derives from cyclization of pulegone.
  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements. Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients. The strength of the company is built on both its comprehensive knowledge base, and extensive stocks of raw materials for both fragrance and flavour use. To complement its range of conventional and Organic Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals, Augustus also offers a steadily increasing range of its own, UK manufactured Natural Extracts, Absolutes, Resinoids and Natural Chemicals. These again are fully tested and certificated, and very tightly quality controlled. Augustus is committed to promoting the use of natural ingredients, wherever the potential lies and to provide an environment of support and trust to both our customers and suppliers.
      Email: Enquiries
      Email: Sales
      Email: web site enquiries
      Voice: +44 (0)1420 590555
      Fax: +44 (0)1420 592420
  • Berjé
    • Berje Inc.
      The solution is clear
      Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals.
      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
      Email: For Information
      Email: For Sales
      Voice: 973-748-8980
      Fax: 973-680-9618
      Flavor Ingredients
      Fragrance Ingredients
      Functional Ingredients
      Happening at Berje
      Mentho Furan
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      W1761 menthofuran
  • Frutarom
    • Frutarom Ltd
      Discover Our Passion
      Your preferred partner for flavour and fragrance success.
      At Frutarom, we take pride in our expertise and knowledge of Flavour & Fragrance Ingredients and our thorough understanding of the needs of Flavourists, Perfumers and Food Technologists. Working closely with our customers we have a strong track record of providing unique solutions to fulfil requirements.
      US Email: Info- USA
      Email: Info - UK
      Voice: +44 (0) 1429 863 222
      US Voice: +1 513 870 4900
      Products List: View
  • H. Interdonati, Inc.
    • H. Interdonati, Inc.
      Innovative products
      Because your flavors and fragrances are only as good as their source "Since 1952"
      H. Interdonati, Inc. began in 1952 with the tradition of delivering quality pharmaceuticals and fine chemical ingredients at competitive prices. The mission was simple: To provide the most reliable, personal service in the industry.
      Email: Info
      US Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Andrew Interdonati (Sales)
      Voice: 800 367-6617
      Fax: 631 367-6626
      Featured Products
  • Indukern F&F
  • Jiangyin Healthway
    • Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co.
      Independent Ingredients Supplier
      We provide custom synthesis and contract manufacturing from milligrams to metric tonnes.
      Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co., Ltd is a professional company, main engaged in manufacturing and exporting aroma chemicals ,food additives , cosmetic ingredient ,pharmaceutical intermediates & other fine chemicals; especially on aroma chemicals , as the major manufacturer of heterocyclic and sulphur aroma compounds , we are the leading independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries in China, can offer hundreds of different high quality aroma chemicals.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 86-510-86023169
      Fax: 86-510-86023170
      Natural Food Colour
      New functional food ingredients
      HLW-FC102 Menthofuran
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
  • Nectar Lifesciences
    • Nectar Life Sciences Ltd.
      Customer First: Deliver quality products & services by adopting best practices.
      To alleviate human suffering with excellent global quality and affordable medicines.
      Nectar Lifesciences Ltd. (NLL) is a knowledge driven organization which constitutes a vital part of fast growing Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. In a short span of existence, NLL has today emerged as 365 ranked organization amongst the top 500 Indian Corporates & is currently among top 25 fore runners of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry with a top 5 ranking in the Indian Bulk Drug Industry from a stand alone Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API Manufacture) perspective.
      Email: Jatin Sabharwal
      Voice: +91172-3047777
      Fax: +91172-3047755
      MARKETING OFFICE: MUMBAI+9122-32060171
      MARKETING OFFICE: MUMBAI+9122-26736793
      Jatin Sabharwal Skype Skype
      Media Gallery
      Investor Relations
      Green Tech
      Distilled Menthofuran
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      13-11600 MENTHOFURAN, Kosher
      13-11602 MENTHOFURAN, NATURAL, Kosher
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
      Certified Food Grade Products
      W323500 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-3,6-dimethylbenzofuran, ≥95%
  • Treatt
    • Treatt PLC
      Innovative ingredient solutions
      World-leading innovative ingredient solutions provider for the flavour, fragrance and FMCG industries.
