bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, bergaptene reduced
This is the natural essential oil with the BERGAPTENE removed because of the very irritating properties of BERGAPTENE(has phototoxic effects) on the skin. Cold expression from the peel of the nearly ripe fruit of the Citrus Aurantium L. with removal of the bergaptenes. Blends well with clove oils.
  • Albert Vieille SAS
    • Albert Vieille SAS
      Naturally Inspiring!
      Our objective is to inspire the creative minds in the realm of beauty with exceptional ingredients!
      Based on more than a century of experience in Vallauris, France, Albert Vieille SAS has crafted exceptional savoir-faire in the realm of perfume plants. Albert Vieille SAS is a venerable company specializing in 100% pure and natural aromatic raw materials for professionals working in the perfumery, cosmetics, food and aromatherapy markets. We have more than 200 aromatic products – essential oil, floral water, scented water, absolute, concrete, resinoid, gum resin – for use in formulating scented and flavored creations. Albert Vieille offers only aromatic products that are 100% pure, meaning they are from botanically identified plants of single geographic origin. The products are also 100% natural, as they are obtained through physical processes, undergoing no chemical modification or denaturation by petrochemical-derived molecules.
      Email: Elisabeth Campana
      Voice: +33 (0)4 93 64 16 72
      Fax: +33 (0)4 93 64 80 07
      RSS Feed
      Product news
      The Natural Gazette
      Harvest Calendar
      Products List: View
      Bergapten-free bergamot Essential oil Italy
      Bergamot, also known by the botanical name of Citrus aurantium subsp bergamia, is a citrus fruit grown mainly in the Sicily and Calabria regions of Italy. The tree of the same name that bears this fruit with the tart, bitter pulp does not exist in the wild. It is apparently the result of an ancient hybridization of the bitter orange tree and the lemon tree and can grow up to five meters high. In the spring, it is covered with very fragrant white flowers that, between December and March, give way to small, yellow-green fruit having a thick peel covered in oil-filled vesicles. Our Italian bergapten-free bergamot essential oil is obtained by cold expression of the pericarp of the ripe fruit, followed by steam distillation to remove the bergapten, a photo-sensitizing component that can have adverse side effects. This modification gives the absolute particularly desirable qualities for use in perfumery and cosmetics: purified composition, colorless appearance, and improved fixative properties. It has a lasting citrus scent, with characteristic fresh, lively notes and zesty facets.
  • Azelis
    • Azelis UK Life Sciences
      Chemical Distribution
      Azelis is a leading global distributor of speciality chemicals.
      Azelis is a leading global speciality chemicals distributor. We provide a diverse range of products and innovative services to more than 20,000 customers. Our in-depth local knowledge is supported by an international structure and value-added services including high levels of technical support and tailored solutions.
      Email: Graham Bott
      Voice: +32 3 613 01 20
      Fax: +32 3 613 01 21
      United Kingdom+44 (0) 1992 82 55 55
      United Kingdom+44 (0) 1992 82 55 66
      RSS Feeds
      Organic Bergamot Oil FCF Italy
  • Berjé
    • Berjé Inc.
      The solution is clear
      Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals.
      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
      Email: For Information
      Email: For Sales
      Voice: 973-748-8980
      Fax: 973-680-9618
      Market Report
      bergamot oil B.F.
  • Bontoux
    • Bontoux S.A
      Major international supplier
      Major international Producer of aromatic ingredients for the production of fragrances, flavors, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and Aromathopy.
      Bontoux Inc. was established in 1993 to directly service our North American clientele. The facility primarily serves as a Sales Customer Service, Repacking and Distribution Center for our customers in North America.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Information
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: + 33.(0)
      Fax: + 33.(0)
      US Voice: + 1.908.755.4800
      US Fax: + 1.908.755.4844
  • Bontoux Online
    • Bontoux Online
      The Essential for your Creations
      Online sales of essential oils for professionals.
      Bontoux SA, recognized international supplier of aromatic raw materials to the perfume industry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other fields such as aromatherapy, is launching its website to offer you an exceptional selection of top-quality essential oils.
      Email: Contact
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +33(4) 75 28 64 56
      BontouxOnline Skype Skype
      Products List: View
      Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) EO
      The essential oil of Bergamot FCF 100% pure and natural is used in aromatherapy, cosmetics and as a top note in fine fragrance freshness. It is also used in food to flavoring the Earl Grey tea. Fresh and zesty the essential oil of Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) is cleared of its furocoumarins by molecular distillation.
