubMed:Effect of sugars on liquid-vapour partition of volatile compounds in ready-to-drink coffee beverages.
PubMed:Heterologous expression of sahH reveals that biofilm formation is autoinducer-2-independent in Streptococcus sanguinis but is associated with an intact activated methionine cycle.
PubMed:Deep sequencing of Porphyromonas gingivalis and comparative transcriptome analysis of a LuxS mutant.
PubMed:Respiratory and olfactory cytotoxicity of inhaled 2,3-pentanedione in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Development of a method for the determination of advanced glycation end products precursors by liquid chromatography and its application in human urine samples.
PubMed:C4-alkoxy-HPD: a potent class of synthetic modulators surpassing nature in AI-2 quorum sensing.
PubMed:Deconvoluting interspecies bacterial communication.
PubMed:Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Recent progresses on AI-2 bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors.
PubMed:Transcriptional and metabolomic consequences of LuxS inactivation reveal a metabolic rather than quorum-sensing role for LuxS in Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23.
PubMed:Bronchial and bronchiolar fibrosis in rats exposed to 2,3-pentanedione vapors: implications for bronchiolitis obliterans in humans.
PubMed:Effect of interspecies quorum sensing on the formation of aerobic granular sludge.
PubMed:Color, lipid oxidation, sensory quality, and aroma compounds of beef steaks displayed under different levels of oxygen in a modified atmosphere package.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of endemic Viola tianshanica.
PubMed:RbsB (NTHI_0632) mediates quorum signal uptake in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 86-028NP.
PubMed:A multivalent probe for AI-2 quorum-sensing receptors.
PubMed:Quorum sensing control of phosphorus acquisition in Trichodesmium consortia.
PubMed:The response of type 2 quorum sensing in Klebsiella pneumoniae to a fluctuating culture environment.
PubMed:Inhibition of LuxS by S-ribosylhomocysteine analogues containing a [4-aza]ribose ring.
PubMed:Atmospheric chemistry of 2,3-pentanedione: photolysis and reaction with OH radicals.
PubMed:Effects on membrane lateral pressure suggest permeation mechanisms for bacterial quorum signaling molecules.
PubMed:UV photolysis of ╬▒-cyclohexanedione in the gas phase.
PubMed:Helicobacter pylori perceives the quorum-sensing molecule AI-2 as a chemorepellent via the chemoreceptor TlpB.
PubMed:Processing the interspecies quorum-sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2): characterization of phospho-(S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione isomerization by LsrG protein.
PubMed:Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.
PubMed:Identification and measurement of diacetyl substitutes in dry bakery mix production.
PubMed:Quantitation of key peanut aroma compounds in raw peanuts and pan-roasted peanut meal. Aroma reconstitution and comparison with commercial peanut products.
PubMed:Freshness characterisation of whiting (Merlangius merlangus) using an SPME/GC/MS method and a statistical multivariate approach.
PubMed:Elucidation of the conformational free energy landscape in H.pylori LuxS and its implications to catalysis.
PubMed:Synthetic analogs tailor native AI-2 signaling across bacterial species.
PubMed:In Helicobacter pylori auto-inducer-2, but not LuxS/MccAB catalysed reverse transsulphuration, regulates motility through modulation of flagellar gene transcription.
PubMed:Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed:Staphylococcus aureus AI-2 quorum sensing associates with the KdpDE two-component system to regulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis and virulence.
PubMed:Characterization of two aldo-keto reductases from Gluconobacter oxydans 621H capable of regio- and stereoselective alpha-ketocarbonyl reduction.
PubMed:Products and mechanism of the reaction of chlorine atoms with 3-pentanone in 700-950 torr of N(2)/O(2) diluent at 297-515 K.
PubMed:Degradation of glucose: reinvestigation of reactive alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed:Inhibition of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) by substrate analogues modified at the ribosyl C-3 position.
PubMed:Autoinducer-2-based chemical communication in bacteria: complexities of interspecies signaling.
PubMed:Characterization of an aldolase-dehydrogenase complex that exhibits substrate channeling in the polychlorinated biphenyls degradation pathway.
PubMed:Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.
PubMed:Identification, quantification, and determination of the absolute configuration of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal autoinducer-2 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Probing the catalytic mechanism of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) with catalytic intermediates and substrate analogues.
PubMed:Furanones, potential agents for preventing Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections?
PubMed:HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are upregulated in response to contact sensitizers in dendritic cells and THP-1 cell line: role of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway.
PubMed:Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats.
PubMed:Biofilm formation and autoinducer-2 signaling in Streptococcus intermedius: role of thermal and pH factors.
PubMed:The EGL-4 PKG acts with KIN-29 salt-inducible kinase and protein kinase A to regulate chemoreceptor gene expression and sensory behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans.
PubMed:An unexpected switch in the modulation of AI-2-based quorum sensing discovered through synthetic 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione analogues.
PubMed:Indole cell signaling occurs primarily at low temperatures in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of sardine (Sardinops melanostica) by solid phase microextraction.
PubMed:LuxS and expression of virulence factors in Streptococcus intermedius.
