alpha-ionone
 
Notes:
Leaf effects with mhc. new car accord: 0.01 - dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate 0.01 - alpha-ionone 0.05 - heptyl cyclopentanone 0.01 - musk gx 0.05 - aldehyde C-14 0.01 - dihydroisojasmonate
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
(E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one (Click)
CAS Number: 127-41-3Picture of molecule
Other: 30685-95-1
% from: 79.00% to 94.00%
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 204-841-6
FDA UNII:I9V075M61R
Nikkaji Web: J183.660I
Beilstein Number: 3197885
MDL: MFCD00001565
FEMA Number: 2594
CoE Number: 141
XlogP3-AA: 3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 192.30160000
Formula: C13 H20 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Also(can) Contains: beta-ionone 4.00% to 20.00%
 gamma-ionone 1.00% to 8.00%
 pseudoionone 0.10% to 1.00%
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
JECFA Food Flavoring: 388  alpha-ionone
Flavis Number: 07.007 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 07.007  alpha-ionone
FEMA Number: 2594  alpha-ionone
FDA Mainterm: ALPHA-IONONE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 85.00 to 100.00 % sum of isomers
Additional Assay Information: min 95% sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity: 0.92700 to 0.93500 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.714 to  7.780
Specific Gravity: 0.92800 to 0.93600 @  20.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - est.: 7.731 to 7.798
Refractive Index: 1.49900 to 1.50400 @  20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 131.00 °C. @ 13.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 237.00 to  238.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.014000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 7 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.995
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 dipropylene glycol
 fixed oils
 paraffin oil
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 glycerin
Stability:
 acid cleaner
 alcoholic lotion
 antiperspirant
 deo stick
 detergent perborate
 fabric softener
 hard surface cleaner
 liquid detergent
 non-discoloring in most media
 shampoo
 soap
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: floral
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
sweet woody floral violet orris tropical fruity
Substantivity: 112 Hour(s)
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
  R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
R 42/43 - May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  2277 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 44A, Pg. 46, 1967.

Dermal Toxicity:
  Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
  Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Other Specification: <= 2% Pseudoionone
IFRA: View Standard
maximum skin levels for fine fragrances:
  1.0000 %  and are based on the assumption that the fragrance mixture is used at 20% in a consumer product (IFRA Use Level Survey). (IFRA, 2002)
Recommendation for alpha-ionone usage levels up to:
  15.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
use level in formulae for use in cosmetics:
  2.0100 %
Dermal Systemic Exposure in Cosmetic Products:
 0.05 mg/kg/day (IFRA, 2002)
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 270.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 150.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -6.70000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -39.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: -50.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -3.60000
fruit ices: -3.60000
gelatins / puddings: -3.60000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -12.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) reference(s):
The FEMA GRAS assessment of alicyclic substances used as flavor ingredients.View pdf
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 213: alpha,beta-Unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.7 of FGE.19
View page or View pdf
List of apha, beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones representative of FGE.19 substances for Genotoxicity Testing [1] - Statement of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 210: alpha,beta-Unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.4 of FGE.19[1]
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 210 Revision 2 (FGE.210Rev2): Consideration of genotoxic potential for a,▀-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.4 of FGE.19
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones, ketals and esters with ketals containing alicyclic alcohols or ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group 8 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 127-41-3
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 5282108
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany:2
 (E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
Chemidplus: 0000127413
RTECS: EN0525000 for cas# 127-41-3
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
Leffingwell: chirality
 (E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 127-41-3
Pubchem (cid): 5282108
Pubchem (sid): 134974059
Flavornet: 127-41-3
Pherobase: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C12286
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB59883
FooDB: FDB014484
