EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

bergamot oil italy
volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, italy

Supplier Sponsors

Name:citrus × bergamia peel oil
CAS Number: 8007-75-8
ECHA EC Number:296-429-8
CoE Number:137
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
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PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FEMA Number:2153 bergamot oil italy
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: BERGAMOT, OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM L. SUBSP. BERGAMIA WRIGHT ET ARN.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:golden yellow amber clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.87600 to 0.88400 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.289 to 7.356
Refractive Index:1.46400 to 1.46600 @ 20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:+8.00 to +24.00
Flash Point: 108.00 °F. TCC ( 42.22 °C. )
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 20.12 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
citrus woody orange orange peel
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. citrus woody orange linalyl acetate
Flavor Type: citrus
citrus bergamot
Taste Description: citrus bergamot
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Albert Vieille SAS
Bergamot Essential oil Italy
Odor: citrusy, agrestic, reminiscent of lavender
Use: Bergamot is a citrus fruit known for its essential oil, which is contained in the oil-bearing pockets in the peel of the pericarp. This refreshing, zesty fragrance is an ingredient in the famous Eau de Cologne, along with neroli and lavender. Bergamot is a small green-yellow fruit with a sour, bitter pulp. Unlike other citrus fruits, it is grown only for its essential oil. The Italian regions of Calabria and Sicily are the largest producers, followed by Côte d’Ivoire. When in bloom, the bergamot, a small tree reaching four meters in height, is covered with a multitude of fragrant, white flowers. The fruits ripen between December and March. Bergamot essential oil is cold-pressed from the pericarp of the ripe fruit and has a citrusy, agrestic fragrance. Its floral facet, characteristic of the Italian origins, is reminiscent of lavender.
Harvest Calendar
Artiste
Bergamot Oil Italian
Azelis UK
Organic Bergamot Oil Italy
Services
BMV Fragrances
Bergamot Oil Cold Pressed Italian - 100% Pure & Natural
CITROFLOR
Bergamot Oil Calabria
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Bergamot Italian FCC
Market Report
Diffusions Aromatiques
BERGAMOTE ITALIE HE FCF ITALIE (WW)
Diffusions Aromatiques
BERGAMOTE ITALIE HE WW Voir BHEDI
Diffusions Aromatiques
BERGAMOTE ITALIE HUILE ESSENTIELLE BIO
Elixens America
Bergamot Oil Italy
Certified Organic
Ernesto Ventós
BERGAMOT OIL, ITALY
Excellentia International
Bergamot Oil Cold-Pressed Italian
Indukern F&F
BERGAMOT OIL BIO ITALY
Odor: FRESH, CITRUS, BERGAMOT
Indukern F&F
BERGAMOT OIL ITALY
Indukern F&F
BERGAMOTE OIL ITALY
Odor: CITRUS, ORANGE, BITTER, AGRESTIC
Kanta Enterprises
Bergamote Italy Oil
Liberty Natural Products
BERGAMOT ITALY
Liberty Natural Products
BERGAMOT RECTIFIED 38/40% ITALY
Lluch Essence
BERGAMOTE ITALY OIL
Moellhausen
BERGAMOT EO CALABRIA
Odor: fresh, citrus, green, cologne note
Flavor: citrus, fresh
Payand Betrand
Bergamot Oil Italy, Organic
Payand Betrand
Bergamot Oil Italy
PCW France
Bergamote brute HE (Italie)
Steps to a fragranced product
R C Treatt & Co Ltd
Bergamot Oil Italian
Sigma-Aldrich
Bergamot oil, Italy origin
Certified Food Grade Products
The Lebermuth Company
Bergamot Italian Oil
Odor: Fresh, fruity sweet citrus notes with slightly spicy balsamic undertones
The Lermond Company
Bergamot Oil, Italy P&N - AV
The Perfumers Apprentice
Bergamot (Reggio Italy) J.Steele
Ultra International
Bergamot Oil Italian
Crop Calendar
Ungerer & Company
Bergamot Oil Italian
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 11520 mg/kg
Pharmazie. Vol. 14, Pg. 435, 1959.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Phototoxicity
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Where the bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) content of all relevant oils present in a compound has been determined, it is recommended that for applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, the total level of bergapten in the consumer products should not exceed 0.0015% (15 ppm). This is equivalent to 0.0075% (75 ppm) in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product. Where the level of bergapten has not been determined by appropriate methods, the limits specified in the guidelines on individual oils should apply. In those cases, where such oils are used in combination with other phototoxic ingredients, the additive effect has to be taken into consideration and the use levels have to be reduced accordingly. The sum of the concentrations of all phototoxic fragrance ingredients, expressed in % of their recommended maximum level in the consumer product, shall not exceed 100.
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.4000 % Restriction.
Recommendation for bergamot oil italy usage levels up to:
  4.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -29.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -8.90000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -43.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 1.00000130.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -7.90000
fruit ices: -7.90000
gelatins / puddings: 5.3000090.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -27.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8007-75-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 1993
citrus × bergamia peel oil
Chemidplus:0008007758
RTECS:DS0500000 for cas# 8007-75-8
 
