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butyric acid

Supplier Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:butanoic acid
CAS Number: 107-92-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-532-3
FDA UNII:40UIR9Q29H
Nikkaji Web:J4.068A
Beilstein Number:0906770
MDL:MFCD00002814
CoE Number:5
XlogP3:0.80 (est)
Molecular Weight:88.10616000
Formula:C4 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:87 butyric acid
FLAVIS Number:08.005 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.005 butyric acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:butyric acid
FEMA Number:2221 butyric acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):107-92-6 ; BUTYRIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.60 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.85200 to 0.95600 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.089 to 7.955
Refractive Index:1.39700 to 1.39900 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -7.00 to -5.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 162.00 to 164.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 90.00 to 91.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:1.650000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density:3.04 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 167.00 °F. TCC ( 75.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.790
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 6.00E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: cheesy
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:24 hour(s) at 100.00 %
sharp acetic cheesy buttery fruity
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. sharp acetic cheese butter fruit
Luebke, William tgsc, (1995)
Odor sample from: Berje Inc.
sharp dairy cheesy buttery fruity
Odor Description:Sharp, dairy-like, cheesy, buttery with a fruity nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 2, 55, (1994)
Flavor Type: sour
acidic sour cheesy dairy creamy fruity
Taste Description: at 250.00 ppm. Acidic sour, cheesy, dairy, creamy with a fruity nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 2, 55, (1994)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Bedoukian Research
BUTYRIC ACID (NATURAL) ≥98.0%, FCC, Kosher
Odor Description:A sharp, cheesy, rancid butter odor
Can be used for sharpness in buttery or dairy-type applications.
Taste Description:acidic sour
Used in cheddar cheese, butter and dairy flavors.
Moellhausen
BUTYRIC ACID
Odor Description:acidic, caprylic, cheesy note
Taste Description:sour, acidic, fruity, cheesy and buttery note
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
98% min.
Alfrebro
BUTYRIC ACID (EU NAT)
Odor: Rancid, Butter
Alfrebro
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
Odor: Rancid, Butter
Ambles Nature et Chimie
ACIDE BUTYRIQUE NAT
Astral Extracts
Butyric Acid
Augustus Oils
Butyric Acid
Services
Aurochemicals
BUTYRIC ACID, Natural
Axxence Aromatic
BUTYRIC ACID Natural
Kosher
Sustainability
Bedoukian Research
BUTYRIC ACID (NATURAL)
≥98.0%, FCC, Kosher
Odor: A sharp, cheesy, rancid butter odor
Use: Can be used for sharpness in buttery or dairy-type applications.
Flavor: acidic sour
Used in cheddar cheese, butter and dairy flavors.
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Butyric acid
Bell Flavors & Fragrances
Natural Butyric Acid
Berjé
Butyric Acid N Natural
Happening at Berje
Berjé
Butyric Acid N
Blue Marble Biomaterials
BUTYRIC ACID ≥95%
Odor: Sharp, acetic, cheesy, butter, fruit
Charkit Chemical
BUTYRIC ACID KOSHER FEMA 2221
Citrus and Allied Essences
Butyric Acid FCC (natural)
Market Report
De Monchy Aromatics
Butyric Acid
Diffusions Aromatiques
ACIDE BUTYRIQUE NATUREL
Diffusions Aromatiques
ACIDE BUTYRIQUE
Eastman Chemical
Eastman™ Butyric Acid, Food/Feed Grade, Kosher
Odor: characteristic
Use: Eastman™ Butyric acid (C3H7COOH) is a clear, colorless liquid, with a strong pungent odor. Butyric acid is a naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid found in the human body, butter, and numerous other sources. Esters and salts of butyric acid are used in a variety of applications including perfumes, flavorings, and animal feeds. Eastman offers a variety of grades of butyric acid appropriate for these various end uses. This grade of butyric acid is produced under rabbinical supervision in full accordance with Jewish dietary law including Passover.
Elan Inc.
butyric acid
(natural), Kosher
ENNOLYS
Butyric acid
Natural (EU,US), Kosher & Halal
Odor: sharp, rancid, cheese-like
Ernesto Ventós
BUTYRIC ACID, NATURAL
Ernesto Ventós
BUTYRIC ACID
Odor: DISAGREEABLE, RANCID BUTTER, SOUR
Excellentia International
Butyric Acid Natural
Fleurchem
butyric acid natural
Fleurchem
butyric acid
Frutarom
BUTYRIC ACID
Graham Chemical
Butryric Acid
Grau Aromatics
BUTYRIC ACID
Indukern F&F
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
Odor: CHEESE
Indukern F&F
BUTYRIC ACID
Odor: POWERFUL, CHEESE, FATTY
Inoue Perfumery
BUTYRIC ACID
Kingchem Laboratories
BUTYRIC ACID
Odor: Persistent, penetrating, rancid, butter-like
Kun Shan P&A
Natural Butyric Acid
Kunshan Sainty
Butyric Acid, Natural
Lluch Essence
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
Lluch Essence
BUTYRIC ACID
M&U International
Butyric Acid, Kosher
M&U International
Nat. Butyric Acid, Kosher
Moellhausen
BUTYRIC ACID
Odor: acidic, caprylic, cheesy note
Flavor: sour, acidic, fruity, cheesy and buttery note
Naturamole
butyric acid 98% natural EU
O'Laughlin Industries
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
Pearlchem Corporation
Natural Butyric Acid
Penta International
BUTYRIC ACID FCC GRADE
Penta International
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL FCC
Penta International
BUTYRIC ACID NATURAL
Penta International
BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHETIC FOOD GRADE
Prodasynth
BUTYRIC ACID, NATURAL
(> 99%)
Odor: RANCID BUTTER, SOUR
Prodasynth
BUTYRIC ACID
(> 99,5%)
R C Treatt & Co Ltd
Butyric Acid
Reincke & Fichtner
Butyric Acid natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Butyric Acid
Robertet
BUTYRIC ACID
Pure & Nat (EU)
Rung International
Butyric Acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Butyric Acid ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyric acid, ≥99%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyric acid, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
SRS Aromatics
BUTYRIC ACID
Sunaux International
nat.Butyric Acid
Taytonn
Butyric Acid
Odor: Sharp, Rancid, Dairy Products, Buttery, Cheese
Taytonn
Natural Butyric Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Butyric Acid >99.0%(GC)(T)
The John D. Walsh Company
Butyric Acid
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
N-BUTYRIC ACID FCC SYNTHETIC
Vigon International
Butyric Acid FCC Natural
Odor: STRONG, RANCID, BUTTER-LIKE
Vigon International
Butyric Acid FCC
Odor: STRONG, RANCID, BUTTER-LIKE
WEN International
BUTYRIC ACID Natural
WholeChem
Butyric acid
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
C - Corrosive.
R 34 - Causes burns.
S 01/02 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 2000 mg/kg
"Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 30, 1982.

intravenous-mouse LD50 800 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 18, Pg. 141, 1961.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 3180 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol. 21, Pg. 85, 1969.

oral-mouse LDLo 500 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES GASTROINTESTINAL: NECROTIC GHANGES BLOOD: CHANGES IN SPLEEN
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 4, Pg. 19, 1962.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 530 ul/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 4/10/1968

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 3180 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol. 21, Pg. 85, 1969.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-mouse LC > 500 mg/m3
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 23(5), Pg. 31, 1958.