Export Tariff Code: 2914.23.0000
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 atractylis absoluteFR
red currant juice concentrateFL/FR
4-(1-propenyl) pyridine 
 raspberry distillatesFL/FR
(E)-beta-methyl iononeFL/FR
acidic
2-methyl-2-pentenoic acidFL/FR
aldehydic
2,6-dimethyl-2,18-nonadecadien-8-one 
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
animal
 animal carbolactoneFR
 costus valerolactoneFR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 guaiacyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
isopropyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 blackberry infusionsFL/FR
 blueberry infusionsFL/FR
sec-butyl ethyl etherFL/FR
black currant infusionsFL/FR
 raspberry essenceFL/FR
 raspberry infusionsFL/FR
 rubus fruticosus fruit extractFL/FR
caramellic
 maltolFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
citrus
 citrus woody floral fragranceFR
 myrcenyl acetateFL/FR
earthy
(Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid)FL/FR
ethereal
isopropyl formateFL/FR
isovaleraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
floral
 acetal 318FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
para-anisyl butyrateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl formateFL/FR
 blue lagoon fragranceFR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 cassie concreteFR
 cassis specialtyFR
 citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
black currant bud concreteFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
delta-damasconeFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
 dihydro-alpha-iononeFL/FR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dihydrolinaloolFL/FR
2',4'-dimethyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 dimethyl alpha-iononeFR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
2,4-dimethyl cyclohexyl methyl acetateFR
4-dimethyl iononeFR
4,6-dimethyl-alpha-allyl-3-cyclohexene methanol 
2,4-dimethyl-alpha-allyl-3-cyclohexene methanol 
 elder flower wood specialtyFR
 epoxylinalyl acetate 
 ethyl linalyl acetateFR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
isoeugenyl ethyl acetalFR
 floral pyranolFR
 gardenia oxideFR
 geraniolFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetateFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hyacinth etherFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
beta-ionolFL/FR
(E)-beta-iononeFL/FR
 ionone mixed isomersFL/FR
beta-ionyl acetateFL/FR
alpha-ionyl acetateFR
alpha-ironeFL/FR
 lavandula angustifolia flower oilFL/FR
 lavender oil franceFL/FR
 lavender oil greeceFL/FR
 leerallFR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 melaleuca ericifolia leaf oilFR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
beta-isomethyl iononeFL/FR
N-methyl iononeFR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (50% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (60% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (70% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (80% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (90% min.)FL/FR
2-methyl naphthaleneFL/FR
4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl)-1,3-oxathiane 
 mimosa concrete franceFL/FR
 mimosa tenuiflora leaf extractFL/FR
 muguet carboxaldehydeFR
 muguet octadienolFR
 nerolFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
bitter orangeflower concreteFR
 orris butenoneFR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris germanica)FL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute replacerFR
 orris rhizome concrete butter (iris pallida)FL/FR
 orris rhizome resinoid (iris pallida)FL/FR
 peony alcoholFR
 petitgrain cedrat oilFL/FR
 petitgrain oil terpenesFR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rhodinyl butyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 rose concrete (rosa centifolia)FR
 styralyl formateFL/FR
 styralyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydroionolFR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 tobacco flower absoluteFR
 vetiver pentanoneFR
 violet flower absoluteFL/FR
 violet methyl carbonateFR
fruity
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
 artemisia pallens herb oilFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
 blueberry essenceFL/FR
 boysenberry essenceFL/FR
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
 butyl isobutyrateFL/FR
isobutyl isobutyrateFL/FR
2-isobutyl-5-methyl thiazole 
neocaspireneFL/FR
red currant essenceFL/FR
black currant essenceFL/FR
beta-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
1,4-diisopropyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octaneFR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl isobutyrateFR
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
2-ethyl butyl 2-butenoate 
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
 filbert hexenoneFL/FR
 geranyl methyl tiglate 
 green acetateFR
 heptyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl anthranilateFL/FR
beta-ionone epoxideFL/FR
 kiwi specialtyFR
 linalool oxide acetatesFL/FR
 lychee fragranceFR
 maltyl acetateFL/FR
 maltyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl cyclohexyl acetateFR
 octyl propionateFL/FR
 osmanthus flower absoluteFL/FR
 perillyl acetateFL/FR
isopropyl propionateFL/FR
red raspberry essenceFL/FR
black raspberry essenceFL/FR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 raspberry ketone acetateFL/FR