References:
 citrus × bergamia peel oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8007-75-8
Pubchem (sid):135289949
 
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.11.0000
Wikipedia:View
FAO:BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
muguet undecadienal
FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
amber
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
balsamic
abies alba cone oil
FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
cinnamyl formate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot acetoacetate
FR
bergamot fragrance
FR
bergamot oil
FL/FR
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
bergamot oil decolorized
FL/FR
bergamot oil folded
FL/FR
bergamot oil ivory coast
FL/FR
bergamot oil replacer
FR
bergamot oil terpeneless
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpeneless replacer
FL/FR
bergamot oil turkey
FL/FR
bergamot specialty
FR
citral
FL/FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral ethylene glycol acetal
FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
citronellal oxime
FR
citrus ocimenol
FR
citrus woody floral fragrance
FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenyl acetate
FR
dodecane nitrile
FR
grapefruit pentanol
FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
(Z)-
linalool oxide (pyranoid)
FL/FR
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
alpha-
methylene citronellal
FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
neroli ketone
FR
nonanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
orange nitrile
FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
bitter
orange peel oil terpeneless
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
earthy
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
2-
decenal
FL/FR
floral
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
alpha-
butyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
cassie absolute
FL/FR
cilantro herb oil egypt
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
(S)-
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
citrus bergamia risso leaf oil
FR
clary propionate
FR
coranol (Firmenich)
FR
coriander oil fractions
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cumin carbinol
FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dihydrocitronellyl ethyl ether
FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
6,8-
dimethyl-2-nonanol
FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
ethyl linalool
FR
ethyl linalyl acetal
FR
ethyl linalyl acetate
FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
floral butanal
FR
floral pyranol
FR
gardenia amide
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
geranyl propionate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
ho wood oil
FR
jasmin cyclopentanol
FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
jonquil absolute
FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
linalyl benzoate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
beta-
ocimene
FL/FR
orange leaf absolute
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil (citrus bergamia melarosa)
FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propionaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal
FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
sweet pea absolute
FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalyl acetate
FR
verdyl acetate
FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
bisabolene
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
linalyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
methyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
nerolidyl isobutyrate
FR
ocimen-1-yl acetate
FR
green
galbanum oil
FL/FR
green carboxylate
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
ivy dioxolane
FR
laevo-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
dextro-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
octanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
perilla alcohol
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl propionate
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
herbal
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
bergamot mint herb oil
FR
camphene carbinyl acetate
FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
cardamom liquid resin
FR
clary octenone
FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
dihydroterpinyl acetate
FL/FR
freesia heptanol
FL/FR
geranic oxide
FL/FR
guava leaf oil cuba
FR
cis-
herbal cyclohexane
FR
hop oil
FL/FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl formate
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
nopyl acetate
FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
petitgrain heptane
FR
terpineol acetate
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
melon
melon heptenal
FL/FR
watermelon ketone
FR
pine
pine oil 85
FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
spicy
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
ginger root oil china
FL/FR
gingergrass oil
FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
terpenic
para-
cymene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
coumarin
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
waxy
decanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
woody
6,7-
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dragons blood fragrance
FR
(E)-beta-
farnesene
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene isomer
FL/FR
iso
longifolene epoxide
FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
santall
FR
woody acetate
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
decanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
6,7-
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dihydroterpinyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
(E)-beta-
farnesene
FL/FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
(Z)-
linalool oxide (pyranoid)
FL/FR
laevo-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
dextro-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl formate
FL/FR
methyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
terpineol acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
alpha-
butyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
camphoreous
geranic oxide
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot flavor
FL
bergamot oil
FL/FR
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
bergamot oil decolorized
FL/FR
bergamot oil folded
FL/FR
bergamot oil ivory coast
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpeneless
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpeneless replacer
FL/FR
bergamot oil turkey
FL/FR
bergamot orange lime flavor
FL
bisabolene
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
freesia heptanol
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
bitter
orange peel oil terpeneless
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
creamy
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
fatty
2-
decenal
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
(S)-
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
linalyl benzoate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
orange leaf absolute
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene isomer
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
melon heptenal
FL/FR
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL
nonanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
beta-
ocimene
FL/FR
octanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl propionate
FL/FR
herbal
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
cilantro herb oil egypt
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander oil fractions
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
hop oil
FL/FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
medicinal
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
spicy
cassie absolute
FL/FR
cinnamyl formate
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
ginger root oil china
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
terpenic
para-
cymene
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
waxy
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
geranyl propionate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
woody
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
perilla alcohol
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRabronia
FRacacia
FRagate
FRamber
FRambrene
FRbalsam
FRbergamot
FRblue grass
FRbouquet
FRcedrat
FRchypre
FRcinnamon
FRcitrus
FRclover
FRcologne
FRcolonia
FRdillenia
FRelder flower
FRfern
FRfetes
FRfloral
 florida breeze
 florida soap
FRforest
FRfreesia
FRgardenia
FRgenet
FRjasmin
FRjuniper berry
FRlavender
FRleather
FRlemon
FRlily of the valley
 millefleurs
FRmimosa
FRneroli
FRopoponax
FRorange blossom
FRoriental
FRpatchouli
FRpear
FRreseda
FRrose white rose
FRsandalwood
FRspring rain
FRsweet pea
FRviolet
FRwallflower
 windsor soap
FRwisteria
FRwoody
FRylang ylang
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 bergamot fruit
Search Trop Picture
 citrus aurantium l. var. bergamia
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 bergamot EO calabria
 bergamot italian rectified, type WONF
 bergamot oil bio italy
 bergamot oil cold pressed italian
 bergamot oil italian
 bergamot oil italian FCC
 bergamot oil italy
 bergamot oil italy, calabria organic
 bergamot oil italy, organic
 bergamot oil, italy
 bergamote ess BM 01
 bergamote italia EO
 bergamote oil italy
 citrus aurantium bergamia peel oil italy
 citrus aurantium var. bergamia peel oil italy
 citrus bergamia peel oil italy
 citrus x bergamia peel oil italy
 oil bergamot italian FCC
 volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, italy
 

