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bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, bergaptene reduced

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
CAS Number: 68648-33-9
ECHA EC Number:296-429-8
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FEMA Number:2153 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FDA Mainterm: BERGAMOT, OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM L. SUBSP. BERGAMIA WRIGHT ET ARN.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale greenish yellow clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.86200 to 0.87000 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.173 to 7.239
Refractive Index:1.45900 to 1.46790 @ 20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:+15.00 to +28.00
Flash Point: 125.00 °F. TCC ( 51.67 °C. )
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 dipropylene glycol
 water, 20.12 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
Stability:
 bath foam
 cream
 detergent
 hair spray
 lipstick
 lotion
 non-discoloring in most media
 powder
 shampoo
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:8 hour(s) at 100.00 %
citrus floral woody orange herbal
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. citrus floral woody orange linalyl acetate
Luebke, William tgsc, (1984)
Odor sample from: Charabot & Co., Inc.
citrus floral sweet spicy green orange peel lemon lime ginger
Odor Description:Citrus, floral, sweet, spicy, green and orange peely, with lemon, lime and ginger nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 23, No. 2, 43, (1998)
Flavor Type: citrus
citrus floral rose green lemon fatty ginger lime
Taste Description: at 25.00 ppm. Citrus,floral, rosy, green, lemon and fatty with a ginger and lime nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 23, No. 2, 43, (1998)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Moellhausen
BERGAMOT EO-hiXform
Odor Description:fresh, citrus, green, cologne note
Taste Description:citrus, fresh
Pell Wall Perfumes
Bergamot FCF
Odor Description:Citrus, earl grey tea, fresh, aldehydic
This form of bergamot has been rectified to remove the fourocoumarins that cause photosensitivity so that it can be used more freely.
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Albert Vieille SAS
Bergapten-free bergamot Essential oil Italy
Odor: asting citrus scent, with characteristic fresh, lively notes and zesty facets
Use: Bergamot, also known by the botanical name of Citrus aurantium subsp bergamia, is a citrus fruit grown mainly in the Sicily and Calabria regions of Italy. The tree of the same name that bears this fruit with the tart, bitter pulp does not exist in the wild. It is apparently the result of an ancient hybridization of the bitter orange tree and the lemon tree and can grow up to five meters high. In the spring, it is covered with very fragrant white flowers that, between December and March, give way to small, yellow-green fruit having a thick peel covered in oil-filled vesicles. Our Italian bergapten-free bergamot essential oil is obtained by cold expression of the pericarp of the ripe fruit, followed by steam distillation to remove the bergapten, a photo-sensitizing component that can have adverse side effects. This modification gives the absolute particularly desirable qualities for use in perfumery and cosmetics: purified composition, colorless appearance, and improved fixative properties. It has a lasting citrus scent, with characteristic fresh, lively notes and zesty facets.
Harvest Calendar
Artiste
Bergamot Oil Italian Bergaptene Free
Azelis UK
Organic Bergamot Oil FCF Italy
Services
Berjé
bergamot oil B.F.
Happening at Berje
Bontoux
BERGAMOT ITALY BF ESSENTIAL OIL
Bontoux Online
Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) EO
Odor: fresh, lively, zesty
Use: The essential oil of Bergamot FCF 100% pure and natural is used in aromatherapy, cosmetics and as a top note in fine fragrance freshness. It is also used in food to flavoring the Earl Grey tea. Fresh and zesty the essential oil of Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) is cleared of its furocoumarins by molecular distillation.
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Bergamot (bergaptene free) essential oil, Bulk
Odor: characteristic
Use: Used in douches and sitz baths, bergamot oil has proved successful in gonococcal infections, leucorrhoea, vaginal prurities and urinary infections; add no more than 2-3 drops to some warm water. Its antiseptic properties make it ideal for treating wounds, herpes, acne and oily skin conditions. Bergamot imparts that unusual flavor to Earl Grey tea. It was and still is an important ingredient in the classic Eau de Cologne formula. Blends well with chamomile, lavender, neroli and rosemary. Regular Bergamot is a photosensitizer (increases the skin reaction to sunlight and makes it more likely to burn). Our Bergaptene-free Bergamot has had the chemical bergaptene removed and this greatly reduces the risk of photosensitization when exposed to the sun after use.
