gamma-butyrolactone
Notes:
one of the furans with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. it is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. it is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
  • Azelis
    • Azelis UK Life Sciences
      Chemical Distribution
      Azelis is a leading global distributor of speciality chemicals.
      Azelis is a leading global speciality chemicals distributor. We provide a diverse range of products and innovative services to more than 20,000 customers. Our in-depth local knowledge is supported by an international structure and value-added services including high levels of technical support and tailored solutions.
      Email:Graham Bott
      Voice:+32 3 613 01 20
      Fax:+32 3 613 01 21
      United Kingdom+44 (0) 1992 82 55 55
      United Kingdom+44 (0) 1992 82 55 66
      Product(s):
      gamma-Butyrolactone
       
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email:Mr. Jia
      Email:Mr. Guo
      Voice:86-10-68418738
      Fax:86-10-68418739
      Mr. Guo86-10-68483445
      Mr. Guo86-10-68418739
      Product(s):
      10332 gamma-Butyrolactone
       
  • Indukern F&F
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
      Email:Sales
      US Email:Sales
      Voice:+86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax:+86-21-32515502 64204960
      US Voice:908-359-9000
      US Fax:908-359-9002
      Product(s):
      A0269 gamma-BUTYROLACTONE, Kosher
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email:Technical Services
      US Email:Sales
      US Voice:(973) 740-2300
      US Fax:(973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      02-74600 gamma-BUTYROLACTONE, Kosher
      02-74610 gamma-BUTYROLACTONE NATURAL, Kosher
       
  • SAFC Global
    • SAFC
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email:Information
      US Email:Sales
      US Voice:800-244-1173
      US Fax:800-368-4661
      Product(s):
      W329118 gamma-Butyrolactone ≥98%, FCC, Kosher
      MSDS
       
  • Treatt
    • Treatt PLC
      Full Range of Naturals
      World-leading, independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries.
      We are proud of our heritage in trading essential oils. Our founder Richard Court Treatt's charismatic and personable approach still embodies the spirit of Treatt today.
      Email:Enquiries
      US Email:Enquiries
      Voice:+44 (0) 1284 702500
      Fax:+44 (0) 1284 703809
      US Voice:+1 863 668 9500
      US Fax:+1 863 668 3388
      Product(s):
      gamma-Butyrolactone
       
  • Ernesto Ventós
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
oxolan-2-one (Click)
CAS Number: 96-48-0 187997-16-6
ECHA EC Number:202-509-5
FDA UNII:OL659KIY4X
Beilstein Number:0105248
MDL:MFCD00005386
FEMA Number:3291
CoE Number:615
XlogP3:-0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:86.09022000
Formula:C4 H6 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
JECFA Food Flavoring:219  4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone
Flavis Number:10.006 (Old)
EU SANCO Food Flavourings:10.006  butyro-1,4-lactone

FEMA Number:3291  4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone
FDA Mainterm: 4-HYDROXYBUTANOIC ACID LACTONE
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed:Yes
Specific Gravity:1.12500 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index:1.43600 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -43.30 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 204.00 to  205.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.450000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density:3.00 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 209.00 °F. TCC ( 98.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.640
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type:creamy
Odor Strength:medium
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
creamy oily fatty caramel
Odor Description:
Creamy, oily with fatty nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 16, No. 2, 49, (1991)
Taste Description:
at 75.00 ppm.  
Milky, creamy with fruity peach-like afternotes
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 16, No. 2, 49, (1991)
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
solvents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Azelis
gamma-Butyrolactone
Beijing Lys Chemicals
gamma-Butyrolactone
Capot Chemical
gamma-Butyrolactone
Ernesto Ventós
BUTYROLACTONE GAMMA
Odor: SWEET, AROMATIC, CREAMY
Indukern F&F
GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE
Odor: OILY, CREAMY, FATTY
Inoue Perfumery
gamma-BUTYROLACTONE
LyondellBasell Industries
gamma-Butyrolactone
M&U International
gamma-BUTYROLACTONE, Kosher
Penta International
gamma-BUTYROLACTONE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
gamma-BUTYROLACTONE, Kosher
SAFC Global
gamma-Butyrolactone
≥98%, FCC, Kosher
Odor: caramel
Treatt
gamma-Butyrolactone
WEN International
Gamma-BUTYROLACTONE, natural
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
  R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/39 - Wear suitable clothing and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  oral-rat LD50  1540 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 31(1), Pg. 49, 1987.

gavage-mouse LD50  1245 mg/kg
(Schafer & Bowles, 1985)

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  1000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

oral-mouse LD50  1460 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 64(2), Pg. 3, 1999.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  1100 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

parenteral-mouse LDLo  1600 mg/kg
"Summary Tables of Biological Tests," National Research Council Chemical-Biological Coordination Center. Vol. 7, Pg. 687, 1955.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  500 mg/kg
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

Dermal Toxicity:
  skin-guinea pig LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
GAF Material Safety Data Sheet.