inhalation-rat LC > 500 mg/m3
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 4, Pg. 19, 1962.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for butyric acid usage levels up to:
  0.0500 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -32.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: 60.00000270.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: -18.00000
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -6.50000
fruit ices: -6.50000
gelatins / puddings: 0.1900045.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -82.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 1 (FGE.23Rev1): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 26 and 30[1] - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 1 (FGE.08Rev1): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical groups 20 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring-substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical groups 20 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):107-92-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :264
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2820
WGK Germany:1
butanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000107926
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:107-92-6
 
References:
 butanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:107-92-6
Pubchem (cid):264
Pubchem (sid):134972740
Flavornet:107-92-6
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00246
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00039
FooDB:FDB012062
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01392
Export Tariff Code:2915.60.0000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•grades: 90%; 95%; 99%; edible; synthetic; reagent; technical; fcc. •grades or purity: commercial, 99.5+%
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
iso
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
balsamic
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
caramellic
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
S-(
methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-2-hexenoic acid
FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
creamy
butyl lactate
FL/FR
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
earthy
3-
octanol
FL/FR
ethereal
decyl propionate
FL/FR
fatty
allyl cyclohexyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
coconut absolute
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
octanoic acid
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
floral
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
bitter
almond oil
FL/FR
iso
amyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl carboxylic acid
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
filbert hexenone
FL/FR
4-
heptanone
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hepten-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
methyl 4-methyl valerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
octyl heptanoate
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
prenyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
2-
undecanone
FL/FR
fungal
1-
decen-3-ol
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
3-
heptanone
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal
FL/FR
herbal
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
tagete oil egypt
FL/FR
tagete oil rwanda
FL/FR
mushroom
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
nutty
2-
ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
oily
petal pyranone
FL/FR
soapy
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
tropical
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl decanoate
FL/FR
butyl laurate
FL/FR
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
9-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
phenethyl octanoate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
1-
acetoxyacetone
FL/FR
allyl cyclohexyl hexanoate
FL/FR
benzyl lactate
FL/FR
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
6-
decenoic acid
FL
decyl propionate
FL/FR
alpha,alpha-
dimethyl anisyl acetone
FL/FR
2,5-
dithiahexane
FL
ethyl cyclohexyl carboxylate
FL
(E,E)-2,4-
heptadien-1-ol
FL
(E)-2-
hepten-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenoic acid
FL
3-
methyl crotonic acid
FL
5-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL
3-(
methyl thio) hexanal
FL
S-
methyl thiopropionate
FL
4-
methyl valeric acid
FL
3-
methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one
FL
octyl heptanoate
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
prenyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
sodium 4-methyl-2-oxovalerate
FL
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL
iso
valeraldehyde diethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-(
methyl thio) methyl thiophene
FL
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
ethyl butyric acid
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
aldehydic
acetyl nonyryl
FL/FR
alliaceous
3-
tetrahydrothiophenone
FL
bitter
glyceryl tributyrate
FL
buttery
butyroin
FL
diacetyl
FL
2,3-
heptane dione
FL/FR
3,4-
hexane dione
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenoic acid
FL
caramellic
creme brulee flavor
FL
3-
methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrate
FL
pyruvaldehyde
FL
cheesy
ammonium isovalerate 30% in pg
FL
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
3-
hydroxy-5-methyl-2-hexanone
FL
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
acetoin butyrate
FL
acetyl butyryl
FL/FR
acetyl isobutyryl
FL/FR
butyl butyryl lactate
FL/FR
cream
cheese flavor
FL
custard flavor
FL
5(6)-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
5,5-
dibutyl dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
FL
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
2-
methyl-4-pentenoic acid
FL
delta-
tridecalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
para-
vanillic acid
FL/FR
waxy lactone
FL/FR
dairy
acetoin dimer
FL/FR
butyl lactate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
4-
pentenoic acid
FL
earthy
1-
decen-3-ol
FL/FR
fatty
coconut absolute
FL/FR
(Z)-
dairy lactone
FL/FR
diacetyl trimer
FL
dimethyl sulfoxide
FL
delta-
juniper lactone
FL/FR
4-
methyl octanoic acid
FL/FR
nonanoic acid
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octenoic acid
FL
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-
undecadienal
FL
fermented
methyl thio isovalerate
FL
floral
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
acetyl isovaleryl
FL
bitter
almond oil
FL/FR
iso
amyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
blueberry cheesecake flavor
FL
cyclohexyl carboxylic acid
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl lactate
FL/FR
filbert hexenone
FL/FR
4-
heptanone
FL/FR
methyl 4-methyl valerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyric acid
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
phenethyl octanoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tagete oil rwanda
FL/FR
green
iso
butyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
heptanal 2,3-butane diol acetal
FL
(Z)-4-
heptenal
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
heptenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal
FL/FR
3-(5-
methyl-2-furyl) butanal
FL
herbal
tagete oil egypt
FL/FR
ketonic
3-
heptanone
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
meaty
2-
methyl 3-(methyl thio) furan
FL
milky
gamma-
butyrolactone
FL/FR
mushroom
1-
octen-3-yl butyrate
FL/FR
musty
S-(
methyl thio) butyrate
FL/FR
3-
octanol
FL/FR
nutty
coffee furanone
FL/FR
2-
ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
oily
2-
methyl hexanoic acid
FL/FR
petal pyranone
FL/FR
powdery
powdery ketone
FL
soapy
octanoic acid
FL/FR
sour
acetic acid
FL
2,4-
dimethyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL
3-
methyl valeric acid
FL
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
sulfurous
methyl 4-(methyl thio) butyrate
FL
methyl thioacetate
FL
sweet
cyclohexyl acetic acid
FL/FR
toasted
acetyl propionyl
FL/FR
vanilla
vanilla
ice cream flavor
FL
waxy
iso
amyl decanoate
FL/FR
butyl laurate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
epsilon-
decalactone
FL/FR
9-
decenoic acid
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl palmitate
FL/FR
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
2-
methyl heptanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
delta-
tetradecalactone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
2-
undecanone
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLapple
FLbanana
FLbarley
FLbeef roasted beef
FLbeer
FRbramble arctic bramble blackberry
FLbread white bread
FLbutter
FLbutterscotch
FRcastoreum
FLcheese blue cheese
FLcheese cheddar cheese
FLcheese swiss cheese
FLcherry
FLchocolate cocoa
FRcitronella
FLcloudberry bakeapple
FLcoffee
FRcurrant
FReucalyptus oil replacer
FLfish
FLgrape
FLgreen
FLhoney
FRhop
FLmace
FRmelon
FLmushroom
 natural
FLnut
FRnutmeg
FLonion
FLpapaya
FRpassion fruit
FLpeach
FLpeanut
FLpear
FLpineapple
FLpistachio
FLbrandy plum brandy
FLsauerkraut
 soybean
FLtomato
 trassi
FL/FRvalerian
FLwalnut
FLwine sherry wine
FLyogurt
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 anise seed
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 apple fruit
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 arctic bramble fruit
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 asparagus
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 avocado fruit
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 banana fruit
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 banana plant
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 barley roasted barley
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 basil oil
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 bay laurel leaf
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 beef heated beef
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 beer
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 bergamot plant wild
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 bilberry fruit juice
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 blackberry fruit
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 blueberry fruit juice
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 brandy grape brandy
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 brandy pear brandy
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 brandy plum brandy
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 bread
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 bread white bread
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 burdock plant
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 butter
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 cacao plant
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 cajuput
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 cardamom fruit
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 cardamom seed
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 carob bean
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 carrot root
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 cayenne sap
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 cheese @ 1.00 ± 0.5 mmol%
Data GC Search PMC Picture
 cheese bleu cheese
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 cheese cheddar cheese
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 cheese swiss cheese
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 cherry
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 cider
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 citronella ceylon
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 cloudberry fruit
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 cocoa
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 coffee
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 coffee roasted coffee
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 cucumber seed
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 currant fruit
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 dairy products
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 eucalyptus globulus
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 fig fruit juice
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 fish
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 fruits
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 ginkgo biloba fruit
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 grape
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 ham
PbMd Search PMC Picture
 honey
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 hop
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 lavender
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 lovage root
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 milk
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 morello
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 mushroom
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 mustard white mustard
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 niaouli
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 nutmeg seed
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 nuts
 onion roasted onion
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 orange fruit
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 osmanthus absolute @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 papaya fruit
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 passion fruit
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 peach fruit
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 peanut roasted peanut
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 pear fruit
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 pennyroyal
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 pepper black pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper seed
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 pork heated pork
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 potato chip
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 roselle fruit
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 rum
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 sauerkraut
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 sherry
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 soybean
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 spearmint plant
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 strawberry wild strawberry fruit
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 tarragon plant
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 tea plant
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 tomato
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 trassi cooked trassi
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 valerian
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 vegetables
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 whiskey
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 wine
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 yogurt
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Synonyms:
 acid, butyric
 butanic acid
 butanoic acid
1-butanoic acid
N-butanoic acid
1-butyric acid
N-butyric acid
nat.butyric acid
 butyric acid (natural)
 butyric acid FCC
 butyric acid FCC (natural)
 butyric acid FCC grade
 butyric acid natural
N-butyric acid natural
 butyric acid synthetic food grade
 ethyl acetic acid
1-propane carboxylic acid
 propanecarboxylic acid
 propyl formic acid
 

Articles:

PubMed:Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.