      We offer innovative and trend-setting product concepts for our customers, collaborating with them to create true value for their products.
      Email: Enquiries
      US Email: Enquiries
      Voice: +44 (0) 1284 702500
      Fax: +44 (0) 1284 703809
      US Voice: +1 863 668 9500
      US Fax: +1 863 668 3388
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
3,5-dimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzofuran (Click)
CAS Number: 494-90-6Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 207-795-5
Beilstein Number: 6053324
MDL: MFCD00041851
CoE Number: 2265
XlogP3-AA: 2.80 (est)
Molecular Weight: 150.22078000
Formula: C10 H14 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Also(can) Contains: (R)-(+)-menthofuran
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 758  menthofuran
FEMA Number: 3235  menthofuran
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: bluish clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.96500 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.48070 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 86.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 80.00 to  82.00 °C. @ 13.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.275000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 168.00 °F. TCC ( 75.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.562 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 16.36 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: musty
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
 pungent  musty  nutty  earthy  coffee  
Odor Description:
at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
pungent musty nutty earthy coffee
 pungent  musty  nutty  earthy  coffee  
Odor Description:
Diffusive, pungent, musty, nutty, pyrazine like, nutty, earthy and coffee
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
 musty  nutty  coffee  raw  
Taste Description:
at 10.00 ppm.  
Musty, nutty, coffee, raw and legume
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 14, No. 6, 47, (1989)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Aromatic and Allied Chemicals
Augustus Oils
Mentho Furan
Happening at Berje
CTC Organics
For experimental / research use only.
Menthofuran (GC) ≥90%
H. Interdonati, Inc.
Featured Products
Indukern F&F
Jiangyin Healthway
New functional food ingredients
Lluch Essence
Mentha & Allied Products
50% to 95%
Nectar Lifesciences
Distilled Menthofuran
Penta International
Penta International
Reincke & Fichtner
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-3,6-dimethylbenzofuran, ≥95%
Odor: musty; minty; earthy
Certified Food Grade Products
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for menthofuran usage levels up to:
  0.5000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
Click here to view publication 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): -10.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -10.00000
fruit ices: -10.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -10.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Pulegone and Menthofuran in flavourings - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 57 (FGE.57)[1]: Consideration of two structurally related pulegone metabolites and one ester thereof evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 494-90-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 62345
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0000494906
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Leffingwell: chirality
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 494-90-6
Pubchem (cid): 62345
Pubchem (sid): 135019882
Pherobase: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C18025
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
FooDB: FDB014926
Export Tariff Code: 2932.19.0000
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
 cornmint oil terpenelessFL/FR
 peppermint cyclohexanoneFL/FR
isopulegyl acetateFL/FR
 pennyroyal oilFL/FR
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
 peppermint oil terpenelessFL/FR
2-acetyl pyrroleFL/FR
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
2-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl thio-3,5 or 6-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty quinoxalineFL/FR
2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 vinyl sulfurolFL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
 cyclohexyl methyl pyrazineFL
2,5-diethyl thiazoleFL
 cornmint oil terpenelessFL/FR
 peppermint cyclohexanoneFL/FR
 pennyroyal oilFL/FR
 peppermint oil idahoFL/FR
 peppermint oil terpenelessFL/FR
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-acetyl pyrroleFL/FR
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
2-ethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl thio-3,5 or 6-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty quinoxalineFL/FR
2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 vinyl sulfurolFL/FR
isopulegyl acetateFL/FR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 chocolate cocoa 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 agathosma crenulata oil @ trace%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 bergamot mint oil @ 0.0-<0.1%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 cornmint leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 cornmint plant
Search Trop  Picture
 horsemint shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 mint plant
Search Trop  Picture
 peppermint oil
Search Trop  Picture
 peppermint oil america @ 2.48%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 peppermint oil mongolia @ 0.07%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 peppermint plant
Search Trop  Picture
 satureja viminea l. oil costa rica @ 0.10%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 spearmint leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 spearmint oil
Search Trop  Picture
 turmeric root oil CO2 extract @ 1.99%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 water mint leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 water mint shoot
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 benzofuran, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-
 benzofuran, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-
 koolada-menthofuran synthetic
p-mentha-3,8-diene, 3,9-epoxy-
 mentho furan
 menthofuran natural
4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl benzofuran
4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl coumarone
 tetrahydrodimethyl benzofuran
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: [About flavouring substances and flavouring preparations regulation in the field of manufacturing of flavourings and foodstuffs].
