EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

coumarin
1-benzopyran-2-one

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:chromen-2-one
CAS Number: 91-64-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:202-086-7
FDA UNII:A4VZ22K1WT
Nikkaji Web:J3.218B
Beilstein Number:0383644
MDL:MFCD00006850
XlogP3:1.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:146.14522000
Formula:C9 H6 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FDA Mainterm: COUMARIN--PROHIBITED
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 189 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD
Subpart C--Substances Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food
Sec. 189.130 Coumarin.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystals (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 68.00 to 74.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 297.00 to 301.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 161.00 to 162.00 °C. @ 14.00 mm Hg
Congealing Point:68.00 °C.
Vapor Pressure:0.100000 mm/Hg @ 20.00 °C.
Vapor Density:5.1 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point:> 200.00 °F. TCC ( > 93.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.390
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 kerosene
 paraffin oil
 water, 1900 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 isopropyl myristate
Stability:
 non-discoloring
Similar Items:note
6-amyl-alpha-pyrone
4,6-dimethyl-alpha-pyrone
(±)-dihydromint lactone
tonka ketone
tonka furanone
gamma-hexalactone
tonkavert
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: tonka
Odor Strength:medium ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:364 hour(s) at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol
sweet hay tonka hay new mown hay coumarinic
Odor Description:at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. sweet hay tonka new mown hay
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
Odor sample from: Givaudan Corporation
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Moellhausen
COUMARINE
Odor Description:sweet, stinging, coconut note
Pell Wall Perfumes
Coumarin
Odor Description:Sweet, hay, tonka, new-mown-hay
Arctander describes it as “Sweet, herbaceous-warm, somewhat spicy odor, in extreme dilution more haylike, nut- Iike, tobacco-like… Extensively used in perfumery to support herbaccous odors, Lavender, Lavandin, Rosemary, Citrus oils, Oakmoss, etc., and as a fixative in numerous types of fragrances; Almost a standard ingredient in Fougère types with Amylsalicylate and Lavender-notes, with or without Oakmoss.”
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
A.C.S. International
Coumarine ( ex China )
Operational Capabilities
A.C.S. International
Coumarine
Odor: sweet hay tonka
Aceto
Coumarin
Anhui Haibei
Coumarin
Augustus Oils
Coumarin
Services
Aurochemicals
COUMARIN, Natural
Berjé
Coumarin
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Coumarin >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Coumarin is an edema modifier, known to stimulate macrophages to degrade extracellular albumin, allowing faster resorption of edematous fluids.
CG Herbals
Coumarian
Charkit Chemical
COUMARIN
Citrus and Allied Essences
Coumarin Crystals
Market Report
Creatingperfume.com
Coumarin
Odor: Coumarin, Balsam hay sweet tonka new mown hay
De Monchy Aromatics
Coumarin
Diffusions Aromatiques
COUMARINE NATUREL
Diffusions Aromatiques
COUMARINE
ECSA Chemicals
Coumarin
Company Profile
Ernesto Ventós
COUMARIN
Eternis Fine Chemicals
Coumarin
Excellentia International
Coumarin
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Coumarin (GC) ≥99%
Fleurchem
coumarin
Foodchem International
Coumarin
George Uhe Company
Coumarin Chinese
Global Essence
Coumarin Natural
Global Essence
Coumarin
Indenta Group
Coumarin
Indukern F&F
COUMARIN NATURAL
Indukern F&F
COUMARIN
Jiangyin Healthway
Coumarin Natural99%
New functional food ingredients
Kunshan Sainty
Coumarin, Kosher
Lluch Essence
COUMARIN NATURAL 99%
Lluch Essence
COUMARIN
M&U International
COUMARIN
Mane
Coumarine
Isolate ex Tonka Bean
Odor: Gourmand Herbaceous Balsamic
Moellhausen
COUMARIN (20%DEP)
Moellhausen
COUMARIN (25%DEP)
Moellhausen
COUMARIN (50%DPG)
Moellhausen
COUMARINE
Odor: sweet, stinging, coconut note
OQEMA
Coumarin natural
OQEMA
Coumarin natural
OQEMA
Coumarin
PCW France
Coumarin
Steps to a fragranced product
Pearlchem Corporation
Coumarin
Pell Wall Perfumes
Coumarin
Odor: Sweet, hay, tonka, new-mown-hay
Use: Arctander describes it as “Sweet, herbaceous-warm, somewhat spicy odor, in extreme dilution more haylike, nut- Iike, tobacco-like… Extensively used in perfumery to support herbaccous odors, Lavender, Lavandin, Rosemary, Citrus oils, Oakmoss, etc., and as a fixative in numerous types of fragrances; Almost a standard ingredient in Fougère types with Amylsalicylate and Lavender-notes, with or without Oakmoss.”
Penta International
COUMARIN POWDER 60 MESH, Kosher
Penta International
COUMARIN, Kosher
Penta International
COUMARIN, NATURAL, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
Coumarin
Odor: sweet aromatic coconut Sweet herbaceous-warm
Use: Blends-well-with - Herbaceous-notes Hay Oakmoss
Perfumery Laboratory
KUMARIN (COUMARIN)
Odor: Sweet, herbaceous, warm and spicy
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Coumarin
Prinova
Coumarin
Prodasynth
COUMARIN > 99
Reincke & Fichtner
Coumarin
Sarchem Laboratories
For experimental / research use only.
Coumarin
Sigma-Aldrich
Coumarin, ≥98%
Certified Food Grade Products
SRS Aromatics
COUMARIN
Odor: Sweet, Hay, Tonka, New Mown Hay
Sunaux International
Coumarin
Taytonn
Coumarin
The Good Scents Company
coumarin
Odor: sweet hay tonka new mown hay
The John D. Walsh Company
Coumarin
The Lermond Company
coumarin, natural
The Lermond Company
Coumarin, Natural
The Perfumers Apprentice
Coumarin (crystalline powder)
Odor: Sweet, herbaceous warm somewhat spicy, in dilution - hay like
Treatt
Coumarin
Ungerer & Company
Coumarin
Vigon International
Coumarin Natural
Vigon International
Coumarin
Odor: SWEET, HERBACEOUS-WARM, SOMEWHAT SPICY
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute toxicity, Oral (Category 3), H301
Acute aquatic toxicity (Category 3), H402
Chronic aquatic toxicity (Category 3), H412
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramskull.jpg
 