PubMed:Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity of reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and nitrite against vegetative cells and spores of dairy-related Clostridium species.
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.
PubMed:Optimized butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.
PubMed:Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.
PubMed:Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Enzymatic activity and flavor compound production in fermented silver carp fish paste inoculated with douchi starter culture.
PubMed:A novel esterase gene cloned from a metagenomic library from neritic sediments of the South China Sea.
PubMed:Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis.
PubMed:Comparison of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang) prepared by different methods based on profiling of volatile compounds.
PubMed:Influence of pulsed electric field treatments on the volatile compounds of milk in comparison with pasteurized processing.
PubMed:Key odorants of Oscypek, a traditional Polish ewe's milk cheese.
PubMed:Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed:Odor compounds in cheese made from the milk of cows supplemented with extruded linseed and alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring fruity fermented flavor in peanuts.
PubMed:Effect of enhancement and ageing on flavor and volatile compounds in various beef muscles.
PubMed:Aroma components of American country ham.
PubMed:Effects of steeping conditions of waxy rice on the physical and sensory characteristics of gangjung (a traditional Korean oil-puffed snack).
PubMed:Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.
PubMed:Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for monitoring short-chain free fatty acids in Swiss cheese.
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed:Inverse gas chromatographic evaluation of the influence of soy protein on the binding of selected butter flavor compounds in a wheat soda cracker system.
PubMed:Production of natural fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum.
PubMed:Characterization of (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a character impact aroma compound of oat flakes.
PubMed:Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.
PubMed:Identification based on quantitative measurements and aroma recombination of the character impact odorants in a Bavarian Pilsner-type beer.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:Characteristic volatiles from young and aged fruiting bodies of wild Polyporus sulfureus (Bull.:Fr.) Fr.
PubMed:[Determination of minor flavor components in Chinese spirits by direct-injection technique with capillary columns].
PubMed:Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.
PubMed:Identification of fruity/fermented odorants in high-temperature-cured roasted peanuts.
PubMed:Measurement of aroma compound self-diffusion in food models by DOSY.
PubMed:Hard ewe's milk cheese manufactured from milk of three different groups of somatic cell counts.
PubMed:A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.
PubMed:Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds in murici (Byrsonima crassifolia l. Rich).
PubMed:II. Glutamine and glutamate.
PubMed:Solid-phase microextraction in combination with GC/MS for quantification of the major volatile free fatty acids in ewe cheese.
PubMed:Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed:Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk.
PubMed:Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.
PubMed:Determination of short-chain free fatty acids in lipolyzed milk fat by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Interspecific hybrid between Allium cepa and Allium sativum.
PubMed:Investigation on proteolysis and formation of volatile compounds of Lighvan cheese during ripening.
PubMed:Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Prebiotic and synbiotic effects on rats fed malted barley with selected bacteria strains.
PubMed:Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.
PubMed:Microbial community structure reveals how microaeration improves fermentation during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.
PubMed:Multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains isolated from cheese production environment.
PubMed:Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid.
PubMed:In vitro fermentation of the polysaccharides from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves by human fecal inoculums.
PubMed:Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.
PubMed:Relationship between Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Contents and Organoleptic Properties of Japanese Sake.
PubMed:Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules.
PubMed:Nostosins, Trypsin Inhibitors Isolated from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain FSN.
PubMed:Rapid in vitro propagation system through shoot tip cultures of Vitex trifolia L.-an important multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional Medicine.
PubMed:Cereal byproducts have prebiotic potential in mice fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Hydrolytic and acidogenic fermentation potential of food waste with source segregated feces-without-urine as co-substrate.
PubMed:Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.
PubMed:Exploring the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota of healthy adults receiving amoxicillin treatment.
PubMed:Lactulose and Lactobacillus plantarum, a potential complementary synbiotic to control postweaning colibacillosis in piglets.
PubMed:Enhancement in hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge--optimization of treatment conditions.
PubMed:The combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves improves the synthesis of ethyl butyrate catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.
PubMed:Assessing non-digestible compounds in apple cultivars and their potential as modulators of obese faecal microbiota in vitro.
PubMed:Antifungal activity of compounds extracted from Cortex Pseudolaricis against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
PubMed:Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.
PubMed:Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using β-glycosidase.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods.
PubMed:Butyric acid released during milk lipolysis triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus species.
PubMed:Effects of soluble and insoluble fractions from bilberries, black currants, and raspberries on short-chain fatty acid formation, anthocyanin excretion, and cholesterol in rats.
PubMed:Pyrrole alkaloids with potential cancer chemopreventive activity isolated from a goji berry-contaminated commercial sample of African mango.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of butyric acid.
PubMed:Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on fat deposition in broilers.
PubMed:Lactobacillus plantarum IFPL935 impacts colonic metabolism in a simulator of the human gut microbiota during feeding with red wine polyphenols.
PubMed:An efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration from shoot tip cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a medicinal plant.
PubMed:Favouring butyrate production for a new generation biofuel by acidogenic glucose fermentation using cells immobilised on γ-alumina.
PubMed:Membrane transporters mediating root signalling and adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation and soil flooding.
PubMed:Type IV resistant starch increases cecum short chain fatty acids level in rats.
PubMed:Passiflora edulis peel intake and ulcerative colitis: approaches for prevention and treatment.
PubMed:Fatty acids found in dairy, protein and unsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study.
PubMed:Esterification of fatty acids by Penicillium crustosum lipase in a membrane reactor.
PubMed:The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage.
PubMed:Iron supplementation promotes gut microbiota metabolic activity but not colitis markers in human gut microbiota-associated rats.
PubMed:Role of indole-3-butyric acid or/and putrescine in improving productivity of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) plants.
PubMed:Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.
PubMed:The synergistic effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate on the death of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
PubMed:[Application of molecular-targeting cancer prevention to tumor immunity].
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.
PubMed:A comparative study of extraction techniques for maximum recovery of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from Aspergillus oryzae NSK.
PubMed:Optimization of micro-aeration intensity in acidogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digester treating food waste.
PubMed:Diet-induced obesity induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the amygdala of rats.