PubMed: Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L.
PubMed: Anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours through in vitro and in vivo (real fruit juices) assays.
PubMed: Chemical composition of the essential oil from Corsican Mentha aquatica--combined analysis by GC(RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: Seasonal variability of the main components in essential oil of Mentha × piperita L.
PubMed: Genetic variability, character association, and path analysis for economic traits in menthofuran rich half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita L.
PubMed: Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.
PubMed: Synthetic models related to methoxalen and menthofuran-cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 interactions. benzofuran and coumarin derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of CYP2A6.
PubMed: Anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours through in vitro and in vivo (real fruit juices) assays.
PubMed: Characterization of rat liver proteins adducted by reactive metabolites of menthofuran.
PubMed: In vitro production of M. × piperita not containing pulegone and menthofuran.
PubMed: Evaluation of inhibition selectivity for human cytochrome P450 2A enzymes.
PubMed: Mode of action of pulegone on the urinary bladder of F344 rats.
PubMed: Inhibition and inactivation of cytochrome P450 2A6 and cytochrome P450 2A13 by menthofuran, β-nicotyrine and menthol.
PubMed: Chemotaxonomy of Serbian Teucrium species inferred from essential oil chemical composition: the case of Teucrium scordium L. ssp. scordioides.
PubMed: Chemical composition of the essential oil from Corsican Mentha aquatica--combined analysis by GC(RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)+-pulegone and menthone.
PubMed: Quantitative comparative analysis of the bio-active and toxic constituents of leaves and spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at different harvesting times.
PubMed: Determination of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of (-)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes.
PubMed: Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.
PubMed: A solid-phase microextraction GC/MS/MS method for rapid quantitative analysis of food and beverages for the presence of legally restricted biologically active flavorings.
PubMed: Volatile organic compounds from rhizobacteria increase biosynthesis of essential oils and growth parameters in peppermint (Mentha piperita).
PubMed: Chrysolina herbacea modulates terpenoid biosynthesis of Mentha aquatica L.
PubMed: Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-menthols by CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes.
PubMed: D-Isomer of gly-tyr-pro-cys-pro-his-pro peptide: a novel and sensitive in vitro trapping agent to detect reactive metabolites by electrospray mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Metabolism and toxicity of menthofuran in rat liver slices and in rats.
PubMed: UV-B modulates the interplay between terpenoids and flavonoids in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).
PubMed: Constituents of Calamintha ashei: effects on Florida sandhill species.
PubMed: Mathematical modeling-guided evaluation of biochemical, developmental, environmental, and genotypic determinants of essential oil composition and yield in peppermint leaves.
PubMed: Vapor toxicity of three prototype volatile insecticidal compounds to house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).
PubMed: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new ozonides with improved plant growth regulatory activity.
PubMed: Structure, function, regulation and polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2A6.
PubMed: Chemical composition and toxicity of the essential oils from Cunila species (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
PubMed: Toxicities of 31 volatile low molecular weight compounds against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
PubMed: A systems biology approach identifies the biochemical mechanisms regulating monoterpenoid essential oil composition in peppermint.
PubMed: Nitration versus nitrosation chemistry of menthofuran: remarkable fragmentation and dimerization pathways and expeditious entry into dehydromenthofurolactone.
PubMed: Roles of human CYP2A6 and rat CYP2B1 in the oxidation of (+)-fenchol by liver microsomes.
PubMed: 14C-labeled pulegone and metabolites binding to alpha2u-globulin in kidneys of male F-344 rats.
PubMed: Metabolism of (-)-fenchone by CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes.
PubMed: Volatile terpenoids of endophyte-free and infected peppermint (Mentha piperita L.): chemical partitioning of a symbiosis.
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor using human liver microsomes and CYP2A6.
PubMed: Metabolism of (+)-fenchone by CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes.
PubMed: Evaluation of volatile low molecular weight insecticides using Drosophila melanogaster as a model.