  • Charabot
  • Elixens America
    • Elixens America, Inc.
      Sharing What Nature Inspires
      US affiliate supplying Conventional and Certified Organic Essential Oils since 1998; specializing in French Essential Oils.
      Elixens America, Inc. has been supplying bulk Essential Oils to the Flavor & Fragrance Industry since 1998. We are the US affiliate of ELIXENS SA (Paris, France) and are your direct contact for bulk Essential Oils in North America. Our specialties are Lavandin and Lavender Essential Oils originating from the Provence Region of France as we have long-term partnerships with growers and farmers from the area. Our catalogue of items range from about 150 to 200 different Essential Oils depending on availability and crop season. In addition to our group’s production we also import various Essential Oils directly from source from around the world.
      Email: Jean-Pascal Abdelli (France)
      US Email: Adam Roman
      Email: Barbara Keen (UK)
      Voice: 33 (0) 1 34 48 57 57
      Fax: 33 (0) 1 34 64 94 27
      US Voice: 1.732.388.3555
      US Fax: 1.732.388.3565
      Information and News
      Bergamot Oil Berg. Free Italy Certified Organic
  • Excellentia International
    • Excellentia International
      Ingredients by Nature
      Exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers requirements.
      Excellentia International was founded in 2010 through the merger of Excellentia Flavors LLC and Polarome International. Collectively, these companies account for more than one hundred years of industry experience, and are recognized for exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers’ requirements.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Email: Regulatory
      Voice: 732.749.9840
      Our Services
      Bergamot Oil Decolorized (Non-Sensitizing)
  • Fleurchem
    • Fleurchem, Inc.
      Have A Flavorful Day
      A leading global manufacturer and supplier of ingredients for Flavors, Fragrances, AromaTherapy, Foods, Beverages, Personal Care Products, and other uses.
      Operating out of the 200,000 sq. ft., former Hercules/PFW facility in Middletown, NY; Fleurchem produces a full range of natural isolates, synthetic chemicals & specialities, essential oils and flavors. Additionally, the company performs toll manufacturing, as well as custom chemical synthesis for a wide range of clients.
      Email: Information
      US Voice: 845-341-2100
      US Fax: 845-341-2121
      bergamot oil bergaptene free
  • Hermitage Oils
    • Hermitage Oils
      Perfumery and Aromatherapy materials since 1979
      Hermitage Oils, the true home of essential oils!
      Hermitage Oils offers a selection of Absolutes, Essential Oils, Natural Isolates, Aroma Chemicals, CO2 Extracts, Ethanol Tinctures, and Extraits by Enfleurage.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      The Vault
      Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE
      Adam Michael has this to say about Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE “The bergamot tree (Citrus bergamia) takes its name from the small town of Bergamo in Northern Italy. The fruit (like a miniature orange), has been used for hundreds of years in Italian folk medicine, but not in that of other countries, as the tree was almost unknown outside Italy, and the fruit was not exported until relatively recent times.
  • Indukern F&F
  • Lluch Essence
  • Pell Wall Perfumes
    • Pell Wall Perfumes
      Hand-made fragrances
      Pell Wall maintains a broad palette of ingredients & in order to keep stocks fresh & the options wide we also sell from our own stock.
      Pell Wall was founded by perfumer Chris Bartlett to provide exclusive hand-made fragrances to a select few people who love them. All our products are created using fine quality ingredients, many of which we also offer for sale to other perfumers and enthusiasts. Pell Wall make fragrances for men, for women and for the home. If you’re looking for something even more exclusive our bespoke fragrance design service could be what you’re looking for: we design custom fragrances for individuals, other perfume brands, hotels, corporations and organisations.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +44 1630 652546
      Mobile+44 7792 580511
      Bergamot FCF
      This form of bergamot has been rectified to remove the fourocoumarins that cause photosensitivity so that it can be used more freely.
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
  • Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
    • Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils, Inc.
      EXCEPTIONAL Flavor and Fragrance Ingredients.
      Phoenix sources the finest flavor and fragrance ingredients for its customers.
      Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils LLC was founded in 1994, grounded in a simple set of core values: provide top-quality products, cost-effective pricing and personalized attention to all our customers. After two decades, we remain committed to those values. With extensive market knowledge of our products, we anticipate, as opposed to merely react, to industry challenges. You can rely on us for all your flavor and fragrance ingredient needs. Customers benefit from Phoenix's long-standing relationships with experienced and reputable growers, processors and manufacturers in key global locations, who are committed to sustainability and green programs. With a strategically located 80,000 sq-ft facility, customers can rely on Phoenix to deliver quality products on time, and cost-effectively.
      Email: EU Info
      US Email: Info
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +44(0) 208 532 1022
      Fax: +44(0) 208 532 1023
      US Voice: 201-784-6100
      US Fax: 201-784-8566
      Global Reach
      Bergamot Oil B.F.
  • Robertet
    • Robertet, Inc.
      HOME OF NATURE – natural ingredients from the source.
      Robertet is a leader in the production of natural ingredients with facilities in France, Bulgaria, Turkey, South Africa, India, China, New Caledonia,… Founded in 1850, Robertet remains a family owned business (5th Generation) and one of the largest producers of aromatic extracts. Brand acquisitions include: Charabot, Sapad, Hitex.
      US Email: Customer service
      US Email: Arnaud Adrian
      Email: Flavor:
      Email: Fragrance:
      Voice: 33 4 93 40 33 66
      Fax: 33 4 93 70 68 09
      US Voice: +1.201.337.7100
      +1 212 710 4600Robertet New York Creative Center
      +1 212 245 4092Robertet New York Creative Center
      Bergamot Ess. oil (for fragrance)
  • Taytonn
      Supplying Asia Pacific
      We fully understand the demands of the F&F industry and we endeavour to supply quality products, with ready availability and a personalised service.
      Since 2001 TAYTONN has been distributing key ingredients to the Fragrance and Flavor industry in Asia. We work closely with customers, principals and vendors. Together we forecast demand and match it with supply of aroma chemicals, essential oils and natural isolates & extracts. Sourced from around the world, our F&F ingredient inventory in Singapore is ready to ship to any location in Asia and beyond. Time and again, we help our principals introduce new discoveries to the F&F market - stimulating creativity and bringing value added proposition to our customers.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: + 65 - 6861 8113
      Fax: + 65 - 6861 8115
      Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Free
  • The John D. Walsh Company
    • The John D. Walsh Company, Inc
      Suppliers Since 1942
      Supplying the fragrance and flavor industry with high quality products.
      The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. has evolved from its beginnings as an agent/broker into a distributor of essential oils, aroma chemicals, concretes and absolutes. We currently represent the following companies, as their North American distributor: Destilerias Munoz Galvez, S.A. International Flavors & Fragrances PFW Aroma Chemicals B.V. Innospec Widnes Limited Hydrodiffusion de Guatemala, S. A. DSM Nutritional Products The John D. Walsh Company, Inc. is proud to be a founding member of IFEAT, an active member of IFRA, North America, and a corporate sponsor of the WFFC.
      Email: Information
      Email: Sales
      Email: Firmenich Flavor inquiries
      Voice: 973-962-1400
      Fax: 973-962-1557
      Firmenich Flavor Phone:973-962-1888
      Firmenich Flavor Fax:973-962-1898
      Bergamot Oil, B.F.
  • The Lebermuth Company
    • The Lebermuth Company
      Mother Nature's Finest Products
      We Make The World Smell & Taste Better.
      Our family & company culture echo our founders ideals, in America's heartland. Our legacy, passion, & rich history contribute to who we are. Today Lebermuth is still owned and operated by Rob Brown and his brothers and sister. In the past few decades Lebermuth has been committed to employing internationally renowned chemists and formulators. The facilities have also grown to house some of the most advanced processing equipment in the industry. We go to the ends of the earth to bring you the finest mother nature has to offer. Being “green” has always been and will always be, the true essence of The Lebermuth Company.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 1-574-259-7000
      Fax: 1-574-258-7450
      US Voice: 1-800-648-1123
      US Fax: 1-800-852-4722
      50-6030-01-01 Bergamot BF Oil
  • The Lermond Company
    • The Lermond Company
      Your Sourcing Resource
      The Lermond family has been sourcing raw materials for the flavor and fragrance industry for nearly 7 decades.
      The Lermond Company is a women-owned distributor of raw materials primarily servicing the flavor and fragrance industry. For three generations, members of the Lermond family have been integral sourcing partners for the North American flavor and fragrance industry. We supply high quality essential oils, aroma chemicals, absolutes, concretes, resinoids and floral waters from around the world to the global industry.