PubMed:Efficient regeneration for enhanced steviol glycosides production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed:High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.
PubMed:How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.
PubMed:Role of NADPH oxidase-4 in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in SK-Hep-1 cells.
PubMed:Microbial purification of postfermentation medium after 1,3-PD production from raw glycerol.
PubMed:Development of phenotypic screening assays for γ-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.
PubMed:Long-term impacts of adolescent risperidone treatment on behavioral responsiveness to olanzapine and clozapine in adulthood.
PubMed:Development of a rapid LC-DAD/FLD method for the simultaneous determination of auxins and abscisic acid in plant extracts.
PubMed:Migration of odorous compounds from adhesives used in market samples of food packaging materials by chromatography olfactometry and mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS).
PubMed:Gastric distension activates NUCB2/nesfatin-1-expressing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
PubMed:An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.
PubMed:Optimization of γ-amino butyric acid production in a newly isolated Lactobacillus brevis.
PubMed:Fiber from a regular diet is directly associated with fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the elderly.
PubMed:The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.
PubMed:Identification of novel β-lactoglobulin-derived peptides, wheylin-1 and -2, having anxiolytic-like activity in mice.
PubMed:Development of analytical methods for the quantification of metabolites of lesogaberan in a MIST investigation.
PubMed:A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis.
PubMed:Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste composed of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic in a single-stage system: performance and microbial community structure characterization.
PubMed:Optimized butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.
PubMed:In vitro batch cultures of gut microbiota from healthy and ulcerative colitis (UC) subjects suggest that sulphate-reducing bacteria levels are raised in UC and by a protein-rich diet.
PubMed:Lipase-catalysed ester synthesis in solvent-free oil system: is it esterification or transesterification?
PubMed:Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.
PubMed:Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.
PubMed:Effects of 8 chemical and bacterial additives on the quality of corn silage.
PubMed:Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.
PubMed:Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).
PubMed:Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat.
PubMed:Statistical approach to study the interactive effects of process parameters for enhanced xylitol production by Candida tropicalis and its potential for the synthesis of xylitol monoesters.
PubMed:Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a Butyric Acid-Overproducing Strain.
PubMed:Different analytical approaches in assessing antibacterial activity and the purity of commercial lysozyme preparations for dairy application.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile components in makgeolli, a traditional Korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage.
PubMed:Effects of dietary fibers and their mixtures on short chain fatty acids and microbiota in mice guts.
PubMed:Sodium butyrate improves locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
PubMed:Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease: no difference compared with controls, but between genders.
PubMed:The chemopreventive activity of the butyric acid prodrug tributyrin in experimental rat hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with p53 acetylation and activation of the p53 apoptotic signaling pathway.
PubMed:AMPK synergizes with the combined treatment of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate to upregulate phase II detoxifying enzyme activities.
PubMed:Lipolysis within single culture and co-culture biofilms of dairy origin.
PubMed:Effect of growth hormones on some antioxidant parameters and gene expression in tomato.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of nine trace organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruit samples using molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by gas chromatography.
PubMed:Propionic and butyric acids, formed in the caecum of rats fed highly fermentable dietary fibre, are reflected in portal and aortic serum.
PubMed:Effect of kai xin san on learning and memory in a rat model of paradoxical sleep deprivation.
PubMed:Improved production of butyl butyrate with lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus immobilized on styrene-divinylbenzene beads.
PubMed:High pressure homogenization increases antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid yield of polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L.
PubMed:Effects of extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) and Yucca schidigera applied alone or in combination with monensin on rumen fermentation and microbial populations in vitro.
PubMed:Simple method for the quantification of milk fat content in foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol as an indicator.
PubMed:Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning.
PubMed:Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.
PubMed:Sonication in combination with heat and low pressure as an alternative pasteurization treatment--effect on Escherichia coli K12 inactivation and quality of apple cider.
PubMed:[Determination of six plant growth regulator residues in strawberry by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry].
PubMed:In-tube extraction and GC-MS analysis of volatile components from wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. Carpatica) berry varieties and juice.
PubMed:Nutrigenomic effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactives on hepatic gluconeogenic genes in type 2 diabetic rats and HEPG2 cells.
PubMed:Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.
PubMed:Butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.
PubMed:Altered anxiety and defensive behaviors in Bax knockout mice.
PubMed:Anticarcinogenic actions of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity of Aralia continentalis roots on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and rat lens aldose reductase.
PubMed:Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.
PubMed:The effect of selected synbiotics on microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid production in a model system of the human colon.
PubMed:Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains show wide variation in growth at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions.
PubMed:Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
PubMed:Effect of exclusive enteral nutrition on gut microflora function in children with Crohn's disease.
PubMed:Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation.
PubMed:Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran.
PubMed:Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.
PubMed:Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.
PubMed:Fermentation characteristics of resistant starch from maize prepared by the enzymatic method in vitro.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of odorous compounds from adhesives used in food packaging materials by headspace solid phase extraction and headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Fructan extracts from wheat stem and barley grain stimulate large bowel fermentation in rats.
PubMed:Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long-term storage.
PubMed:The effectiveness of selected feed and water additives for reducing Salmonella spp. of public health importance in broiler chickens: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression approach.
PubMed:Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and calcium: effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight and satiety-related, gastrointestinal hormones in rats.
PubMed:Failure of long-term memory formation in juvenile snails is determined by acetylation status of histone H3 and can be improved by NaB treatment.
PubMed:Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.
PubMed:Effect of supplementary concentrate type on nitrogen partitioning in early lactation dairy cows offered perennial ryegrass-based pasture.
PubMed:The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.
PubMed:In vitro fermentation of prebiotics by Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194: selectivity, viability and effect of metabolites on β-glucuronidase activity.
PubMed:Inhibition of deprivation-induced food intake by GABA(A) antagonists: roles of the hypothalamic, endocrine and alimentary mechanisms.
PubMed:A glutamic Acid-producing lactic Acid bacteria isolated from malaysian fermented foods.
PubMed:Characteristic aroma compounds of cooked and fermented soybean (Chungkook-Jang) inoculated with various Bacilli.
PubMed:Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.
PubMed:Immunocytological and biochemical analysis of the mode of action of bis (tri-n-butyltin) tri-oxide (TBTO) in Jurkat cells.
PubMed:Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction as a powerful tool for the quantitative determination of volatile radiolysis products in a multilayer food packaging material sterilized with γ-radiation.
PubMed:Headspace analysis of Italian and New Zealand parmesan cheeses.
PubMed:The role of the GABA(B) receptor and calcium channels in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's Disease.
PubMed:In vitro propagation of Dioscorea alata var. purpurae.
PubMed:The effect of betaine on in vitro fermentation of carbohydrate and protein combinations under osmotic stress in pigs.
PubMed:Selection of potential probiotic lactobacilli for cholesterol-lowering properties and their effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high-lipid diet.
PubMed:Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.
PubMed:Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.
PubMed:Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.
PubMed:Effects of vigabatrin, an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, on ethanol reinforcement and ethanol discriminative stimuli in mice.
PubMed:A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of acid/alkaline phytohormones in grapes.
PubMed:Enzymatic activity and flavor compound production in fermented silver carp fish paste inoculated with douchi starter culture.
PubMed:Butyrate regulates leptin expression through different signaling pathways in adipocytes.
PubMed:Quality evaluation of olive oil by statistical analysis of multicomponent stable isotope dilution assay data of aroma active compounds.
PubMed:Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis.
PubMed:A water-soluble fraction from a by-product of wheat increases the formation of propionic acid in rats compared with diets based on other by-product fractions and oligofructose.
PubMed:The impact of germination on the characteristics of brown rice flour and starch.