Inhalation Toxicity:
  inhalation-rat LC50 > 5100 mg/m3/4H
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0534527

Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU):110.00 (μg/capita/day)
Recommendation for gamma-butyrolactone usage levels up to:
  0.5000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Recommendation for gamma-butyrolactone flavor usage levels up to:
  75.0000 ppm in the finished product.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
page or pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
page or pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
page or pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
page or pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
page or pdf
EPI System:View
Chemicalize.org:Calculate predicted properties
ECHA Data Sheet:View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
National Toxicology Program:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):96-48-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
 oxolan-2-one
DTP/NCI:4592
Chemidplus:0000096480
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:96-48-0
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 oxolan-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:96-48-0
Pubchem (cid):7302
Pubchem (sid):134972536
Flavornet:96-48-0
Pherobase Floral: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
UM BBD:Search
HMDB (Comprehensive Metabolomic Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2932.29.6000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•electronic-grade butyrolactone is about 99% pure . •grade: technical
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 acetoinFL/FR
 acetoin acetateFL/FR
 acetyl butyrylFL/FR
 acetyl isobutyrylFL/FR
 acetyl isovalerylFL
 acetyl nonyrylFL/FR
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
 allyl cyclohexyl hexanoateFL/FR
 allyl methyl trisulfideFL
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
6-amyl-alpha-pyroneFL/FR
 benzyl octanoateFL/FR
 benzylidene acetoneFL
isobutyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 butyl butyryl lactateFL/FR
 butyl lactateFL/FR
 butyl laevo-lactateFL/FR
2-butyl thiopheneFL
isobutyl undecylenateFL/FR
 butyric acidFL/FR
2-oxobutyric acidFL/FR
 coconut absoluteFL/FR
 coconut decanone methylFR
 creamy lactoneFL/FR
(Z)-dairy lactoneFL/FR
delta-decalactoneFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
6-decenoic acidFL
9-decenoic acidFL/FR
 decyl propionateFL/FR
 diacetylFL
ortho-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
delta-2-dodecenolactoneFL/FR
 ethyl palmitateFL/FR
 ethyl undecylenateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin isobutyrateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetalFL
3-heptanoneFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenalFL/FR
(Z)-4-heptenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-4-hepten-1-olFL/FR
(E)-2-hepten-1-yl acetateFL/FR
3-heptyl dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanoneFL/FR
 ivy dioxolaneFR
(R)-massoia lactoneFL
 methionalFL/FR
 methyl (Z)-5-octenoateFL/FR
 methyl 2-thiofuroateFL
6-methyl coumarinFL
2-methyl heptanoic acidFL/FR
 methyl laurateFL/FR
4-methyl octanoic acidFL/FR
dextro,laevo-3-(methyl thio) butanoneFL
3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-oneFL
3-(5-methyl-2-furyl) butanalFL
 mint lactoneFL/FR
delta-nonalactoneFL/FR
2-nonanolFL/FR
1-nonen-3-olFL/FR
2,4-octadien-1-olFL
gamma-octalactoneFL/FR
(Z)-3-octen-1-olFL/FR
3-octen-2-olFL/FR
 octyl 2-furoateFL
 octyl heptanoateFL/FR
 octyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 petal pyranoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
delta-tetradecalactoneFL/FR
2-tridecanoneFL/FR
delta-undecalactoneFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
 undecanoic acidFL/FR
 valeraldehyde diethyl acetalFL
isovaleraldehyde diethyl acetalFL/FR
 vanilla carboxylateFL/FR
 vanilla oleoresin baliFL/FR
para-vanillic acidFL/FR
 vanillinFL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
para-vanillyl alcoholFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 vanillylidene acetoneFL/FR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 butterscotchFR
 coconutFR
 mangoFR
 peachFR
 solvents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Natural Occurrence in: note
 beer
 coffee
PbMd 
 guava fruit headspace reunion @ 7.60%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 lavender oil spike spain @ 0.067%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 mango
GRIN Trop Picture
 wine orange wine
 wine white wine
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 agrisynth BLO
1,2-butanolide
1,4-butanolide
4-butanolide
 butyro-1,4-lactone
1,4-butyrolactone
4-butyrolactone
g-butyrolactone
 butyrolactone gamma
gamma-butyrolactone natural
 butyryl lactone
4-deoxytetronic acid
 dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
 dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
 furan-2(3H)-one, dihydro-
2(3H)-furanone, dihydro-
4-hydroxy-butanoic acid g-lactone
4-hydroxybutanoic acid lactone
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid cyclic ester
4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone
g-hydroxybutyric acid lactone
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone
gamma-hydroxybutyrolactone
 oxolan-2-one
2-oxolanone
 tetrahydro-2-furanone
2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-furanone
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed:Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.
PubMed:Catabolic pathway of gamma-caprolactone in the biocontrol agent Rhodococcus erythropolis.