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Bergamot (bergaptene free) essential oil
Charabot
Bergamot Italy low furocoumarin oil
100 % Pure & Natural
Odor: Fresh, zesty, bitter, slightly sweet
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Bergamot Italian rectified, furo coumarin reduced
Market Report
Creatingperfume.com
Bergamot Essential Oil
Diffusions Aromatiques
BERGAMOTE DESESQUITERPENEE ITALIE ESSENCE
Diffusions Aromatiques
BERGAMOTE S/S BERGAPTENE HE BIO
Earthoil
Bergamot B.F Oil Organic
Elixens America
Bergamot Oil Berg. Free Italy
Certified Organic
Ernesto Ventós
BERGAMOT OIL, BERGAPTENE FREE COLORLESS
Excellentia International
Bergamot Oil Decolorized (Non-Sensitizing)
Fleurchem
bergamot oil bergaptene free
Global Essence
Bergamot Oil (Many Varieties Available)
Global Essence
Bergamot Oil BF Organic
Hermitage Oils
Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE
Odor: characteristic
Use: Adam Michael has this to say about Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE “The bergamot tree (Citrus bergamia) takes its name from the small town of Bergamo in Northern Italy. The fruit (like a miniature orange), has been used for hundreds of years in Italian folk medicine, but not in that of other countries, as the tree was almost unknown outside Italy, and the fruit was not exported until relatively recent times.
The Vault
Indenta Group
Bergamot Oil (bergaptene Free)
Indukern F&F
BERGAMOT OIL (FUROCOUMARIN FREE)
Odor: CITRUS, BERGAMOT, FRESH, SWEET
Kanta Enterprises
Bergamote Berg/f. Italy Oil
Liberty Natural Products
BERGAMOT BERGAPTENE FREE ITALY
Lluch Essence
BERGAMOTE BERG/F. ITALY OIL
Mane
Bergamot Rectified Essential Oil (furocoumarin-free)
Odor: Floral Terpenic Warm
Use: This tree, resulting from a hybridisation between orange and lemon trees, has been mainly grown in the region of Calabria in Italy ever since it was used by an Italian perfumer to develop the famous Eau de Cologne. The essence extracted from the aromatic skin of the sour fruit is also used to flavour Earl Grey and Lady Grey teas.
Naturex
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Reduced
NAT arom®, in Ez-Caps™, AquaReady™ or Classic forms
Payand Betrand
Bergamot Oil rectified France
Pell Wall Perfumes
Bergamot FCF
Odor: Citrus, earl grey tea, fresh, aldehydic
Use: This form of bergamot has been rectified to remove the fourocoumarins that cause photosensitivity so that it can be used more freely.
Penta International
BERGAMOT OIL-BERGAPTENE FREE, NATURAL, Kosher
Perfumer Supply House
Bergamot Oil, Bergaptene Free
Odor: A light citrus (orange and lemon) note with floral nuance. Woody finish
Use: Bergamot Oil Bergaptene-free has had the chemical bergaptene removed, which reduces (but doesn’t eliminate) the risk of photosensitization. Use with care if using on the skin when going in the sun.
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Bergamot Oil B.F.
Robertet
Bergamot Ess. oil (for fragrance)
Robertet
Bergamot Italy low furocoumarin oil
100 % Pure & Natural
Odor: Fresh, zesty, bitter, slightly sweet
Taytonn
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Free
The John D. Walsh Company
Bergamot Oil, B.F.
The Lebermuth Company
Bergamot BF Oil
Odor: Fresh, fruity -sweet citrus with a slightly balsamic undertone
The Lermond Company
Bergamot Oil BF P&N - AV
Treatt
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Free
Treatt
Bergamot Oil Low Furanocoumarin
White Lotus Aromatics
Bergamot bergaptene-free essential oil
Odor: rich, juicy, sweet, fruity bouquet with an elegant herbaceous, balsamic undertone
Use: In natural perfumery used as a topnote in high class perfumes, herbal bouquets, colognes, fougeres, chypres.