PubMed:Autoinducer-2-regulated genes in Streptococcus mutans UA159 and global metabolic effect of the luxS mutation.
PubMed:Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.
PubMed:Genetic and physiological characterization of the Borrelia burgdorferi ORF BB0374-pfs-metK-luxS operon.
PubMed:The quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer 2 regulates motility and flagellar morphogenesis in Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed:AI-2 quorum sensing affects antibiotic susceptibility in Streptococcus anginosus.
PubMed:Spectroscopic characterization of chromium(III), manganese(II) and nickel(II) complexes with a nitrogen donor tetradentate, 12-membered azamacrocyclic ligand.
PubMed:Regulated synthesis of the Borrelia burgdorferi inner-membrane lipoprotein IpLA7 (P22, P22-A) during the Lyme disease spirochaete's mammal-tick infectious cycle.
PubMed:Unifying mechanism for bacterial cell signalers (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, lactones and oligopeptides): electron transfer and reactive oxygen species. Practical medical features.
PubMed:Diketone radical cations: ketonic and enolic forms as revealed by matrix EPR studies and DFT calculations.
PubMed:Proteome analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 propanol metabolism.
PubMed:Phosphorylation and processing of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 in enteric bacteria.
PubMed:Purification, characterization, and gene cloning of glycerol dehydrogenase from Hansenula ofunaensis, and its expression for production of optically active diol.
PubMed:Efficient metal-catalyzed direct benzylation and allylic alkylation of 2,4-pentanediones.
PubMed:Ac2-DPD, the bis-(O)-acetylated derivative of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is a convenient stable precursor of bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer AI-2.
PubMed:Enthalpies of formation, bond dissociation energies, and molecular structures of the n-aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, and heptanal) and their radicals.
PubMed:Functional analysis of luxS in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals a central metabolic role important for growth and biofilm formation.
PubMed:Catalytic mechanism of S-ribosylhomocysteinase: ionization state of active-site residues.
PubMed:AI-3 synthesis is not dependent on luxS in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Heats of formation of the propionyl ion and radical and 2,3-pentanedione by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy.
PubMed:Autoinducer 2: a concentration-dependent signal for mutualistic bacterial biofilm growth.
PubMed:Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented milk "laban".
PubMed:Design and synthesis of substrate and intermediate analogue inhibitors of S-ribosylhomocysteinase.
PubMed:Freshwater bioluminescence in Vibrio albensis (Vibrio cholerae biovar albensis) NCIMB 41 is caused by a two-nucleotide deletion in luxO.
PubMed:Functionality of Borrelia burgdorferi LuxS: the Lyme disease spirochete produces and responds to the pheromone autoinducer-2 and lacks a complete activated-methyl cycle.
PubMed:Spectroscopic characterization and EPR spectral studies on transition metal complexes with a novel tetradentate, 12-membered macrocyclic ligand.
PubMed:Evidence for distinct L-methionine catabolic pathways in the yeast Geotrichum candidum and the bacterium Brevibacterium linens.
PubMed:Let LuxS speak up in AI-2 signaling.
PubMed:Synthesis of alpha-substituted fosmidomycin analogues as highly potent Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibitors.
PubMed:Role of the solvent glycerol in the Maillard reaction of d-fructose and l-alanine.
PubMed:A furanosyl-carbonate autoinducer in cell-to-cell communication of V. harveyi.
PubMed:Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.
PubMed:Synthesis of autoinducer 2 by the lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
PubMed:Chemical synthesis of (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, a bacterial signal molecule precursor, and validation of its activity in Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Crystal structure of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) in complex with a catalytic 2-ketone intermediate.
PubMed:Mechanism of action of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS).
PubMed:Salmonella typhimurium recognizes a chemically distinct form of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal AI-2.
PubMed:Catalytic mechanism of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS): stereochemical course and kinetic isotope effect of proton transfer reactions.
PubMed:Boron binding with the quorum sensing signal AI-2 and analogues.
PubMed:Synthesis and biological validation of a ubiquitous quorum-sensing molecule.
PubMed:Determination of urinary glyoxal and methylglyoxal by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Volatile compounds produced in cheese by Enterobacteriaceae strains of dairy origin.
PubMed:Synthesis of erythro-alpha-amino beta-hydroxy carboxylic acid esters by diastereoselective photocycloaddition of 5-methoxyoxazoles with aldehydes.
PubMed:Proteolysis, volatile compounds, and sensory evaluation in Hispánico cheese manufactured with the addition of a thermophilic adjunct culture, nisin, and calcium alginate-nisin microparticles.
PubMed:Chemical synthesis of S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine and activity assay as a LuxS substrate.
PubMed:Catalytic mechanism of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS): direct observation of ketone intermediates by 13C NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Alternative pathway for the formation of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, the proposed precursor of 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone as well as autoinducer-2, and its detection as natural constituent of tomato fruit.
PubMed:The kinetic method as a structural diagnostic tool: ionized alpha-diketones as loosely one-electron bonded diacylium ion dimers.
PubMed:S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) is a mononuclear iron protein.