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
 ribes nigrum fruit extractFL/FR
 ribes rubrum fruit extractFL/FR
 sambucus canadensis fruit absoluteFL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 2FL/FR
 strawberry infusionsFL/FR
 tropical iononeFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
green
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
2-ethylidene-6-methyl-cis-3-heptenal 
 galbanum specialtyFR
isogreen methanoindeneFR
 heptanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl heptine carbonate 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isovalerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl methyl carbonateFL/FR
 hexen-1-yl oxypropane nitrileFR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl salicylateFR
 hexyl hexanoateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
1-penten-3-olFL/FR
 phenoxyethyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-oxathiane 
 violet decenolFR
 violet dienyneFR
 violet leaf absoluteFL/FR
 violet leaf concreteFR
 violet nitrileFR
hay
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 barosma betulina leaf oilFL/FR
 calendula officinalis flower oil CO2 extractFR
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 freesia heptanolFL/FR
 immortelle flower oilFL/FR
 marigold pot flower oilFL/FR
(E)-6-methyl-3-hepten-2-oneFL/FR
 viridiflorolFL/FR
melon
 watermelon ketoneFR
mossy
 moss specialtyFR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
musk
 amyris specialtyFR
 ethylene brassylateFL/FR
naphthyl
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
orris
 orris capronateFL/FR
powdery
para-anisyl acetateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 dimethyl iononeFR
alpha-methyl iononeFL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (44-50%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (50-60%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (74-80%)FL/FR
rummy
 rum extractFL/FR
soapy
 ambrettolideFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
isoeugenolFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
white sassafras oilFL/FR
 spicy carbonateFR
 buchu mercaptanFL/FR
 lychee mercaptan acetateFL/FR
(S)-1-methoxy-3-heptane thiolFL/FR
 passiflora acetateFL/FR
S-tropical 2-thiobutyrateFL/FR
4-tropical oxathianeFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 tonka bean absoluteFR
tropical
cis-galbanum oxathianeFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl-3-pentenoateFL/FR
3-nonen-4-olideFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit extractFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit waterFL/FR
 passion fruit fragranceFR
 pina colada fragranceFR
 triflaige AFR
 tropical 3-thiobutyrateFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl myristateFL/FR
 myristyl alcoholFL/FR
 orris rhizome oil CO2 extractFL/FR
woody
 anthocephalus cadamba oilFR
 bois de rose leaf oil brazilFL/FR
 cabreuva wood oilFR
 chloranthus spicatus absoluteFR
 convolvulus scoparius wood oil 
2-decalinyl acetateFR
 diethyl dimethyl-2-cyclohexenoneFR
 dihydro-beta-ionolFL/FR
 dihydro-beta-iononeFL/FR
3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone 
10-epi-gamma-eudesmol 
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 homalomena rubescens root oilFR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
3-methyl pentyl angelateFR
 myrtenyl isobutyrate 
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 sandal octanolFR
 santallFR
 santalyl acetateFL/FR
 tobacarol (IFF)FR
 violet propanolFR
 woody acetateFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 zdravetz absoluteFR
 zdravetz oilFL/FR
yeasty
2-octen-4-oneFL/FR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
sec-butyl ethyl etherFL/FR
2-isobutyl-5-methyl thiazole 
alpha-campholene acetateFL
neocaspireneFL/FR
 convolvulus scoparius wood oil 
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
 dihydro-beta-ionolFL/FR
2',4'-dimethyl acetophenoneFL/FR
2,6-dimethyl-2,18-nonadecadien-8-one 
S-(2,5-dimethyl-3-furyl) ethane thioateFL
 epoxylinalyl acetate 
 ethyl 2-(methyl thio) acetateFL
2-ethyl butyl 2-butenoate 
2-ethylidene-6-methyl-cis-3-heptenal 
10-epi-gamma-eudesmol 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl heptine carbonate 
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl methyl carbonateFL/FR
beta-ionone epoxideFL/FR
 ionone mixed isomersFL/FR
(Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid)FL/FR
 linalool oxide acetatesFL/FR
 marigold pot flower oilFL/FR
 methyl 2-(methyl thio) acetateFL
(E)-beta-methyl iononeFL/FR
beta-isomethyl iononeFL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (44-50%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (50-60%)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (50% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (60% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (90% min.)FL/FR
4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl)-1,3-oxathiane 
(E)-6-methyl-3-hepten-2-oneFL/FR
 myristyl alcoholFL/FR
 myrtenyl isobutyrate 
3-nonen-4-olideFL/FR
 osmanthus flower absoluteFL/FR
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
S-prenyl thioisobutyrateFL
S-prenyl thioisovalerateFL
isopropyl cinnamateFL/FR
 rhodinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
white sassafras oilFL/FR
 sorbyl propionateFL
 styralyl formateFL/FR