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 3), H226
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramflame.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 - Keep container tightly closed.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242 - Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 - Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303 + P361 + P353 - IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 11520 mg/kg
PHARAT
14,435,1959

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Phototoxicity
IFRA Purity Specification: bergaptenes reduced
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Where the bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) content of all relevant oils present in a compound has been determined, it is recommended that for applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, the total level of bergapten in the consumer products should not exceed 0.0015% (15 ppm). This is equivalent to 0.0075% (75 ppm) in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product. Where the level of bergapten has not been determined by appropriate methods, the limits specified in the guidelines on individual oils should apply. In those cases, where such oils are used in combination with other phototoxic ingredients, the additive effect has to be taken into consideration and the use levels have to be reduced accordingly. The sum of the concentrations of all phototoxic fragrance ingredients, expressed in % of their recommended maximum level in the consumer product, shall not exceed 100.
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
citral Max. Found: <0.70 % and Reason: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.4000 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "wash off the skin contact":
  15.0000 % Recommendation.
limits in the finished product for - "no skin contact":
  30.0000 % Recommendation.
Recommendation for bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy usage levels up to:
  30.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -29.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -8.90000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -43.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 1.00000130.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -7.90000
fruit ices: -7.90000
gelatins / puddings: 5.3000090.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -27.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):68648-33-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2319
WGK Germany:2
citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
Chemidplus:0068648339
RTECS:DS0500000 for cas# 68648-33-9
 
References:
 citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
Canada Domestic Sub. List:68648-33-9
Pubchem (sid):135362701
 
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.11.0000
Wikipedia:View
FAO:BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
6,7,8-
decen-1-ol
FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
mandarine undecenal
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
3-
methyl-4-hexyl oxybutyraldehyde
FR
muguet undecadienal
FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
TMH aldehyde
FR
undecanal
FL/FR
amber
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
estragole
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil egypt
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil america
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil india
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cinnamyl formate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
guaiyl acetate
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
citronella
4,8-
dimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FR
citrus
acetaldehyde citronellyl methyl acetal
FR
bergamot acetoacetate
FR
bergamot fragrance
FR
bergamot oil
FL/FR
bergamot oil decolorized
FL/FR
bergamot oil folded
FL/FR
bergamot oil italy
FL/FR
bergamot oil ivory coast
FL/FR
bergamot oil replacer
FR
bergamot oil terpeneless
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpenless replacer
FL/FR
bergamot oil turkey
FL/FR
bergamot specialty
FR
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral ethylene glycol acetal
FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
citronellal oxime
FR
citrus floral green fragrance
FR
citrus ocimenol
FR
citrus specialty
FR
cranberry orange spice fragrance
FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenyl acetate
FR
2,4-
dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate
FR
dodecane nitrile
FR
2-
dodecanone
FL/FR
citrus
floral fragrance
FR
grapefruit pentanol
FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lime octadienal
FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
(Z)-
linalool oxide (pyranoid)
FL/FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
mandarin oil italy
FL/FR
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
3-
methyl-4-(2-methyl butyl oxy) butyraldehyde
FR
alpha-
methylene citronellal
FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
neroli ketone
FR
nonanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
orange nitrile
FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
2-
tetradecenal
FL/FR
(E)-2-
tetradecenal
FL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-
trimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FL/FR
verbena fragrance
FR
earthy
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
2-
decenal
FL/FR
(R)-gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
floral
acetaldehyde dibutyl acetal
FL/FR
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
anisyl propanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's base
FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
boronia concrete
FL/FR
alpha-
butyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
cassie absolute
FL/FR
cassis specialty
FR
citronellal
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
(S)-