Articles:

PubMed:Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) Flavonoids and Their Potential Benefits in Human Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis: an Overview.
PubMed:The essential oil of Citrus bergamia Risso induces vasorelaxation of the mouse aorta by activating K(+) channels and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx.
PubMed:In vitro effect of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) juice against cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed:Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females.
PubMed:Effect of Citrus bergamia juice on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in metastatic xenograft models.
PubMed:Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap TOF-MS for the fast characterization of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed:Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia Risso Elevates Intracellular Ca (2+) in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells due to Release of Ca (2+) from Primary Intracellular Stores.
PubMed:In vitro activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) oil against clinical isolates of dermatophytes.
PubMed:Protective effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia against inflammatory injury in interferon-γ and histamine exposed human keratinocytes.
PubMed:In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Citrus bergamia essential oil and its major components.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.
PubMed:Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.
PubMed:Antiviral activity of seed extract from Citrus bergamia towards human retroviruses.
PubMed:Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.
PubMed:Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.
PubMed:In vitro photo-induced cytotoxic activity of Citrus bergamia and C. medica L. cv. Diamante peel essential oils and identified active coumarins.
PubMed:Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed:Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.
PubMed:Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.
PubMed:Bergamot essential oil differentially modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: a new finding seen with fura-2.
PubMed:Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.
PubMed:[Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].
PubMed:Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.
PubMed:Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.
PubMed:Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.
PubMed:High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.
PubMed:[Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].
PubMed:Evaluation of phototoxic and photogenotoxic risk associated with the use of photosensitizers in suntan preparations: application to tanning preparations containing bergamot oil.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Pectin methylesterase in Citrus bergamia R.: purification, biochemical characterisation and sequence of the exon related to the enzyme active site.
PubMed:Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.
PubMed:The photochemistry and photobiology of bergamot oil as a perfume ingredient: an overview.
PubMed:Local sensitization of the skin to Grenz rays by bergamot oil.
PubMed:The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation.
PubMed:Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.
PubMed:Toxic profile of bergamot essential oil on survival and proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Hypolipidemic effects of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau juice in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
PubMed:Distribution of flavonoids and furocoumarins in juices from cultivars of Citrus bergamia Risso.
PubMed:Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.
PubMed:A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. II. Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives.
PubMed:Study of the extraction procedure by experimental design and validation of a LC method for determination of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed:[Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].
PubMed:Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth.
PubMed:Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.
PubMed:[Chemical composition of the endocarpus of the fruit of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso)].
PubMed:[The zinc oxide and bergamot oil gingival dressing and rationale of its preparation].
PubMed:[EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GINGIVAL DRESSING WITH BERGAMOT OIL].
PubMed:Evaluation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins from Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) juice and identification of new compounds.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.
PubMed:Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.
PubMed:Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).
PubMed:Rodenticidal activity of two natural coumarines from ether extract of Citrus bergamia.
PubMed:[Accidents due to tanning cosmetics with a base of bergamot oil].
PubMed:[Simplified method of preparation of the zinc oxide-bergamot oil gingival dressing].
PubMed:The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of bergamot juice extract (BJe) in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed:Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.
PubMed:In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.