 styralyl isobutyrateFL/FR
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-oxathiane 
S-tropical 2-thiobutyrateFL/FR
 viridiflorolFL/FR
 zdravetz oilFL/FR
 acai fruit juice concentrateFL
 allyl thiohexanoateFL
beta-damasconeFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl-3-pentenoateFL/FR
aldehydic
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
aromatic
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetateFL/FR
balsamic
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 acai fruit concentrateFL
 blackberry flavorFL
 blackberry infusionsFL/FR
 blueberry enhancerFL
 blueberry essenceFL/FR
 blueberry flavorFL
 blueberry infusionsFL/FR
 blueberry juice concentrateFL
 blueberry pureeFL
 blueberry puree concentrateFL
 boysenberry flavorFL
red currant flavorFL
black currant flavorFL
black currant infusionsFL/FR
black currant juice concentrateFL
red currant juice concentrateFL/FR
 dihydro-alpha-iononeFL/FR
 gooseberry flavorFL
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 huckleberry flavorFL
 maltyl acetateFL/FR
 maltyl butyrateFL/FR
(S)-1-methoxy-3-heptane thiolFL/FR
 mulberry flavorFL
 perillyl acetateFL/FR
 prunus spinosa extractFL
 raspberry distillatesFL/FR
 raspberry enhancerFL
 raspberry essenceFL/FR
black raspberry flavorFL
red raspberry flavorFL
 raspberry flavorFL
 raspberry flavor for chocolateFL
 raspberry infusionsFL/FR
 raspberry ketone acetateFL/FR
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
 rubus fruticosus fruit extractFL/FR
 rubus fruticosus fruit juiceFL
 rubus idaeus fruit extractFL
brown
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
caramellic
 maltolFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
cheesy
 methyl ketonesFL
citrus
 freesia heptanolFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 myrcenyl acetateFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
 petitgrain cedrat oilFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
creamy
 triacetinFL
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
cucumber
2-ethyl octine carbonateFL
estery
 octyl propionateFL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
floral
 bois de rose leaf oil brazilFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dihydrolinaloolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
4,6-dimethyl-alpha-allyl-3-cyclohexene methanol 
2,4-dimethyl-alpha-allyl-3-cyclohexene methanol 
 geraniolFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl anthranilateFL/FR
beta-ionolFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (70% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (80% min.)FL/FR
 mimosa concrete franceFL/FR
 mimosa tenuiflora leaf extractFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris rhizome concrete butter (iris pallida)FL/FR
 orris rhizome resinoid (iris pallida)FL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rhodinyl butyrateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 tropical iononeFL/FR
 violet flower absoluteFL/FR
fruity
 acai flavorFL
 acai fruit distillatesFL
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
para-anisyl acetateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 artemisia pallens herb oilFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl formateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
 boysenberry essenceFL/FR
 boysenberry pureeFL
 boysenberry puree concentrateFL
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
isobutyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 butyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
black currant bud concreteFL/FR
black currant essenceFL/FR
red currant essenceFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoateFL
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
 filbert hexenoneFL/FR
 geranyl methyl tiglate 
 hexyl hexanoateFL/FR
 lingonberry flavorFL
3-mercaptohexyl hexanoateFL
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (74-80%)FL/FR
 passion fruit distillatesFL
 pomegranate distillatesFL
isopropyl formateFL/FR
isopropyl propionateFL/FR
red raspberry distillatesFL
black raspberry essenceFL/FR
red raspberry essenceFL/FR
black raspberry juice concentrateFL
red raspberry juice concentrateFL
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
red raspberry pureeFL
black raspberry pureeFL
red raspberry puree concentrateFL
black raspberry puree concentrateFL
 ribes nigrum fruit extractFL/FR
 ribes rubrum fruit extractFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 sambucus canadensis fruit absoluteFL/FR
ripe strawberry flavorFL
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 2FL/FR
 strawberry infusionsFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
4-tropical oxathianeFL/FR
isovaleraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
green
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
cis-galbanum oxathianeFL/FR
 heptanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isovalerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
 methyl 2-undecynoateFL
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
1-penten-3-olFL/FR
 phenoxyethyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
4-(1-propenyl) pyridine 
 violet leaf absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 barosma betulina leaf oilFL/FR
 buchu oil fractionsFL
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 immortelle flower oilFL/FR
 lavandula angustifolia flower oilFL/FR