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
citronellyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
citrus bergamia risso leaf oil
FR
clary propionate
FR
coranol (Firmenich)
FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
coriander seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
cumin carbinol
FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dictamnus hispanicus oil
FR
dihydrocarvyl acetate
FL/FR
dihydrocitronellyl ethyl ether
FR
(±)-2,3-
dihydrofarnesol
FL/FR
dihydroisojasmonate methyl ester
FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
dimethyl octanol
FL/FR
6,8-
dimethyl-2-nonanol
FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
ethyl linalool
FR
ethyl linalyl acetal
FR
ethyl linalyl acetate
FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
ethyl phenoxyacetate
FR
farnesol
FL/FR
farnesyl acetate
FL/FR
floral butanal
FR
floral pyranol
FR
floral undecenone
FR
gardenia absolute
FR
gardenia acetal
FR
gardenia concrete
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranium oil
FL/FR
geranium oil africa
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
geranyl nonanoate
CS
geranyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
geranyl propionate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-2-yl salicylate
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hexyl lactate
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
ho wood oil
FR
hyacinth oil
FR
hydrangea fragrance
FR
hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
jasmin cyclopentanol
FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
jonquil absolute
FR
jonquil absolute replacer
FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lilac absolute
FR
lily fragrance
FR
lily propanol
FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
linalyl benzoate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
lotus fragrance
FR
magnolia indene
FR
(2-
methoxy-1-methyl propyl) benzene
FR
(3-
methoxy-2-methyl propyl) benzene
FR
ortho-
methoxybenzyl ethyl ether
FR
1-(2-
methyl allyl oxy)-2-methyl butane
FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
mimosa absolute
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
mimosa absolute india
FL/FR
muguet carbinol
FL/FR
muguet nitrile
FR
nerol
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
neroli oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
neroli oil tunisia
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
nerolidyl acetate
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
ocean propanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's base
FR
beta-
ocimene
FL/FR
orange leaf absolute
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute tunisia
FL/FR
orchid specialty
FR
palmarosa oil
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
peony acetonitrile
FR
petitgrain absolute morocco
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil (citrus bergamia melarosa)
FR
petitgrain concrete
FR
petitgrain lemon oil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil morocco
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dicitronellyl acetal
FR
phenyl acetaldehyde diisobutyl acetal
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propionaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal
FR
phenyl propyl phenyl acetate
FR
rhodinol
FL/FR
rhodinyl formate
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia)
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia) morocco
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa centifolia) egypt
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) iran
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) turkey
FL/FR
(Z)-
rose oxide
FL/FR
laevo-
rose oxide
FL/FR
rose pyran
FR
styralyl formate
FL/FR
sweet pea absolute
FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalyl acetate
FR
5-
tricyclodecenyl acetate
FR
(S,E)-3,7,11-
trimethyldodeca-6,10-dienal
FR
undecanal dimethyl acetal
FR
verdyl acetate
FR
violet methyl carbonate
FR
ylang ylang flower oil III
FL/FR
fresh
3-(3-
propen-2-yl phenyl) butanal
FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
benzyl methyl ether
FL/FR
bisabolene
FL/FR
cinnamyl hexanoate
FL/FR
citronellyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl crotonate
FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
linalyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
methyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
nerolidyl isobutyrate
FR
ocimen-1-yl acetate
FR
peach pivalate
FR
phenoxyethyl propionate
FL/FR
tropical ionone
FL/FR
fungal
jasmin nonane
FR
green
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
chrysanthemum oxide
FL/FR
3,7-
dimethyl-6-octenoic acid
FL/FR
earthy acetal
FL/FR
flower hexene
FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
green carboxylate
FR
green cyclopropionate
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetoacetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl angelate
FR
hexen-1-yl oxypropane nitrile
FR
hexyl (Z)-tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
hop oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
hyacinth absolute
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
ivy dioxolane
FR
dextro-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
laevo-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
(2-
methoxy-1-methyl butyl) benzene
FR
[(4E,4Z)-5-
methoxy-3-methyl-4-penten-1-yl] benzene
FR
methyl cyclocitrone (IFF)
FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
4-
methyl-4-phenyl pentanone
FR
murraya koenigii leaf oil india
FL/FR
octanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
octyl oxyacetaldehyde
FR
pelargonium graveolens stem leaf extract
FR
perilla alcohol
FL/FR
phenethyl tiglate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde solution
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl propionate
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
herbal
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