PubMed:A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.
PubMed:TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE MODULATION BY BERGAMOT POLYPHENOLIC FRACTION IN EXPERIMENTAL PHOTOAGEING IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.
PubMed:Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.
PubMed:Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils.
PubMed:The use of aromasticks at a cancer centre: a retrospective audit.
PubMed:The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis.
PubMed:Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.
PubMed:Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
PubMed:Magnetically recoverable, thermostable, hydrophobic DNA/silica encapsulates and their application as invisible oil tags.
PubMed:Role of D-Limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.
PubMed:The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.
PubMed:Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.
PubMed:The mechanism of action of a citrus oil blend against Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.
PubMed:Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.
PubMed:Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.
PubMed:Occurrence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) in Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:[Analysis of 14 elements for Jinhua bergamot by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and elemental analyser].
PubMed:Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro.
PubMed:The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems.
PubMed:Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.
PubMed:Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils.
PubMed:Update of the toxicological assessment of furanocoumarins in foodstuffs (Update of the SKLM statement of 23/24 September 2004)--Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
PubMed:Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.
PubMed:UVB phototherapeutic modalities. Comparison of two treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.
PubMed:Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.
PubMed:Effects of music and essential oil inhalation on cardiac autonomic balance in healthy individuals.
PubMed:[Not Available].
PubMed:In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
PubMed:New asymmetrical per-substituted cyclodextrins (2-O-methyl-3-O-ethyl- and 2-O-ethyl-3-O-methyl-6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-derivatives) as chiral selectors for enantioselective gas chromatography in the flavour and fragrance field.
PubMed:[Purely natural: phototoxic dermatitis].
PubMed:Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.
PubMed:In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates.
PubMed:Inhibition of bergaptene toxicity by UV-A filters.
PubMed:Determination of 5-methoxypsoralen in human serum.
PubMed:[The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents].
PubMed:In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.
PubMed:Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.
PubMed:Further insights into the floral character of Touriga Nacional wines.
PubMed:Phytophotodermatitis.
PubMed:The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.
PubMed:Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed:Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.
PubMed:Dangers of the intake of psoralens and subsequent UV exposure producing significant burns.
PubMed:Quantitative assessment of epidermal melanogenesis in C3H/Tif hr/hr mice treated with topical furocoumarins and UVA radiation.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of citropten and bergapten in suction blister fluid after solar product application in humans.
PubMed:[Vitamin content of bergamot].
PubMed:Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.
PubMed:Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).
PubMed:Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.
PubMed:[Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].
PubMed:Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances.
PubMed:[The effects of the inhalation method using essential oils on blood pressure and stress responses of clients with essential hypertension].
PubMed:The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons.
PubMed:High-throughput analysis of bergamot essential oil by fast solid-phase microextraction-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.
PubMed:Determination of some heavy metals and selenium in Sicilian and Calabrian citrus essential oils using derivative stripping chronopotentiometry.
PubMed:Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).
PubMed:Earl Grey, in excess.
PubMed:Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.
PubMed:How big is a drop? A volumetric assay of essential oils.
PubMed:Photoreactivity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and lack of photoreaction with DNA.
PubMed:Citropten and bergapten suction blister fluid concentrations after solar product application in man.
PubMed:A quantitative in vitro assay for the evaluation of phototoxic potential of topically applied materials.
 
Notes:
This oil should not be used anywhere on the body because of its phototoxic effects. from citrus bergamia; used in perfume; some of its constituents contribute to its photosensitization. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. citrus bergamia, citrus.
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