Signal word Danger
Hazard statement(s)
H301 - Toxic if swallowed
H402 - Harmful to aquatic life
H412 - Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P301 + P310 - IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P321 - Specific treatment (see supplemental first aid instructions on this label).
P330 - Rinse mouth.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 293 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 385, 1974.

oral-mouse LD50 196 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 83, Pg. 1124, 1963.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 220 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ANALGESIA
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 15, Pg. 897, 1965.

oral-guinea pig LD50 202 mg/kg
LIVER: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 327, 1964.

oral-man TDLo 87 mg/kg/17W-I
LIVER: LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IMPAIRED
Human Toxicology. Vol. 8, Pg. 501, 1989.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 242 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 83, Pg. 1124, 1963.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
Fragrance usage is IFRA RESTRICTED. View Standard for complete information.
Please review all IFRA documents for complete information.
IFRA categories: limits in the finished product: (For a description of the categories, refer to the IFRA QRA Information Booklet.)
Category 1:
See Note (1)
0.10 % (1)
Category 2:  0.13 %
Category 3:  0.50 %
Category 4:  1.60 %
Category 5:  0.80 %
Category 6:  2.50 % (1)
Category 7:  0.30 %
Category 8:  2.00 %
Category 9:  5.00 %
Category 10:  2.50 %
Category 11: See Note (2)
 Notes:
 

(1) IFRA would recommend that any material used to impart perfume or flavour in products intended for human ingestion should consist of ingredients that are in compliance with appropriate regulations for foods and food flavourings in the countries of planned distribution and, where these are lacking, with the recommendations laid down in the Code of Practice of IOFI (International Organisation of the Flavor Industry). Further information about IOFI can be found on its website (www.iofi.org).

 

(2) Category 11 includes all non-skin contact or incidental skin contact products. Due to the negligible skin contact from these types of products there is no justification for a restriction of the concentration of this fragrance ingredient in the finished product.

 
Recommendation for coumarin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Coumarin.
View page or View pdf

Coumarin in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):91-64-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :323
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
SCCNFP:opinion
WISER:UN 2811
WGK Germany:1
chromen-2-one
Chemidplus:0000091645
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:91-64-5
 