      Email: Info
      Email: Tara
      Email: Erica
      Voice: 201-896-3300
      Fax: 201-623-2910
      Bergamot Oil BF P&N - AV
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name: citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
CAS Number: 68648-33-9
ECHA EC Number: 296-429-8
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
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FEMA Number: 2153  bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale greenish yellow clear liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.86200 to 0.87000 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.173 to  7.239
Refractive Index: 1.45900 to 1.46790 @  20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation: +15.00 to +28.00
Flash Point: 125.00 °F. TCC ( 51.67 °C. )
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength: medium
 citrus  floral  woody  orange  herbal  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
citrus floral woody orange linalyl acetate
Luebke, William tgsc, (1984)
 citrus  floral  sweet  spicy  green  orange peel  lemon  lime  ginger  
Odor Description:
Citrus, floral, sweet, spicy, green and orange peely, with lemon, lime and ginger nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 23, No. 2, 43, (1998)
 citrus  floral  rose  green  lemon  fatty  ginger  lime  
Taste Description:
at 25.00 ppm.  
Citrus,floral, rosy, green, lemon and fatty with a ginger and lime nuance
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 23, No. 2, 43, (1998)
Substantivity: 8 Hour(s)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Albert Vieille SAS
Bergapten-free bergamot Essential oil Italy
Odor: asting citrus scent, with characteristic fresh, lively notes and zesty facets
Use: Bergamot, also known by the botanical name of Citrus aurantium subsp bergamia, is a citrus fruit grown mainly in the Sicily and Calabria regions of Italy. The tree of the same name that bears this fruit with the tart, bitter pulp does not exist in the wild. It is apparently the result of an ancient hybridization of the bitter orange tree and the lemon tree and can grow up to five meters high. In the spring, it is covered with very fragrant white flowers that, between December and March, give way to small, yellow-green fruit having a thick peel covered in oil-filled vesicles. Our Italian bergapten-free bergamot essential oil is obtained by cold expression of the pericarp of the ripe fruit, followed by steam distillation to remove the bergapten, a photo-sensitizing component that can have adverse side effects. This modification gives the absolute particularly desirable qualities for use in perfumery and cosmetics: purified composition, colorless appearance, and improved fixative properties. It has a lasting citrus scent, with characteristic fresh, lively notes and zesty facets.
Harvest Calendar
Bergamot Oil Italian Bergaptene Free
Organic Bergamot Oil FCF Italy
bergamot oil B.F.
Bontoux Online
Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) EO
Odor: fresh, lively, zesty
Use: The essential oil of Bergamot FCF 100% pure and natural is used in aromatherapy, cosmetics and as a top note in fine fragrance freshness. It is also used in food to flavoring the Earl Grey tea. Fresh and zesty the essential oil of Bergamot FCF (FuroCoumarin Free) is cleared of its furocoumarins by molecular distillation.
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Bergamot (bergaptene free) essential oil, Bulk
Odor: characteristic
Use: Used in douches and sitz baths, bergamot oil has proved successful in gonococcal infections, leucorrhoea, vaginal prurities and urinary infections; add no more than 2-3 drops to some warm water. Its antiseptic properties make it ideal for treating wounds, herpes, acne and oily skin conditions. Bergamot imparts that unusual flavor to Earl Grey tea. It was and still is an important ingredient in the classic Eau de Cologne formula. Blends well with chamomile, lavender, neroli and rosemary. Regular Bergamot is a photosensitizer (increases the skin reaction to sunlight and makes it more likely to burn). Our Bergaptene-free Bergamot has had the chemical bergaptene removed and this greatly reduces the risk of photosensitization when exposed to the sun after use.