PubMed:Impact of anaerobiosis strategy and bioreactor geometry on the biochemical response of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 during 1,3-propanediol fermentation.
PubMed:Effect of forage source and a supplementary methionine hydroxy analog on nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows offered a low crude protein diet.
PubMed:A randomised crossover study investigating the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota in men and women over 50 years of age.
PubMed:Monitoring of microbial metabolites and bacterial diversity in beef stored under different packaging conditions.
PubMed:NMR-based metabolomics reveals that conjugated double bond content and lipid storage efficiency in HepG2 cells are affected by fatty acid cis/trans configuration and chain length.
PubMed:Spoilage-related activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains in air-stored and vacuum-packed meat.
PubMed:Characterization of odor-active compounds of various cherry wines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.
PubMed:Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.
PubMed:Faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid levels in faeces from infants with cow's milk protein allergy.
PubMed:Requirement for store-operated calcium entry in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
PubMed:Sodium oxybate for the treatment of fibromyalgia.
PubMed:[Diurnal rhythm of Viburnum awabuki and Betula luminifera volatiles and electroantennogram response of Batocera horsfieldi].
PubMed:Genetic screening of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus strains for their peptidolytic system and amino acid metabolism, and comparison of their volatilomes in a model system.
PubMed:Fermentation of β-glucans derived from different sources by bifidobacteria: evaluation of their bifidogenic effect.
PubMed:A sensitivity-improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for fenvalerate: a new approach for hapten synthesis and application to tea samples.
PubMed:Influence of pulsed electric field treatments on the volatile compounds of milk in comparison with pasteurized processing.
PubMed:GABAergic and glutamatergic modulation in binge eating: therapeutic approach.
PubMed:Modification of selected bacteria and markers of protein fermentation in the distal gastrointestinal tract of pigs upon consumption of chitosan is accompanied by heightened manure odor emissions.
PubMed:Application of plant-based antimicrobials for the growth inhibition of clostridia in pressed beet pulp silage.
PubMed:Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.
PubMed:Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Key odorants of Oscypek, a traditional Polish ewe's milk cheese.
PubMed:Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).
PubMed:An improved process for high quality and nutrition of brown rice production.
PubMed:Formation of volatiles and fattyacids of therapeutic importance in the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum LPcfr adapted to resist GIT conditions.
PubMed:The ensiling capability of a mixture of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite.
PubMed:The absolute configuration of the sex pheromone of the citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae.
PubMed:Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk.
PubMed:Antigenotoxic effect of kefir and ayran supernatants on fecal water-induced DNA damage in human colon cells.
PubMed:Caloric restriction decreases ER stress in liver and adipose tissue in ob/ob mice.
PubMed:Structural characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides of laminin from rat kidney: changes during diabetes and modulation by dietary fiber and butyric acid.
PubMed:Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.
PubMed:Broad-specificity immunoassay for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides: application of molecular modeling to improve assay sensitivity and study antibody recognition.
PubMed:A comparative in vitro investigation into the effects of cooked meats on the human faecal microbiota.
PubMed:Exploitation of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours: chemical characterization and their use for sourdough fermentation.
PubMed:Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.
PubMed:A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning.
PubMed:Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms.
PubMed:Obesity-linked variants of melanocortin-4 receptor are misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum and can be rescued to the cell surface by a chemical chaperone.
PubMed:The insulin secretory granule as a signaling hub.
PubMed:Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools.
PubMed:New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre?
PubMed:The impact of the level of the intestinal short chain Fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease patients versus healthy subjects.
PubMed:In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.).
PubMed:Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei-enriched artichokes on constipated patients: a pilot study.
PubMed:Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.
PubMed:Evolution of butyric acid and the methanogenic microbial population in a thermophilic dry anaerobic reactor.
PubMed:Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).
PubMed:Impact of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on the volatile composition and flavonol content of strawberries.
PubMed:Effects of oat bran, processed to different molecular weights of beta-glucan, on plasma lipids and caecal formation of SCFA in mice.
PubMed:Effects of copper on germination, growth and sporulation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum.
PubMed:Fermentation of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III by Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
PubMed:Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.
PubMed:Intestinal fermentation in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity: painful, but protective?
PubMed:Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigen (ovalbumin) in mice.
PubMed:Safety and tolerance of the human milk probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 in 6-month-old children.
PubMed:Growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.
PubMed:Rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract.
PubMed:In vitro bile acid binding and short-chain fatty acid profile of flax fiber and ethanol co-products.
PubMed:Comparison of the metabolic activities of four wild-type Clostridium perfringens strains with their gatifloxacin-selected resistant mutants.
PubMed:Odor detection of mixtures of homologous carboxylic acids and coffee aroma compounds by humans.
PubMed:Butyrate-induced transcriptional changes in human colonic mucosa.
PubMed:Characterization of aroma-active compounds, sensory properties, and proteolysis in Ezine cheese.
PubMed:Blueberry husks, rye bran and multi-strain probiotics affect the severity of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed:Influence of Indole-3-butyric acid on antioxidant defense systems in various tissues of rats at subacute and subchronic exposure.
PubMed:Buffer requirements for enhanced hydrogen production in acidogenic digestion of food wastes.
PubMed:Monoclonal antibody generation and direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay evaluation for the analysis of the fungicide fenhexamid in must and wine.
PubMed:The role of eszopiclone in the treatment of insomnia.
PubMed:Influence of benzoic acid in high fibre diets on nutrient digestibility and VFA production in growing/finishing pigs.
PubMed:Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice.
PubMed:Characterization of selected South African young cultivar wines using FTMIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and multivariate data analysis.
PubMed:Hindgut plasticity in wallabies fed hay either unchopped or ground and pelleted: fiber is not the only factor.
PubMed:3-Methyl-2-propionamido-butanoic acid.
PubMed:Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of the miticide bromopropylate.
PubMed:Fatty acids in bovine milk fat.
PubMed:The use of a semiochemical bait to enhance exposure of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) to Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).
PubMed:Determination of the neurotoxin BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in cycad seed and cyanobacteria by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry).
PubMed:Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.
PubMed:Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during natural coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring fruity fermented flavor in peanuts.
PubMed:Blueberry husks and multi-strain probiotics affect colonic fermentation in rats.
PubMed:Identification and quantitation of auxins in plants by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Production of butyric acid from glucose and xylose with immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.
PubMed:Supplemental sodium butyrate stimulates different gastric cells in weaned pigs.
PubMed:Model experiments mimicking the human intestinal transit and metabolism of D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin.
PubMed:Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.
PubMed:Dietary taurine supplementation prevents glial alterations in retina of diabetic rats.
PubMed:Effect of a preparation containing lactic fermentation bacteria on the hygienic status and aerobic stability of silages.
PubMed:Biotransformation of vinclozolin in rat precision-cut liver slices: comparison with in vivo metabolic pattern.
PubMed:Effect of enhancement and ageing on flavor and volatile compounds in various beef muscles.
PubMed:Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle and on fermentation in continuous culture.
PubMed:Production of the bioactive compound eritadenine by submerged cultivation of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mycelia.
PubMed:Comprehensive analysis of polar and apolar constituents of butter and margarine by nuclear magnetic resonance, reflecting quality and production processes.
PubMed:Aroma components of American country ham.
PubMed:Design and synthesis of a novel fluorescent reagent, 6-oxy-(ethylpiperazine)-9-(2'-methoxycarbonyl) fluorescein, for carboxylic acids and its application in food samples using high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Role of probiotics in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.
PubMed:Effects of steeping conditions of waxy rice on the physical and sensory characteristics of gangjung (a traditional Korean oil-puffed snack).