anethum graveolens herb tincture
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
bergamot mint herb oil
FR
camphene carbinyl acetate
FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. gummifer hook. fil.) spain
FR
carrot seed oil (daucus carota ssp. maximus (desf.) ball)
FR
wild
carrot seed oil terpeneless
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
chrysanthemum ketone
FR
clary octenone
FR
clary sage absolute
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
dihexyl (E)-fumarate
FR
dihydroterpinyl acetate
FL/FR
dill weed oil cuba
FL/FR
dill weed oil reunion
FL/FR
geranium cyclohexane
FR
hop absolute
FL/FR
hop oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl formate
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl salicylate
FL/FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
nopyl acetate
FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
curled
parsley seed oil
FL/FR
perilla leaf oil
FL/FR
petitgrain heptane
FR
petroselinum crispum seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde diisoamyl acetal
FR
terpineol acetate
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
thyme absolute
FL/FR
honey
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
licorice
ocimum basilicum herb oil vietnam
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil terpeneless
FL/FR
medicinal
kunzea ericoides leaf oil
FR
melon
melon heptenal
FL/FR
watermelon ketone
FR
musty
ketoiso
phorone
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
dibenzyl ketone
FL/FR
spicy
alpha-
amyl cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
iso
butyl angelate
FL/FR
cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
cumin seed absolute
FL/FR
cuminaldehyde
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
iso
cyclogeraniol (IFF)
FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
gingergrass oil
FR
2-
octanol
FL/FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
spicy carbonate
FR
turmeric root oil china
FL/FR
annus
wormwood oil vietnam
FL/FR
zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
sulfurous
lychee mercaptan acetate
FL/FR
tea
camellia oleifera leaf extract
FL/FR
terpenic
(E,E)-2,6-allo
ocimene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
coumarin
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
waxy
decanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
1-
undecanol
FL/FR
woody
dalbergia sissoo leaf oil
FR
alpha-
farnesene
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene isomer
FL/FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
santall
FR
woody acetate
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
acetaldehyde dibutyl acetal
FL/FR
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
boronia concrete
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cinnamyl hexanoate
FL/FR
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
decanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
(±)-2,3-
dihydrofarnesol
FL/FR
dihydroterpinyl acetate
FL/FR
earthy acetal
FL/FR
ethyl linalyl ether
FL/FR
guaiyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetoacetate
FL/FR
hexyl (Z)-tiglate
FL/FR
hyacinth absolute
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
dextro-
linalool
FL/FR
(Z)-
linalool oxide (pyranoid)
FL/FR
laevo-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
dextro-
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl formate
FL/FR
linalyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
mandarine undecenal
FL/FR
methyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl salicylate
FL/FR
nerolidyl acetate
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,6-allo
ocimene
FL/FR
(R)-gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
octyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
perilla leaf oil
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde solution
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
styralyl formate
FL/FR
terpineol acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
2-
tetradecenal
FL/FR
4,4'-
thiobis-2-butanone
FL
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
alpha-
butyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
iso
butyraldehyde
FL/FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
1-
undecanol
FL/FR
amber
iso
butyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
anisic
ocimum basilicum herb oil egypt
FL/FR
aromatic
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bitter
dibenzyl ketone
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot flavor
FL
bergamot oil
FL/FR
bergamot oil decolorized
FL/FR
bergamot oil folded
FL/FR
bergamot oil italy
FL/FR
bergamot oil ivory coast
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpeneless
FL/FR
bergamot oil terpenless replacer
FL/FR
bergamot oil turkey
FL/FR
bergamot orange lime flavor
FL
bisabolene
FL/FR
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
mandarin oil italy
FL/FR
myrcenyl acetate
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
neroli oil tunisia
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
petitgrain bergamot oil
FL/FR
petitgrain lemon oil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil morocco
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
ketoiso
phorone
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-
trimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FL/FR
creamy
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
ethereal
4-
hexen-3-one
FL
fatty
2-
decenal
FL/FR
dimethyl octanol
FL/FR
2-
dodecanone
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
(S)-
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
dihydrocarvyl acetate
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dihydrolinalool
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
3,7-
dimethyl-6-octenoic acid
FL/FR
farnesol
FL/FR
farnesyl acetate
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranium oil
FL/FR
geranium oil africa
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
geranyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
pseudo
ionone
FL
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
linalyl benzoate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
muguet carbinol
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
neroli oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
orange leaf absolute
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute tunisia
FL/FR
palmarosa oil
FL/FR
petitgrain absolute morocco
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
rhodinol
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia)
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia) morocco
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa centifolia) egypt
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) iran
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) turkey
FL/FR
laevo-
rose oxide
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
tropical ionone
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower oil III
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
benzyl methyl ether
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
citronellyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
hexyl lactate
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
(E,E)-
methyl sorbate
FL
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
rhodinyl formate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
anethum graveolens herb tincture
FL/FR
iso
butyl angelate
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
celery ketone
FL/FR
chrysanthemum oxide
FL/FR
clary sage absolute
FL/FR
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
cucumber distillates
FL
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
3,4-
dimethoxystyrene
FL
alpha-
farnesene
FL/FR
alpha-
farnesene isomer
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
melon heptenal
FL/FR
methyl 2-undecynoate
FL
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl octine carbonate
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,6-
nonadienal
FL
nonanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
beta-
ocimene
FL/FR
octanal dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
phenethyl tiglate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde diisobutyl acetal
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
(Z)-
rose oxide
FL/FR
terpinyl propionate
FL/FR
herbal
anethum graveolens herb oil
FL/FR
anthemis nobilis flower oil roman
FL/FR
wild
carrot seed oil terpeneless
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
coriander seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
dill weed oil cuba
FL/FR
dill weed oil reunion
FL/FR
3,6-
dimethyl-3-octanol
FL/FR
hop absolute
FL/FR
hop oil
FL/FR
abrialis
lavandin oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil america
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil india
FL/FR
curled
parsley seed oil
FL/FR
petroselinum crispum seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
thyme absolute
FL/FR
honey
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
juicy
lychee mercaptan acetate
FL/FR
licorice
estragole
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum herb oil vietnam
FL/FR
ocimum basilicum leaf oil terpeneless
FL/FR
medicinal
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
melon
hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
spicy
alpha-
amyl cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cassie absolute
FL/FR
cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
cinnamyl formate
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
cubeb oil
FL/FR
cumin seed absolute
FL/FR
cuminaldehyde
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
hop oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
murraya koenigii leaf oil india
FL/FR
myrtle oil
FL/FR
2-
octanol
FL/FR
pimenta acris leaf oil
FL/FR
turmeric root oil china
FL/FR
annus
wormwood oil vietnam
FL/FR
zanthoxylum piperitum fruit absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
tea
camellia oleifera leaf extract
FL/FR
tropical
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
waxy
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
geranyl propionate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)
FL/FR
mimosa absolute
FL/FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
mimosa absolute india
FL/FR
phenoxyethyl propionate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
tetradecenal
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
woody
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
perilla alcohol
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
 a suma
FRabronia
FRacacia cassie farnesiana
 agate
 aimant
FRamber
 ambrene
 amour-amour
 angel
 baisers du printemps
FRbalsam
FRbergamot
 blue dream
 blue grass
FRbouquet
 cabochard
FL/FRcedrat
 chanel #5
FRchypre
FRcinnamon
FRcitrus
FRclover trefle le'trefle incarnat
FRcologne
FRcolonia
 couronne de fleurs
FRdillenia
FRelder flower
 emeraude
FRfern fougere
FRfetes
 fleurs de montpellier
FRfloral
 florida breeze
 florida soap
FRforest
FRfreesia
FRgardenia
FRgenet genista broom
 huile de mille fleurs
FRjasmin
 je reviens
 jicky
FRjuniper berry
FRlavender
FRleather
FRlemon
 millefleurs
FRmimosa
FRmuguet lily of the valley
 nemesia
FRneroli
 ophira
FL/FRopoponax
FRorange blossom
FRoriental
FRpatchouli
FRpear
 presence
FRrain spring
FRreseda mignonette
FRrose white
FRsandalwood
 shalimar
FRsweet pea
 tabu
FRviolet
 vol de nuit
FRwallflower
 west end
 white shoulders
 windsor soap
FRwisteria wistaria glycine
FRwoody
FRylang ylang
 zibeline
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 bergamot peel
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 bergamot B.F oil organic
 bergamot EO-hiXform
 bergamot ess. oil (for fragrance) (Robertet)
 bergamot essential oil BF
 bergamot italy BF essential oil
 bergamot oil bergaptene free italy
 bergamot oil (bergaptene free) italy, calabria organic
 bergamot oil B.F.