 lavender oil franceFL/FR
 lavender oil greeceFL/FR
 orris capronateFL/FR
honey
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
juicy
 lychee mercaptan acetateFL/FR
musk
 ethylene brassylateFL/FR
musty
para-anisyl butyrateFL/FR
oily
2-methyl naphthaleneFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl propionateFL
phenolic
 guaiacyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
powdery
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
rummy
 rum extractFL/FR
soapy
 ambrettolideFL/FR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
sour
2-methyl-2-pentenoic acidFL/FR
spicy
 benzylidene acetoneFL
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
isoeugenolFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
sulfurous
 buchu mercaptanFL/FR
 methyl 2-(methyl thio) butyrateFL
 methyl thiomethyl butyrateFL
 tropical 3-thiobutyrateFL/FR
sweet
 orris rhizome absolute (iris germanica)FL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 anacardium occidentale fruit pureeFL
 heptyl butyrateFL/FR
3-mercaptohexyl butyrateFL
 passiflora acetateFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit extractFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit waterFL/FR
vegetable
2-octen-4-oneFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
 ethyl myristateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
alpha-methyl iononeFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
woody
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
delta-damasconeFL/FR
 dihydro-beta-iononeFL/FR
3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone 
(E)-beta-iononeFL/FR
beta-ionyl acetateFL/FR
alpha-ironeFL/FR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 orris rhizome oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 santalyl acetateFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 abroniaFR
 acacia cassie farnesianaFR
 aimant 
 almondFR
 amberFR
 ambrene 
 angel 
 apple blossomFR
 apricotFR
 azaleaFR
 balsamFR
 bananaFR
 bergamotFR
 berryFR
 blackberryFR
 blueberryFR
 boroniaFR
 cassis black currant budFL/FR
 cedarFR
 chanel #5 
 cherryFR
 cherry blackFR
 cherry blossomFR
 christmas blendsFR
 citrusFR
 crabapple blossomFR
 currantFR
 emeraude 
 fir 
 fixer 
 floralFR
 florida breeze 
 gardeniaFR
 genet genista broomFR
 grapeFR
 hibiscusFR
 honey mielFR
 hugonia 
 hyacinth jacintheFR
 jasminFR
 l'heure bleue 
 l'origan 
 leaf 
 lemonFR
 lilyFR
 linden blossom limeflower tilleulFR
 loganberry dewberryFR
 lotusFR
 meadow countryFR
 muguet lily of the valleyFR
 mulberryFR
 muskFR
 opoponaxFL/FR
 orientalFR
 orris irisFR
 papayaFR
 paris 
 passion fruitFR
 pineFR
 plumFR
 poppy redFR
 powderFR
 raspberryFR
 roseFR
 rose redFR
 rose tea roseFR
 rose whiteFR
 sandalwoodFR
 scandal 
 strawberryFR
 sweet peaFR
 tabu 
 tide 
 tropicalFL
 tuberoseFR
 valerianFL/FR
 violetFR
 wallflowerFR
 woodyFR
 ylang ylangFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 acacia sweet acacia
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 almond roasted almond
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 blackberry fruit
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 brandy grape brandy
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 carrot
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 champaca concrete @ 0.03%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 currant black currant fruit
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 plum fruit
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 plumcot fruit
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rum
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 sphaeranthus indicus
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 tea
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 tobacco burley tobacco
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 whiskey
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 wine
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 alphaline 70
3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-, (3E)-
(E)-alpha-cyclocitrylidene acetone
trans-alpha-cyclocitrylidene acetone
 ionanthem
(±)-(E)-alpha-ionone
(±)-trans-alpha-ionone
(E)-a-ionone
(E)-alpha-ionone
a-ionone
nat.alpha-ionone
trans-alpha-ionone
alpha-ionone (natural)
alpha-ionone 50% in ETOH natural
alpha-ionone 60
alpha-ionone 70
alpha-ionone 80
alpha-ionone 90
alpha-ionone 90%, (naturals)
 ionone alpha
 ionone alpha regular
 ionone alpha white coeur
alpha-ionone BRI
alpha-ionone extra
alpha-ionone natural
alpha-ionone refined
alpha-ionone white coeur
alpha-ionone, natural
alpha-ionone, refined
alpha-ionone, regular
 irisone alpha
 irisone alpha extra white
(E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
(E)-(±)-4,2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl-3-buten-2-one
trans-4,2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl-3-buten-2-one
(3E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
(E)-(±)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
(E)-(1)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
(E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
(3E)-(±)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-4-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
(3E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl)but-3-en-2-one
(3E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.