PubMed:Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.
PubMed:Cytokine responses of intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells to non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic yeasts in the presence of butyric acid.
PubMed:Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.
PubMed:Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for monitoring short-chain free fatty acids in Swiss cheese.
PubMed:Short communication: Quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats.
PubMed:2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (keto analog of methionine) is a safe and efficacious precursor of L-methionine in chicks.
PubMed:Effects of increasing the intake of dietary β-glucans by exchanging wheat for barley on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentration and manure ammonia emissions in finishing pigs.
PubMed:Dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Maghrebian countries.
PubMed:Minimizing the level of butyric acid bacteria spores in farm tank milk.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with beta-glucan enriched oat bran increases faecal concentration of carboxylic acids in healthy subjects.
PubMed:In vitro fermentation by human fecal microflora of wheat arabinoxylans.
PubMed:Nondestructive quantification of organic compounds in whole milk without pretreatment by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.
PubMed:Measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of diuron in ground and surface water by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay: seasonal variations of diuron, carbofuran, and paraquat in an agricultural area.
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed:Fiber digestibility by the orangutan (Pongo abelii): in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Quantification of the bioactive compound eritadenine in selected strains of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).
PubMed:Physiological and metabolic properties of a digestion-resistant maltodextrin, classified as type 3 retrograded resistant starch.
PubMed:Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration.
PubMed:Vigabatrin, a GABA transaminase inhibitor, reversibly eliminates tinnitus in an animal model.
PubMed:Contribution of C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes in association with C. tyrobutyricum to the butyric fermentation in Emmental type cheese.
PubMed:Determination of short-chain fatty acids in serum by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography.
PubMed:Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of oligofructose and inulin (OFI) attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile compounds as spoilage indicators in fresh king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during storage using SPME-GC-MS.
PubMed:[Analysis of volatile constituents from leaves of plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction].
PubMed:Influence of the amount of dietary fiber on the available energy from hindgut fermentation in growing pigs: use of cannulated pigs and in vitro fermentation.
PubMed:Effects of dietary supplementation of DL-methionine or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid on food intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and urinary and blood metabolites in healthy, growing dogs.
PubMed:Inverse gas chromatographic evaluation of the influence of soy protein on the binding of selected butter flavor compounds in a wheat soda cracker system.
PubMed:Synthesis of PHAs from waster under various C:N ratios.
PubMed:Studies on a kinetic model for butyric acid bioproduction by Clostridium butyricum.
PubMed:Analysis of the volatile components of cheddar cheese by direct thermal desorption-GC x GC-TOF/MS.
PubMed:Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques.
PubMed:Selective fermentation of gentiobiose-derived oligosaccharides by human gut bacteria and influence of molecular weight.
PubMed:Production of natural fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum.
PubMed:Effects of frozen and refrigerated storage on organic acid profiles of goat milk plain soft and Monterey Jack cheeses.
PubMed:Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria.
PubMed:Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.
PubMed:Effect of high-pressure treatment and a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture on the odor and aroma of hispánico cheese: correlation of volatile compounds and sensory analysis.
PubMed:Short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats fed oligosaccharides varying in monomeric composition, degree of polymerisation and solubility.
PubMed:Characterization of (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a character impact aroma compound of oat flakes.
PubMed:Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.
PubMed:Identification based on quantitative measurements and aroma recombination of the character impact odorants in a Bavarian Pilsner-type beer.
PubMed:Acidolysis between triolein and short-chain fatty acid by lipase in organic solvents.
PubMed:Characteristic volatiles from young and aged fruiting bodies of wild Polyporus sulfureus (Bull.:Fr.) Fr.
PubMed:Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.
PubMed:[Determination of minor flavor components in Chinese spirits by direct-injection technique with capillary columns].
PubMed:In vitro clonal propagation of bird eye chilli (Capsicum frutescens Mill.).
PubMed:Fermentation characteristics of corn forage ensiled in mini-silos.
PubMed:Resistant starch derived from processed legumes: in vitro and in vivo fermentation characteristics.
PubMed:Removal of volatile fatty acids with immobilized Rhodococcus sp. B261.
PubMed:Response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation medium of Clostridium butyricum.
PubMed:Application of stepwise discriminant analysis to classify commercial orange juices using chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence data of amino acids.
PubMed:Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.
PubMed:Nondestructive observation of bovine milk by NMR spectroscopy: analysis of existing States of compounds and detection of new compounds.
PubMed:The effects of buffered propionic acid-based additives alone or combined with microbial inoculation on the fermentation of high moisture corn and whole-crop barley.
PubMed:Identification of fruity/fermented odorants in high-temperature-cured roasted peanuts.
PubMed:Measurement of aroma compound self-diffusion in food models by DOSY.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on the production of a virulence factor of the periodontal-disease-causing anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis.
PubMed:Observations on the succession dynamics of lactic acid bacteria populations in chill-stored vacuum-packaged beef.
PubMed:The late blowing in cheese: a new molecular approach based on PCR and DGGE to study the microbial ecology of the alteration process.
PubMed:Hard ewe's milk cheese manufactured from milk of three different groups of somatic cell counts.
PubMed:In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of galactooligosaccharides synthesised by alpha-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri.
PubMed:Atmospheric ammonia, volatile fatty acids, and other odorants near beef feedlots.
PubMed:Cassava cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked leaves.
PubMed:In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L.
PubMed:Importance of processing for physico-chemical and physiological properties of dietary fibre.
PubMed:Biofiltration of n-butyric acid for the control of odour.
PubMed:Metabolic profiling of root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of l-methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB) co-oligomers.
PubMed:Influences of dietary adaptation and source of resistant starch on short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats.
PubMed:Evidence of a relationship between autolysis of starter bacteria and lipolysis in cheddar cheese during ripening.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma compounds in two types of cashew apple nectar.
PubMed:Green technology for conversion of food scraps to biodegradable thermoplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates.
PubMed:Effects of environmental factors on leucine catabolism by Carnobacterium piscicola.
PubMed:Butyric acid modulates activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases in experimentally induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:Antifungal constituents from the seeds of Allium fistulosum L.
PubMed:Combinations of indigestible carbohydrates affect short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats.
PubMed:Production of butanol from starch-based waste packing peanuts and agricultural waste.
PubMed:Glufosinate-ammonium reduces growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.
PubMed:Modulatory effect of butyric acid-a product of dietary fiber fermentation in experimentally induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:The effect of delayed ensiling and application of a propionic acid-based additive on the fermentation of barley silage.
PubMed:Variation in organic acids content during ripening of pickled white cheese.
PubMed:Effects of C18 long chain fatty acids on glucose, butyrate and hydrogen degradation.
PubMed:Fermentation and bulking capacity of indigestible carbohydrates: the case of inulin and oligofructose.
PubMed:Circadian response of annual weeds to glyphosate and glufosinate.
PubMed:Rumen degradation and availability of various amounts of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in lactating dairy cows.
PubMed:Production of specific copolymers of polyhydroxyalkanoates from industrial waste.
PubMed:Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.
PubMed:Composition of the volatiles from intact and mechanically pierced tea aphid-tea shoot complexes and their attraction to natural enemies of the tea aphid.
PubMed:Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.
PubMed:Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed:[Determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in meat by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Diet, length of gestation, and fecal short chain fatty acids in healthy premature neonates.
PubMed:Preparative-scale synthesis of two metabolites isolated from soil treated with zoxium fungicide and kerb herbicide.
PubMed:Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk.
PubMed:Oral administration of a product derived from Clostridium butyricum in rats.
PubMed:Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.
PubMed:Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats.