References:
 chromen-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:91-64-5
Pubchem (cid):323
Pubchem (sid):134971583
Flavornet:91-64-5
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C05851
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01218
FooDB:FDB011938
Export Tariff Code:2932.21.0000
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
7-
methyl coumarin replacer
FR
amber
amber
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
animal
animal carbolactone
FR
costus valerolactone
FR
balsamic
fir balsam absolute
FR
khella oil
FR
6-
methyl coumarin replacer
FR
coumarinic
coumarin replacer
FR
deertongue oil
FR
liatris odoratissima leaf extract
FR
coumarin free
liatris odoratissima oil
FR
tonka bean oil
FR
tonka bean oleoresin
FR
tonka bean resinoid
FR
tonka bean resinoid replacer
FR
tonka bean tincture
FR
tonka ketone
FR
tonkavert
FR
floral
para-
anisyl nitrile
FR
floral pyranol
FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
linden flower absolute
FR
tilia cordata flower oil CO2 extract
FR
green
narcissus flower absolute
FR
picea glauca leaf absolute
FR
thuja occidentalis leaf absolute
FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
hay concrete
FR
new mown hay fragrance
FR
melon
watermelon ketone
FR
mossy
flouve oil
FR
treemoss absolute
FR
veramoss (IFF)
FR
spicy
black
poplar bud absolute
FR
sweet
tonka bean absolute replacer
FR
thujonic
armoise oil
FR
tobacco
deertongue absolute replacer
FR
tonka
deertongue absolute
FR
deertongue concrete
FR
deertongue oleoresin
FR
dihydrocoumarin replacer
FR
flouve absolute
FR
melilot absolute
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
woody
patchouli ethanone
FR
santall
FR
tobacarol (IFF)
FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody propanol
FR
For Flavor
caramellic
caramel furanone
FL
coconut
6-
methyl coumarin
FL
spicy
benzylidene acetone
FL
 
Potential Uses:
 a suma
FRacacia cassie farnesiana
 aimant
FRaldehydic
FRallspice
FRalmond
FRamber
 ambrene
 ambrosia
 angel
FRapricot
FRazalea
FRbaby powder
FRbalsam
FRbanana
FRbay rum
FRbayberry
FL/FRbeeswax cire d'abeille
 benzoinett
 blue grass
 blue mist
 bluebell
FRbubble gum
FRcarnation dianthus oeillet
FRcassia
FRcedar
 chanel #5
FRcherry
FRcherry blossom
 chocolate cocoa
FRchristmas blends
FRchypre
FRclover trefle le'trefle incarnat
FRcoconut
FRcoconut tropical
FRcologne
FRcoronilla
FRcrabapple blossom
FRdeertongue
FRelder flower
 emeraude
 erica
FRevergreen
FRfern fougere
FRfetes
FL/FRfir needle pine needle
 fixer
FRfloral
FRforest pine forest
FRfrangipanni plumeria
FRgardenia
FRgingerbread
FRgrass sweet
FRhawthorn
FRhay new mown hay foin coupe
FRheliotrope
FRherbal
FRhoneysuckle chevrefeuille
FL/FRimmortelle helichrysum everlasting
FRjasmin
 je reviens
 jicky
FRjuniper berry
FRlavender
FRleather russian
FRlemon
FRlime
FRmaja
FRmeadow country
FRmelon
FRmimosa
FRmint
FRmusk
 my sin
 nemesia
 nut
 ophira
FL/FRopoponax
FRorange blossom
FRorchid
FRoriental
 origan
FRoutdoors fresh
FRpapaya
FRpassion blossom
FL/FRpennyroyal
FRpina colada
FRpoppy red
FRpowder
 presence
FRpumpkin pie
FRrain
FRsandalwood
FRsassafras
 scandal
 shalimar
 softener
FRsweet pea
 tabu
 tide
FRtobacco
FRtonka bean
FRtuberose
FL/FRvalerian
FRvanilla
FRviolet
 vol de nuit
FRwallflower
 windsor soap
FRwisteria wistaria glycine
FRwoodruff asperula
FRwoody
FRylang ylang
 zibeline
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 anise seed
Search Trop Picture
 apple custard apple plant
Search Trop Picture
 barley plant
Search Trop Picture
 bergamot oil @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 bilberry fruit - 0.0005 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 cacao bean
Search Trop Picture
 caper plant
Search Trop Picture
 carrot root
Search Trop Picture
 cassia bark
Search Trop Picture
 cassia leaf oil - up to 83,300 mg /kg
Search Trop Picture
 celery seed
Search Trop Picture
 champaca concrete @ 0.01%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cherry sour cherry plant
Search Trop Picture
 chicory plant
Search Trop Picture
 cichorium intybus l. root extract @ 0.20%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon bark oil - 7000 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon bark oil (cinnamomum zeylanicum blume) india @ 0.41%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon bark
Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon leaf oil
Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon stem bark
Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon leaf oil - 40,600 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon twig oil @ 0.32%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 clover yellow sweet clover
Search Trop Picture
 cocoa bean
Search Trop Picture
 date palm leaf
Search Trop Picture
 dill seed
Search Trop Picture
 fenugreek plant
Search Trop Picture
 fenugreek seed
Search Trop Picture
 fig leaf
Search Trop Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop Picture
 honey buckwheat honey
PbMd Search PMC Picture
 lavandin absolute grosso @ 7.70%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lavandin water (lavandula hydrida) @ 0.08%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lavender oil - 20 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 lavender spike water @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lavender water bulgaria @ 0.19%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemon plant
Search Trop Picture
 lovage root
Search Trop Picture
 mugwort plant
Search Trop Picture
 peppermint leaf
Search Trop Picture
 peppermint oil - 20 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 purslane plant
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon plant
Search Trop Picture
 tea green tea - 1.2 – 1.7 mg/kg
Search Trop Picture
 thyme oil
Search Trop Picture
 tonka bean
Search Trop Picture
 wormwood wild wormwood plant
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 benzo-alpha-pyrone
2H-benzo(b)pyran-2-one
2H-benzo[b]pyran-2-one
2-oxo-1,2-benzopyran
2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran
o-oxo-1,2-benzopyran
ortho-oxo-1,2-benzopyran
1-benzopyran-2-one
2H-benzopyran-2-one
2H-1-benzopyran-2-one
2H-1-benzopyran, 2-oxo-
1,2-benzopyrone
 chromen-2-one
2H-chromen-2-one
 chromenone
cis-o-coumaric acid anhydride
 coumarin (ex tonka beans)
 coumarin crystals
 coumarin natural
 coumarin powder 60 mesh
 coumarin, chinese
 coumarin, japan
 coumarine
 coumarine ( ex china )
 coumarine rhodiantal
(Z)-o-coumarinic acid lactone
(Z)-ortho-coumarinic acid lactone
 coumarinic anhydride
 coumarinic lactone
 cumarin
o-hydroxycinnamic acid delta-lactone
ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid delta-lactone
o-hydroxycinnamic acid lactone
ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid lactone
o-hydroxycinnamic lactone
ortho-hydroxycinnamic lactone
3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic d-lactone
3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-delta-lactone
2-propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, d-lactone
2-propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-d-lactone
 tonka bean camphor
 