J-Stage: Highly Selective and Asymmetric Reductive Biotransformation of a-Ionone by Epicoccum purpurascens
PubMed: Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene.
J-Stage: Antifungal Compounds from the Root and Root Exudate of Zea mays
PubMed: Selective oxidation reactions of natural compounds with hydrogen peroxide mediated by methyltrioxorhenium.
PubMed: Evaluation of the volatile composition and sensory properties of five species of microalgae.
PubMed: Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family.
PubMed: NIS-PPh3: a selective reagent for the spiroannulation of o-allyl phenols. Total synthesis of corallidictyal D.
PubMed: Isolation of the four methyl jasmonate stereoisomers and their effects on selected chiral volatile compounds in red raspberries.
PubMed: Highly selective and asymmetric reductive biotransformation of ╬▒-ionone by Epicoccum purpurascens.
PubMed: Essential oils from the leaves of six medicinal plants of Nigeria.
PubMed: [Influence of processing methods on the chemical composition of the essential oil from Aucklandia lappa].
PubMed: Essential oil composition of Ficus benjamina (Moraceae) and Irvingia barteri (Irvingiaceae).
PubMed: A practical, enantiospecific synthesis of (S)-trans-gamma-monocyclofarnesol.
PubMed: Profiling and characterization of volatile components from non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with chemical group separation.
PubMed: Antitrypanosomal compounds from the essential oil and extracts of Keetia leucantha leaves with inhibitor activity on Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
PubMed: Quantification by solid phase micro extraction and stable isotope dilution assay of norisoprenoid compounds in red wines obtained from Piedmont rare varieties.
PubMed: Environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry flavour volatiles and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes.
PubMed: Free energy calculations give insight into the stereoselective hydroxylation of ╬▒-ionones by engineered cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants.
PubMed: A Practical Chemo-enzymatic Approach to Highly Enantio-Enriched 10-Ethyl-7,8-dihydro-╬│-ionone Isomers: A Method for the Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydro-╬▒-Ionone.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of ╬▒- and ╬▓-ionone, prominent scent compounds, in flowers of Osmanthus fragrans.
PubMed: CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.
PubMed: Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.
PubMed: Structural Analysis of CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444.
PubMed: Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and ╬▓-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase.
PubMed: Allelopathic control of cyanobacterial blooms by periphyton biofilms.
PubMed: Composition of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) honey solvent extractives determined by GC/MS: norisoprenoids and other volatile organic compounds.
PubMed: Regioselective hydroxylation of norisoprenoids by CYP109D1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.
PubMed: Functional characterization of a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 and its relation to the carotenoid accumulation and volatile emission during the floral development of Osmanthus fragrans Lour.
PubMed: A new sulfated alpha-ionone glycoside from Sonchus erzincanicus Matthews.
PubMed: Characterization of the versatile monooxygenase CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed: Expedient construction of the Ziegler intermediate useful for the synthesis of forskolin via consecutive rearrangements.
PubMed: New attractants for males of the solanaceous fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons.
PubMed: Enantioselective synthesis and olfactory evaluation of 13-alkyl-substituted alpha-ionones.
PubMed: Comparison of sugar, acids, and volatile composition in raspberry bushy dwarf virus-resistant transgenic raspberries and the wild type 'meeker' (rubus idaeus L.).