PubMed: Quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by Commiphora myrrha extracts and menthofuran.
PubMed: Menthofuran regulates essential oil biosynthesis in peppermint by controlling a downstream monoterpene reductase.
PubMed: In vivo studies on the metabolism of the monoterpene pulegone in humans using the metabolism of ingestion-correlated amounts (MICA) approach: explanation for the toxicity differences between (S)-(-)- and (R)-(+)-pulegone.
PubMed: Metabolism of (R)-(+)-menthofuran in Fischer-344 rats: identification of sulfonic acid metabolites.
PubMed: Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water.
PubMed: Effect of Mentha x piperita essential oil and monoterpenes on cucumber root membrane potential.
PubMed: Metabolic engineering of essential oil yield and composition in mint by altering expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase and menthofuran synthase.
PubMed: Demonstration that menthofuran synthase of mint (Mentha) is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase: cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the responsible gene.
PubMed: In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene.
PubMed: Metabolism of 3-methylindole by porcine liver microsomes: responsible cytochrome P450 enzymes.
PubMed: Monoterpene composition of essential oil from peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) with regard to leaf position using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of menthofuran in Mentha x piperita: stereoselective and mechanistic studies.
PubMed: Glutathione S-transferase catalyzes the isomerization of (R)-2-hydroxymenthofuran to mintlactones.
PubMed: Transformation of the limonene synthase gene into peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and preliminary studies on the essential oil profiles of single transgenic plants.
PubMed: Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide.
PubMed: Metabolic fate of S-(-)-pulegone in rat.
PubMed: Hepatoprotective effect of C-phycocyanin: protection for carbon tetrachloride and R-(+)-pulegone-mediated hepatotoxicty in rats.
PubMed: (R)-(+)-Menthofuran is a potent, mechanism-based inactivator of human liver cytochrome P450 2A6.
PubMed: Multiple organ failure after ingestion of pennyroyal oil from herbal tea in two infants.
PubMed: Pennyroyal toxicity: measurement of toxic metabolite levels in two cases and review of the literature.
PubMed: Mechanisms of the formation and disposition of reactive metabolites that can cause acute liver injury.
PubMed: Allelopathic potential of menthofuran monoterpenes fromCalamintha ashei.
PubMed: Effects of menthofuran, a monoterpene furan on rat liver microsomal enzymes, in vivo.
PubMed: Studies on the metabolism of a monoterpene ketone, R-(+)-pulegone--a hepatotoxin in rat: isolation and characterization of new metabolites.
PubMed: Investigations of mechanisms of reactive metabolite formation from (R)-(+)-pulegone.
PubMed: Metabolic fate of menthofuran in rats. Novel oxidative pathways.
PubMed: Reactive intermediates in the oxidation of menthofuran by cytochromes P-450.
PubMed: Partial characterization of biliary metabolites of pulegone by tandem mass spectrometry. Detection of glucuronide, glutathione, and glutathionyl glucuronide conjugates.
PubMed: Evidence for the formation of a known toxin, p-cresol, from menthofuran.
PubMed: Biotransformations of R-(+)-pulegone and menthofuran in vitro: chemical basis for toxicity.
PubMed: Menthofuran-dependent and independent aspects of pulegone hepatotoxicity: roles of glutathione.
PubMed: Metabolism of a monoterpene ketone, R-(+)-pulegone--a hepatotoxin in rat.
PubMed: Contribution of menthofuran to the hepatotoxicity of pulegone: assessment based on matched area under the curve and on matched time course.
PubMed: The metabolism of the abortifacient terpene, (R)-(+)-pulegone, to a proximate toxin, menthofuran.
PubMed: Chemical and Morphometrical Comparison Between two Peppermint Notomorphs.
PubMed: Genetic basis for high limonene-cineole content of exceptional Mentha citrata hybrids.
PubMed: Effects of light and temperature on the monoterpenes of peppermint.
PubMed: [Physiological effect of menthofuran].
PubMed: The occurrence of menthofuran in oil of peppermint.
PubMed: [Determination of menthone, menthol and menthofuran in essential oil of Mentha; localization of menthofuran in the plant].
PubMed: [Quantitative determination of menthofuran].
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