 bergamot oil bergaptene free
 bergamot oil bergaptene free FCC
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced (citrus aurantium var. bergamia wright et arn.) italy
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
 bergamot oil italian bergaptene free
 bergamot oil psoralen reduced italy
 bergamot oil rectified ivory coast
 bergamot oil, B.F.
 bergamot oil, bergaptene free colorless
 bergamot orange oil bergaptene reduced italy
 bergamote SS bergaptene deco eo
 bergamote SS bergaptene ess select 01
 citrus aurantium bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 citrus aurantium var. bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced italy
 citrus bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 citrus x bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 oil bergamot italian rectified, furo coumarin reduced
 volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, bergaptene reduced
 

Articles:

PubMed:Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) Flavonoids and Their Potential Benefits in Human Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis: an Overview.
PubMed:The essential oil of Citrus bergamia Risso induces vasorelaxation of the mouse aorta by activating K(+) channels and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx.
PubMed:In vitro effect of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) juice against cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed:Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females.
PubMed:Effect of Citrus bergamia juice on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in metastatic xenograft models.
PubMed:Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap TOF-MS for the fast characterization of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed:Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia Risso Elevates Intracellular Ca (2+) in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells due to Release of Ca (2+) from Primary Intracellular Stores.
PubMed:In vitro activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) oil against clinical isolates of dermatophytes.
PubMed:Protective effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia against inflammatory injury in interferon-γ and histamine exposed human keratinocytes.
PubMed:In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Citrus bergamia essential oil and its major components.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.
PubMed:Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.
PubMed:Antiviral activity of seed extract from Citrus bergamia towards human retroviruses.
PubMed:Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.
PubMed:Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.
PubMed:In vitro photo-induced cytotoxic activity of Citrus bergamia and C. medica L. cv. Diamante peel essential oils and identified active coumarins.
PubMed:Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.
PubMed:Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed:Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.
PubMed:Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.
PubMed:Bergamot essential oil differentially modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: a new finding seen with fura-2.
PubMed:Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.
PubMed:[Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].
PubMed:Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.
PubMed:Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.
PubMed:Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.
PubMed:Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.
PubMed:High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.
PubMed:[Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].
PubMed:Evaluation of phototoxic and photogenotoxic risk associated with the use of photosensitizers in suntan preparations: application to tanning preparations containing bergamot oil.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Pectin methylesterase in Citrus bergamia R.: purification, biochemical characterisation and sequence of the exon related to the enzyme active site.
PubMed:Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.
PubMed:The photochemistry and photobiology of bergamot oil as a perfume ingredient: an overview.
PubMed:Local sensitization of the skin to Grenz rays by bergamot oil.
PubMed:The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation.
PubMed:Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.
PubMed:Toxic profile of bergamot essential oil on survival and proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Hypolipidemic effects of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau juice in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
PubMed:Distribution of flavonoids and furocoumarins in juices from cultivars of Citrus bergamia Risso.
PubMed:Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.
PubMed:A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. II. Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives.
PubMed:Study of the extraction procedure by experimental design and validation of a LC method for determination of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed:[Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].
PubMed:Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth.
PubMed:Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.
PubMed:[Chemical composition of the endocarpus of the fruit of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso)].
PubMed:[The zinc oxide and bergamot oil gingival dressing and rationale of its preparation].
PubMed:[EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GINGIVAL DRESSING WITH BERGAMOT OIL].