PubMed:Microbiological and biochemical studies on Gergoush fermentation.
PubMed:Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of isoamyl butyrate. A kinetic study.
PubMed:Alteration of lipase chain length specificity in the hydrolysis of esters by random mutagenesis.
PubMed:Could reduced cerebrospinal fluid (csf) galanin contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa?
PubMed:The effect of season and monensin sodium on the digestive characteristics of autumn and spring pasture fed to sheep.
PubMed:Occurrence and biochemical characteristics of natural bioactive substances in bovine milk lipids.
PubMed:Large-scale enzymatic production of natural flavour esters in organic solvent with continuous water removal.
PubMed:Release characteristics of a short-chain fatty acid, n-butyric acid, from its beta-cyclodextrin ester conjugate in rat biological media.
PubMed:Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in rats is increased by dietary mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber and sugar beet fiber.
PubMed:Effect of sodium butyric acid, sodium valerianic acid, and osmolarity on contractility of specimens of intestinal wall obtained from the cecum and spiral colon of healthy cows.
PubMed:Clostridium gasigenes sp. nov., a psychrophile causing spoilage of vacuum-packed meat.
PubMed:Modulation of the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of diazepam and phencyclidine by L-type voltage-gated calcium-channel ligands in rats.
PubMed:Protective effects of butyric acid in colon cancer.
PubMed:Effects of dehulled adlay on the culture count of some microbiota and their metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of rats.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of phytosterol esters. Part 5. Faecal short-chain fatty acid and microflora content, faecal bacterial enzyme activity and serum female sex hormones in healthy normolipidaemic volunteers consuming a controlled diet either with or without a phytosterol ester-enriched margarine.
PubMed:Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp.
PubMed:A computer-controlled system to simulate conditions of the large intestine with peristaltic mixing, water absorption and absorption of fermentation products.
PubMed:Potent aroma compounds of two red wine vinegars.
PubMed:Regulation of intestinal peptidases by nutrients in human fetuses and children.
PubMed:Role of Yersinia intermedia and Pseudomonas putida in the development of a fruity off-flavour in pasteurized milk.
PubMed:Butyric acid and tributyrin induce apoptosis in human hepatic tumour cells.
PubMed:Development of a compound-specific ELISA for flufenoxuron and an improved class-specific assay for benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulators.
PubMed:Effects of watercress consumption on urinary metabolites of nicotine in smokers.
PubMed:Regulation of polyphosphate kinase gene expression in Acinetobacter baumannii 252.
PubMed:Secretion of phospholipid transfer protein by human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2, is enhanced by sodium butyrate.
PubMed:Factors influencing leucine catabolism by a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus.
PubMed:A mixture of organisms affects cholesterol metabolism together with rat cecal flora.
PubMed:Bioactive lipids naturally occurring in bovine milk.
PubMed:Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria isolated from forage crops on fermentation characteristics and aerobic deterioration of silage.
PubMed:Nutritional regulation of gene expression.
PubMed:Ruminal escape, gastrointestinal absorption, and response of serum methionine to supplementation of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in dairy cows.
PubMed:Production of esters by Staphylococci.
PubMed:The colonization of a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem by a probiotic strain fed on a fermented oat bran product: effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota.
PubMed:Degradation of konjac glucomannan by enzymes in human feces and formation of short-chain fatty acids by intestinal anaerobic bacteria.
PubMed:The effect of pH on the inhibition of bacterial growth by physiological concentrations of butyric acid: implications for neonates fed on suckled milk.
PubMed:The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus revisited: 1998 update.
PubMed:Thietanium ion formation from the food mutagen 2-chloro-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid.
PubMed:Butyric acid from the diet: actions at the level of gene expression.
PubMed:Protein preservation and ruminal degradation of ensiled forage treated with heat, formic acid, ammonia, or microbial inoculant.
PubMed:Antimutagenic properties of probiotic bacteria and of organic acids.
PubMed:The relative effectiveness of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid and DL-methionine in young swine.
PubMed:Dietary intake and faecal excretion of carbohydrate by Australians: importance of achieving stool weights greater than 150 g to improve faecal markers relevant to colon cancer risk.
PubMed:Chemical attributes characterizing sticky post-mortem ageing in beef.
PubMed:Migration of residual contaminants from secondary recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) into food-simulating solvents, aqueous ethanol and heptane.
PubMed:Down-regulation of protein kinase CKII activity by sodium butyrate.
PubMed:Effect of glucose and 2-deoxyglucose on hypothalamic GABA release in lactating rats.
PubMed:[Fermentation process during the ensiling of green forage low in nitrate. 2. Fermentation process after supplementation of nitrate, nitrite, lactic acid bacteria and formic acid].
PubMed:[Fermentation process during the ensiling of green forage low in nitrate. 1. Fermentation process in untreated green forage].
PubMed:Short-chain carboxylic-acid-stimulated, PMN-mediated gingival inflammation.
PubMed:[Chemical composition of earthworm (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus) silages].
PubMed:16S rDNA analysis of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens: phylogenetic position and relation to butyrate-producing anaerobic bacteria from the rumen of white-tailed deer.
PubMed:Effects of fatty acids on accumulation and secretion of histamine in RBL-2H3 cells and leukotriene release from peritoneal exudate cells isolated from Wistar rats.
PubMed:The survival benefit of short-chain organic acids and the inducible arginine and lysine decarboxylase genes for Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Supplementation of enteral nutrition with butyrate leads to increased portal efflux of amino acids in growing pigs with short bowel syndrome.
PubMed:Effect of colchicine-induced cell loss in the dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn on the olfactory control of feeding in rats.
PubMed:[Isolation and reassociation of acetogen and methanogen in a syntrophobic coculture degrading butyrate anaerobically].
PubMed:Methionine deficiency decreases protein accretion and synthesis but not tRNA acylation in muscles of chicks.
PubMed:Splanchnic infusions of short chain fatty acids do not change insulin sensitivity of pigs.
PubMed:Butyrate and markers of neoplastic change in the colon.
PubMed:Mechanisms mediating NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypophagia in mice.
PubMed:Rhizogenesis in stem discs of Malus pumila rootstock M9 "Jork": I. Hormonal and environmental effects on root induction and callus formation.
PubMed:Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: a comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems.
PubMed:Selective toxicity of compounds naturally present in food toward the transformed phenotype of human colorectal cell line HT29.
PubMed:Effect of yeast supplementation on health, performance and rumen fermentation in beef bulls.
PubMed:Toluene and weasel (2-propylthietane) odors suppress feeding in the rat.
PubMed:Effects of dietary supplementation with lactosucrose (4G-beta-D-galactosylsucrose) on cecal flora, cecal metabolites, and performance in broiler chickens.
PubMed:Reversible proliferation arrest of rat 3y1 fibroblasts and selective killing of simian-virus transformed derivation of 3y1 by short-chain Fatty-acids.
PubMed:Components of weasel and fox odors elicit fast wave bursts in the dentate gyrus of rats.
PubMed:Induction of developmentally programmed cell death and activation of HIV by sodium butyrate.
PubMed:Faecal short chain fatty acids in breast-fed and formula-fed babies.
PubMed:Effect of intermittent periods of high environmental temperature on broiler performance responses to sources of methionine activity.
PubMed:Responses of laying hens to diets containing up to 2% DL-methionine or equimolar (2.25%) 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid.
PubMed:In vitro metabolism of radiolabeled carbohydrates by protective cecal anaerobic bacteria.
PubMed:Clonal multiplication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through axillary bud culture.
PubMed:Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation.
PubMed:Allyl isothiocyanate is selectively toxic to transformed cells of the human colorectal tumour line HT29.