PubMed: Volatile composition in raspberry cultivars grown in the Pacific Northwest determined by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: New alpha-pyrrolidinonoids and glycosides from Euphorbia humifusa.
PubMed: Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis part-VIII: synthesis and bioevaluation of novel chalcones.
PubMed: Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on allyl alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on dihydro-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on methyl-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Synthesis of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl -2-cyclohexen-1-yl) -3'-buten-2'-ketoxime-N-O-alkyl ethers.
PubMed: Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L.): the role of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway.
PubMed: Flavor authentication studies of alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, and alpha-ionol from various sources.
PubMed: Studies on the aroma of mat├ę (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) using headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed: Effect of the minor ABA metabolite 7'-hydroxy-ABA on Arabidopsis ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A3.
PubMed: Broad activation of the glomerular layer enhances subsequent olfactory responses.
PubMed: Isolation and identification of antialgal compounds from the leaves of Vallisneria spiralis L. by activity-guided fractionation.
PubMed: Functional characterization of CmCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from melon.
PubMed: Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Theory and use of the pseudophase model in gas-liquid chromatographic enantiomeric separations.
PubMed: Efficient terpene hydroxylation catalysts based upon P450 enzymes derived from actinomycetes.
PubMed: [Analysis and identification of Liriomyza sativae-attractants from cowpea and kidney bean volatiles].
PubMed: Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.
PubMed: Comprehensive authentication of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone from raspberries, using constant flow MDGC-C/P-IRMS and enantio-MDGC-MS.
PubMed: Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.
PubMed: A simple and efficient highly enantioselective synthesis of alpha-ionone and alpha-damascone.
PubMed: Active ingredients in cade oil that synergize attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).
PubMed: Enantioselective synthesis of alpha-ionone derivatives using an anti S(N)2' substitution of functionalized zinc organometallics.
PubMed: Antifungal compounds from the root and root exudate of Zea mays.
PubMed: Approaches to spirit aroma: contribution of some aromatic compounds to the primary aroma in samples of orujo spirits.
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of miscellaneous secondary metabolites of Deprea subtriflora.
PubMed: Investigation of binding behavior of alpha- and beta-ionones to beta-lactoglobulin at different pH values using a diffusion-based NOE pumping technique.
PubMed: Enantiomer separation of flavour and fragrance compounds by liquid chromatography using novel urea-covalent bonded methylated beta-cyclodextrins on silica.
PubMed: Induction of cytochrome P450 1A and 2B by alpha- and beta-ionone in Sprague Dawley rats.
PubMed: A P450 BM-3 mutant hydroxylates alkanes, cycloalkanes, arenes and heteroarenes.
PubMed: Enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) by addition of a synergist, cade oil.
PubMed: Determination of apparent binding constants for aroma compounds with beta-lactoglobulin by dynamic coupled column liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Development of an attractant for the scarab pest Macrodactylus subspinosus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).
PubMed: Frozen storage effects on anthocyanins and volatile compounds of raspberry fruit.
PubMed: Enantiomer separation of alpha-ionone using gas chromatography with cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.
PubMed: 2-fluoroabscisic acid analogues: their synthesis and biological activities.
PubMed: Stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation of alpha-ionone by Streptomyces strains.
PubMed: Effect of Carotenoids on Aflatoxin B(1) Synthesis by Aspergillus flavus.
PubMed: Biotransformation of alpha- and beta-ionones by immobilized cells of Nicotiana tabacum.
PubMed: Sensory evidence for olfactory receptors with opposite chiral selectivity.
PubMed: Microbial Conversion of alpha-Ionone, alpha-Methylionone, and alpha-Isomethylionone.
PubMed: Models of retinoid metabolism: microbial biotransformation of alpha-ionone and beta-ionone.
PubMed: Incorporation of (14)CO 2 in photosynthetic pigments of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.
PubMed: Chemistry of tobacco constituents. Oxidation of alpha-ionone and the acid-catalyzed rearrangement of 5-keto-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Comparison of the effects of vitamin A and its analogs upon rabbit ear cartilage in organ culture and upon growth of the vitamin A-deficient rat.
PubMed: The biosynthesis of cyclic carotenes.
PubMed: Geometrical isomers of retinene.
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