PubMed:Evaluation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins from Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) juice and identification of new compounds.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.
PubMed:Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.
PubMed:Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).
PubMed:Rodenticidal activity of two natural coumarines from ether extract of Citrus bergamia.
PubMed:[Accidents due to tanning cosmetics with a base of bergamot oil].
PubMed:[Simplified method of preparation of the zinc oxide-bergamot oil gingival dressing].
PubMed:The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of bergamot juice extract (BJe) in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed:Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.
PubMed:In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.
PubMed:A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.
PubMed:TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE MODULATION BY BERGAMOT POLYPHENOLIC FRACTION IN EXPERIMENTAL PHOTOAGEING IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.
PubMed:Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.
PubMed:Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils.
PubMed:The use of aromasticks at a cancer centre: a retrospective audit.
PubMed:The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis.
PubMed:Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.
PubMed:Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
PubMed:Magnetically recoverable, thermostable, hydrophobic DNA/silica encapsulates and their application as invisible oil tags.
PubMed:Role of D-Limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.
PubMed:The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.
PubMed:Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.
PubMed:The mechanism of action of a citrus oil blend against Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.
PubMed:Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.
PubMed:Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.
PubMed:Occurrence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) in Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:[Analysis of 14 elements for Jinhua bergamot by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and elemental analyser].
PubMed:Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro.
PubMed:The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems.
PubMed:Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.
PubMed:Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils.
PubMed:Update of the toxicological assessment of furanocoumarins in foodstuffs (Update of the SKLM statement of 23/24 September 2004)--Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
PubMed:Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.
PubMed:UVB phototherapeutic modalities. Comparison of two treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.
PubMed:Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.
PubMed:Effects of music and essential oil inhalation on cardiac autonomic balance in healthy individuals.
PubMed:[Not Available].
PubMed:In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
PubMed:New asymmetrical per-substituted cyclodextrins (2-O-methyl-3-O-ethyl- and 2-O-ethyl-3-O-methyl-6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-derivatives) as chiral selectors for enantioselective gas chromatography in the flavour and fragrance field.
PubMed:[Purely natural: phototoxic dermatitis].
PubMed:Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.
PubMed:In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates.
PubMed:Inhibition of bergaptene toxicity by UV-A filters.
PubMed:Determination of 5-methoxypsoralen in human serum.
PubMed:[The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents].
PubMed:In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.
PubMed:Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.
PubMed:Further insights into the floral character of Touriga Nacional wines.
PubMed:Phytophotodermatitis.
PubMed:The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.
PubMed:Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed:Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.
PubMed:Dangers of the intake of psoralens and subsequent UV exposure producing significant burns.
PubMed:Quantitative assessment of epidermal melanogenesis in C3H/Tif hr/hr mice treated with topical furocoumarins and UVA radiation.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of citropten and bergapten in suction blister fluid after solar product application in humans.
PubMed:[Vitamin content of bergamot].
PubMed:Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.
PubMed:Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).
PubMed:Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.
PubMed:[Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].
PubMed:Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances.
PubMed:[The effects of the inhalation method using essential oils on blood pressure and stress responses of clients with essential hypertension].
PubMed:The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons.
PubMed:High-throughput analysis of bergamot essential oil by fast solid-phase microextraction-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.
PubMed:Determination of some heavy metals and selenium in Sicilian and Calabrian citrus essential oils using derivative stripping chronopotentiometry.
PubMed:Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).
PubMed:Earl Grey, in excess.
PubMed:Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.
PubMed:How big is a drop? A volumetric assay of essential oils.
PubMed:Photoreactivity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and lack of photoreaction with DNA.
PubMed:Citropten and bergapten suction blister fluid concentrations after solar product application in man.
PubMed:A quantitative in vitro assay for the evaluation of phototoxic potential of topically applied materials.
 
Notes:
This is the natural essential oil with the BERGAPTENE removed because of the very irritating properties of BERGAPTENE(has phototoxic effects) on the skin. Cold expression from the peel of the nearly ripe fruit of the Citrus Aurantium L. with removal of the bergaptenes. Blends well with clove oils.
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