PubMed:Release of volatile branched-chain and other fatty acids from ruminant milk fats by various lipases.
PubMed:Yield of poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate from various carbon sources: a theoretical study.
PubMed:Pentobarbital-like discriminative stimulus effects of direct GABA agonists in rats.
PubMed:In vitro effects of the thiopeptide A10255 on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations.
PubMed:Influence of dietary fiber and buffer value index on the ruminal milieu of lactating dairy cows.
PubMed:Effects of butyrate on cell cycle progression and polyploidization of various types of mammalian cells.
PubMed:Influence of the method of forage conservation on feeding behaviour, intake and characteristics of reticulo-rumen content, in sheep fed ad libitum.
PubMed:[In vivo study of cecal fermentation activity in the rabbit. Completion and validation of a new technique for cecal cannulation].
PubMed:[In vitro simulation of rabbit cecal fermentation in a semi- continuous flow fermentor. I. Role of food substrate pretreatment].
PubMed:Effect of a dietary fiber (beet fiber) on dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Effects of high erucic acid rapeseed oil on fatty acid oxidation in rat liver.
PubMed:Early changes in the forestomach of rats, mice and hamsters exposed to dietary propionic and butyric acid.
PubMed:Effect of short chain fatty acids on the performance and intestinal weight in germ-free and conventional chicks.
PubMed:Effect of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor fenbufen on muscle and liver protein metabolism, muscle glutamine and plasma insulin in endotoxaemic rats.
PubMed:Microbial aspects of frequent intake of products with high sugar concentrations.
PubMed:[Production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen of calves during dietary-microbial stimulation and early weaning].
PubMed:Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows.
PubMed:Factors affecting growth and lipase production by meat lactobacilli strains and Brochothrix thermosphacta.
PubMed:Induction of conditioned taste aversion in rats by GABA or other amino acids.
PubMed:GABA-related drugs modulate the behavioral effects of lorazepam.
PubMed:Comparison of methods for the determination of butyric acid in food-stuffs by gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.
PubMed:Response of broilers to DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid, DL-methionine, and L-methionine.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic detection of D-(-)-2,3-butanediol and butyric acid produced by sporeformers in cream-style corn and canned beef noodle soup: collaborative study.
PubMed:Effect of additive on alfalfa silage fermentation characteristics and feedlot performance of steers.
PubMed:Effect of monensin on fermentation pattern and soybean protein degradation in the rumen of sheep.
PubMed:Intestinal uptake of hexoses and fatty acids in tumor-bearing rats.
PubMed:Ketone body metabolism during pregnancy in the rabbit.
PubMed:Blood chemistry changes in food-deprived herring gulls.
PubMed:Comparative absorption of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid and L-methionine in the broiler chick.
PubMed:Growth and end-product formation in fermenter cultures of Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509T and two psychrotrophic Lactobacillus spp. in different gaseous atmospheres.
PubMed:Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid contaminated dietary proline as a cause of urinary excretion of 4-amino-2-(S-cysteinyl)butyric acid in patients on oral treatment with a synthetic diet.
PubMed:[Volatile fatty acids in the rumen of sheep fed a synthetic diet].
PubMed:Effect of monensin on total volatile fatty acid production by steers fed a high grain diet.
PubMed:Identification of some OH radical-induced products of lysozyme.
PubMed:A descriptive study of rumen digestion in meroxenic lambs according to the nature and complexity of the microflora.
PubMed:Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep.
PubMed:[Effect of rumen ciliates on the digestion of different carbohydrates in sheep. I.--Utilization of cell wall carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and of starch].
PubMed:[The effect of Rumensin on the metabolic profile of rumen fluid in feedlot cattle].
PubMed:Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies with fenbufen in man.
PubMed:[Effects of prolonged deprivation of caecotrophy behavior in the rabbit].
PubMed:IUPAC gas chromatographic method for determination of fatty acid composition: collaborative study.
PubMed:Volatile fatty acids and aerobic flora in the gastrointestinal tract of mice under various conditions.
PubMed:Intravenous feeding of the rat with short chain fatty acid esters. I. Glycerol monobutyrate.
PubMed:[The effect of nutritional factors on the ruminal mucosa. 3. Condition of the mucosa after infusion of propionic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid].
PubMed:[Variations in the pattern of ruminal volatile free fatty acids, acetoacetate and glucose in the blood plasma of lactating cows after a period of fasting and renewed feeding].
PubMed:Degradation of 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB) by Phytophthora megasperma.
PubMed:[Effects of plant protective agents and pesticides on the processibility of milk with special consideration to microbiological technology].
PubMed:Major fatty acids and proximate composition of dairy products.
PubMed:Metabolism of 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid in soybean and cocklebur.
PubMed:Changes in the mouse intestinal microflora during weaning: role of volatile fatty acids.
PubMed:[Toxicological-hygienic evaluation of the herbicide 2,4-D gamma butyric acid from the point of view of food hygiene].
PubMed:Nutritional value of lipids in Hydrogenomonas eutropha as measured in the rat.
PubMed:[Clostridium of the butyric acid group in dairy products].
 
Notes:
a four carbon acid, ch3ch2ch2cooh, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester. a four carbon acid, ch3ch2ch2cooh, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester. Found in fresh and cooked apples, banana, sour cherry, papaya, strawberries, wheat bread, cheeses, butter and coffee. Flavouring agent Butyric acid (from Greek ???????? = butter), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. Butyric acid is found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, vomit, and body odor and has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). It can be detected by mammals with good scent detection abilities (such as dogs) at 10 ppb, whereas humans can detect it in concentrations above 10 ppm.; Butyric acid is a fatty acid occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and plant oils. The triglyceride of butyric acid makes up 3% to 4% of butter. When butter goes rancid, butyric acid is liberated from the glyceride by hydrolysis leading to the unpleasant odor. It is an important member of the fatty acid sub-group called short chain fatty acids. Butyric acid is a weak acid with a pKa of 4.82, similar to acetic acid which has pKa 4.76. The similar strength of these acids results from their common -CH2COOH terminal structure. Pure butyric acid is 10.9 molar.; Butyric acid, a four-carbon fatty acid, is formed in the human colon by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (including dietary fiber), and putatively suppresses colorectal cancer (CRC). Butyrate has diverse and apparently paradoxical effects on cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation that may be either pro-neoplastic or anti-neoplastic, depending upon factors such as the level of exposure, availability of other metabolic substrate and the intracellular milieu. In humans, the relationship between luminal butyrate exposure and CRC has been examined only indirectly in case-control studies, by measuring fecal butyrate concentrations, although this may not accurately reflect effective butyrate exposure during carcinogenesis. Perhaps not surprisingly, results of these investigations have been mutually contradictory. The direct effect of butyrate on tumorigenesis has been assessed in a no. of in vivo animal models, which have also yielded conflicting results. In part, this may be explained by methodology: differences in the amount and route of butyrate administration, which are likely to significantly influence delivery of butyrate to the distal colon. (PMID: 16460475) Butyric acid is a carboxylic acid found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). Butyric acid is a fatty acid occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and plant oils. Interestingly, low-molecular-weight esters of butyric acid, such as methyl butyrate, have mostly pleasant aromas or tastes. As a consequence, they find use as food and perfume additives. Butyrate is produced as end-product of a fermentation process solely performed by obligate anaerobic bacteria.; The acid is an oily colorless liquid that is easily soluble in water, ethanol, and ether, and can be separated from an aqueous phase by saturation with salts such as calcium chloride. Potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide. The calcium salt, Ca(C4H7O2)2H2O, is less soluble in hot water than in cold.
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