PubMed:Isolation of regioisomers of N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX from chick embryo liver after treatment with porphyrinogenic xenobiotics.
PubMed:Aroma components of cooked tail meat of American lobster (Homarus americanus).
PubMed:Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.
PubMed:The Caenorhabditis elegans odr-2 gene encodes a novel Ly-6-related protein required for olfaction.
PubMed:Approaches to wine aroma: release of aroma compounds from reactions between cysteine and carbonyl compounds in wine.
PubMed:Solid-phase microextraction method development for headspace analysis of volatile flavor compounds.
PubMed:Aroma comparisons of traditional and mild yogurts: headspace gas chromatography quantification of volatiles and origin of alpha-diketones.
PubMed:Sensory investigation of yogurt flavor perception: mutual influence of volatiles and acidity.
PubMed:Origin of 2,3-pentanedione and 2,3-butanedione in D-glucose/L-alanine Maillard model systems.
PubMed:Investigation of the reaction between 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and cysteine or hydrogen sulfide at pH 4.5.
PubMed:The phnIJ genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate aldolase in Pseudomonas sp. DJ77 and their evolutionary implications.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of biomarkers of oxidative kidney damage induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate.
PubMed:Aldehyde dehydrogenase (CoA-acetylating) and the mechanism of ethanol formation in the amitochondriate protist, Giardia lamblia.
PubMed:Excretion of multiple urinary biomarkers for radical induced damage in rats treated with three different nephrotoxic compounds.
PubMed:The Caenorhabditis elegans seven-transmembrane protein ODR-10 functions as an odorant receptor in mammalian cells.
PubMed:Regulation of CYP 2 A 5 induction by porphyrinogenic agents in mouse primary hepatocytes.
PubMed:Inhibition of the reconstituted mitochondrial oxoglutarate carrier by arginine-specific reagents.
PubMed:Identification of N-acetylcysteine conjugates of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane: evidence for cytochrome P450 and glutathione mediated bioactivation pathways.
PubMed:Analysis of aldehydes and ketones from beer as O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatives.
PubMed:Cloning and expression of the gene encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum in brewer's yeast.
PubMed:Relations between compositional traits and sensory qualities of French dry-cured ham.
PubMed:Fluorimetric determination of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione with isoniazide and a zirconium salt.
PubMed:Kinetics of alpha-dicarbonyls reduction by L-glycol dehydrogenase (NAD+) from Enterobacter aerogenes.
PubMed:Formation of N-methyl protoporphyrin in chemically-induced protoporphyria. Studies with a novel porphyrogenic agent.
PubMed:Purification and properties of the physically associated meta-cleavage pathway enzymes 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600.
PubMed:Purification of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase by p-hydroxyacetophenone-sepharose affinity matrix and the coelution of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase from the same matrix with recombinantly expressed aldehyde dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.
PubMed:Purification and properties of two oxidoreductases catalyzing the enantioselective reduction of diacetyl and other diketones from baker's yeast.
PubMed:Inactivation of Escherichia coli L-threonine dehydrogenase by 2,3-butanedione. Evidence for a catalytically essential arginine residue.
PubMed:Kinetics of the diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reduction by diacetyl reductase (alpha-diketone reductase (NAD)) from Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Stereoselective synthesis of (1-alkoxyalkyl) alpha- and beta-D-glucopyranosiduronates (acetal-glucopyranosiduronates): a new approach to specific cytostatics for the treatment of cancer.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of diacetyl-reducing enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Towards diacetyl-less brewers' yeast. Influence of ilv2 and ilv5 mutations.
PubMed:Syntheses of homologous omega-aminated 1-methoxyalkyl beta-D-glucopyranosides as potential beta-D-glucosidase inhibitors.
PubMed:Desmutagenic effect of alpha-dicarbonyl and alpha-hydroxycarbonyl compounds against mutagenic heterocyclic amines.
PubMed:Kinetics of alpha-dicarbonyls reduction by L-glycol dehydrogenase from hen muscle.
PubMed:Specificity of the Westerfeld adaptation of the Voges-Proskauer test.
PubMed:Roles of arginyl residues in pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate oxidase from rabbit liver.
PubMed:Modification of essential arginine residues of pigeon liver malic enzyme.
PubMed:[Effects of 2,5-hexanediol, 2,4-pentanedione, acetone and 2-heptanone on the secretory responsiveness of the sweat glands in rats (author's transl)].
PubMed:Investigation of reaction intermediates of the urea-diacetylmonoxime reaction.
PubMed:[Gaschromatographical determination of diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-pentanedione in wine (author's transl)].
PubMed:Microbial metabolism of amino alcohols. 1-Aminopropan-2-ol and ethanolamine metabolism via propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde in a species of Pseudomonas.
PubMed:Formation of 2,3-pentanediol from 2,3-pentanedione and acetylethylcarbinol by diacetyl(acetoin)reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes. A possible new pathway.
 
Notes:
Flavour ingredient. Present in peach, wheat bread, yoghurt, cocoa, coffee, black tea, roasted barley, roasted filbert and other foodstuffs
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