PubMed:Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.
PubMed:Inverse gas chromatographic evaluation of the influence of soy protein on the binding of selected butter flavor compounds in a wheat soda cracker system.
PubMed:Nine new and five known polyketides derived from a deep sea-sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1.
PubMed:Determination of lactones in wines by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.
PubMed:Streptogramins - two are better than one!
PubMed:Accelerated aging against conventional storage: effects on the volatile composition of chardonnay white wines.
PubMed:Impact of perceptive interactions on red wine fruity aroma.
PubMed:Comparative study of equimolar doses of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) on catalepsy after acute and chronic administration.
PubMed:Rapid and facile detection of four date rape drugs in different beverages utilizing proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).
PubMed:Catabolic pathway of gamma-caprolactone in the biocontrol agent Rhodococcus erythropolis.
PubMed:The discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam are resistant to modulation by morphine, amphetamine, dizocilpine, and γ-butyrolactone in rhesus monkeys.
PubMed:Use of microfungi in the treatment of oak chips: possible effects on wine.
PubMed:Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.
PubMed:Behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone, and GABA(B) receptor agonists: time course and differential antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348).
PubMed:Enzymology of the polyenes pimaricin and candicidin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in baboons.
PubMed:Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.
PubMed:Characterization of the most odor-active volatiles of orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).
PubMed:In vivo functions of the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor in Streptomyces ambofaciens producing spiramycin.
PubMed:Influence of wine turbidity on the accumulation of volatile compounds from the oak barrel.
PubMed:Inverse gas chromatographic evaluation of the influence of soy protein on the binding of selected butter flavor compounds in a wheat soda cracker system.
PubMed:GHB free acid: II. Isolation and spectroscopic characterization for forensic analysis.
PubMed:Changes in the concentration of yeast-derived volatile compounds of red wine during malolactic fermentation with four commercial starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni.
PubMed:Cloning and in vivo functional analysis by disruption of a gene encoding the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor from Streptomyces natalensis.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its metabolic precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in rats.
PubMed:Off-vine grape drying effect on volatile compounds and aromatic series in must from Pedro Ximénez grape variety.
PubMed:Influence of reinforcer type and route of administration on gamma-hydroxybutyrate discrimination in rats.
PubMed:Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on schedule-controlled responding in rats: role of GHB and GABAB receptors.
PubMed:The role of GABAB receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in rats: time course and antagonism studies.
PubMed:C75 increases peripheral energy utilization and fatty acid oxidation in diet-induced obesity.
PubMed:Volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotium rolfsii.
PubMed:Evolution of the aroma profile of sherry wine vinegars during an experimental aging in wood.
PubMed:Varietal differentiation of red wines in the Valencian region (Spain).
PubMed:Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol: a case report and review of the literature.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of aroma compounds isolated from soybeans and mung beans.
PubMed:Volatile compounds produced from monosodium glutamate in common food cooking.
PubMed:Coma and respiratory depression following the ingestion of GHB and its precursors: three cases.
PubMed:Direct release of the allergen tulipalin A from Alstroemeria cut flowers: a possible source of airborne contact dermatitis?
PubMed:Isolation and quantification of tuliposides and tulipalins in tulips (Tulipa) by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999.
PubMed:Endogenous digoxin-like activity of mammalian-lignans and their derivatives.
PubMed:Gamma-butyrolactone's discriminability and effect on low rates of lever pressing by rats: alone and in combination with D-amphetamine and naloxone.
PubMed:Native American food and medicinal plants. 3. alpha-Methylene butyrolactone from Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh.
PubMed:Absorption of gamma-butyrolactone-gamma-carbonyl-L-histidyl-L-prolinamide citrate (DN-1417), an analog of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, in rats and dogs.
PubMed:[Anaphylactic shock to celery and sensitization to ragweed and mugwort. Crossed or concomitant allergy?].
PubMed:Dopamine analog-induced hyperglycemia in rats: involvement of the adrenal medulla and the endocrine pancreas.
PubMed:Gamma-butyrolactone increases the rate of punished lever pressing by rats.
PubMed:The effect of chronic ethanol administration on central neurotransmitter mechanisms.
PubMed:[The cancerogenic activity of gamma-butyrolactone in mice].
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
click on the picture(s) below to
interact with the 3D model
Picture of molecule
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
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