Articles:

PubMed:Effect of flavors on the viscosity and gelling point of aqueous poloxamer solution.
PubMed:Quantification of flavor-related compounds in the unburned contents of bidi and clove cigarettes.
PubMed:Biocatalytic production of dihydrocoumarin from coumarin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Determination of volatile flavor components in danggui cultivars by solvent free injection and hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.
PubMed:Concentrations of nine alkenylbenzenes, coumarin, piperonal and pulegone in Indian bidi cigarette tobacco.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.
PubMed:Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the biological properties.
PubMed:Solid phase microextraction of alkenylbenzenes and other flavor-related compounds from tobacco for analysis by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Coumarin (CAS No. 91-64-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed:Reactions in selected patients to 22 fragrance materials.
PubMed:Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.
PubMed:Volatiles of French ferns and "fougère" scent in perfumery.
PubMed:Volatile components of whole and different plant parts of bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae) collected in Central Italy and Slovakia.
PubMed:Predication of Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) ranking by volatile profiling using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.
PubMed:Characterization and potential uses of Copaifera langsdorfii seeds and seed oil.
PubMed:Roles of the mushroom bodies in olfactory learning and photoperiodism in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.
PubMed:Metabolism and biochemical effects of nicotine for primary care providers.
 
Notes:
tobacco note - coumarin and myrrh resinoid. effective in reducing edema following crush & thermal injury; coumarin itself occurs in the tonka bean (dipteryx). Occurs in sweet clover. Banned by FDA for use in food Coumarin is a fragrant chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata), vanilla grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum), mullein (Verbascum spp.), sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata), cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum aromaticum) and sweet clover (Fabaceae spp.). It has a sweet odor, readily recognised as the scent of newly-mown hay, and has been used in perfumes since 1882. Sweet woodruff, sweet grass and sweet clover in particular are named for their sweet smell, which is due to their high content of this substance. When it occurs in high concentrations in forage plants, coumarin is a somewhat bitter-tasting appetite suppressant, and is presumed to be produced by plants as a defense chemical to discourage predation. Although coumarin itself has no anticoagulant properties, it is transformed into the natural anticoagulant dicoumarol by a number of species of fungi. Coumarin is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor molecule in the synthesis of a number of synthetic anticoagulant pharmaceuticals similar to dicoumarol, the notable ones being warfarin (tradenamed "Coumadin," not to be confused with coumarin) and some even more potent rodenticides that work by the same anticoagulant mechanism. [Wikipedia]
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