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Bergamot (bergaptene free) essential oil
Bergamot Italy low furocoumarin oil
100 % Pure & Natural
Odor: Fresh, zesty, bitter, slightly sweet
Citrus and Allied Essences
Oil Bergamot Italian rectified, furo coumarin reduced
Market Report
Bergamot Essential Oil
Diffusions Aromatiques
Diffusions Aromatiques
Bergamot B.F Oil Organic
Elixens America
Bergamot Oil Berg. Free Italy
Certified Organic
Ernesto Ventós
Excellentia International
Bergamot Oil Decolorized (Non-Sensitizing)
bergamot oil bergaptene free
Global Essence
Bergamot Oil (Many Varieties Available)
Global Essence
Bergamot Oil BF Organic
Hermitage Oils
Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE
Odor: characteristic
Use: Adam Michael has this to say about Bergamot Essential Oil BF/FCF FREE “The bergamot tree (Citrus bergamia) takes its name from the small town of Bergamo in Northern Italy. The fruit (like a miniature orange), has been used for hundreds of years in Italian folk medicine, but not in that of other countries, as the tree was almost unknown outside Italy, and the fruit was not exported until relatively recent times.
The Vault
Indenta Group
Bergamot Oil (bergaptene Free)
Indukern F&F
Liberty Natural Products
Lluch Essence
Lluch Essence
Commercial Qualities
bergamot oil bergaptene free FCC
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Reduced
NAT arom®, in Ez-Caps™, AquaReady™ or Classic forms
Payand Betrand
Bergamot Oil rectified Ivory Coast
Pell Wall Perfumes
Bergamot FCF
Odor: Citrus, earl grey tea, fresh, aldehydic
Use: This form of bergamot has been rectified to remove the fourocoumarins that cause photosensitivity so that it can be used more freely.
Penta International
Perfumer Supply House
Bergamot Oil, Bergaptene Free
Odor: A light citrus (orange and lemon) note with floral nuance. Woody finish
Use: Bergamot Oil Bergaptene-free has had the chemical bergaptene removed, which reduces (but doesn’t eliminate) the risk of photosensitization. Use with care if using on the skin when going in the sun.
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Bergamot Oil B.F.
Bergamot Ess. oil (for fragrance)
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Free
The John D. Walsh Company
Bergamot Oil, B.F.
The Lebermuth Company
Bergamot BF Oil
Odor: Fresh, fruity -sweet citrus with a slightly balsamic undertone
The Lermond Company
Bergamot Oil BF P&N - AV
Bergamot Oil Bergaptene Free
Bergamot Oil Low Furanocoumarin
White Lotus Aromatics
Bergamot bergaptene-free essential oil
Odor: rich, juicy, sweet, fruity bouquet with an elegant herbaceous, balsamic undertone
Use: In natural perfumery used as a topnote in high class perfumes, herbal bouquets, colognes, fougeres, chypres.
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 3), H226
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 - Keep container tightly closed.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242 - Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 - Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303 + P361 + P353 - IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  11520 mg/kg

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Phototoxicity
IFRA Purity Specification: bergaptenes reduced
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Where the bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) content of all relevant oils present in a compound has been determined, it is recommended that for applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, the total level of bergapten in the consumer products should not exceed 0.0015% (15 ppm). This is equivalent to 0.0075% (75 ppm) in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product. Where the level of bergapten has not been determined by appropriate methods, the limits specified in the guidelines on individual oils should apply. In those cases, where such oils are used in combination with other phototoxic ingredients, the additive effect has to be taken into consideration and the use levels have to be reduced accordingly. The sum of the concentrations of all phototoxic fragrance ingredients, expressed in % of their recommended maximum level in the consumer product, shall not exceed 100.
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
citral Max. Found: <0.70 % and Reason: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.4000 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "wash off the skin contact":
  15.0000 % Recommendation.
limits in the finished product for - "no skin contact":
  30.0000 % Recommendation.
Recommendation for bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy usage levels up to:
  30.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -29.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -8.90000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -43.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 1.00000130.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -7.90000
fruit ices: -7.90000
gelatins / puddings: 5.3000090.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -27.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 68648-33-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 2319
WGK Germany: 2
 citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
Chemidplus: 0068648339
RTECS: DS0500000 for cas# 68648-33-9
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 citrus × bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 68648-33-9
Pubchem (sid): 135362701
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Export Tariff Code: 3301.11.0000
Wikipedia: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
 amyl benzoateFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 ocimum basilicum herb oilFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 bergamot acetoacetateFR
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
alpha-butyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 elettaria cardamomum seed oilFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 anthemis nobilis flower oil romanFL/FR
 cinnamyl formateFL/FR
 citral diethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral ethylene glycol acetalFR
 citronella oil ceylonFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
(S)-citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 citronellyl propionateFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 coranol (Firmenich)FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 cubeb oilFL/FR
 cumin carbinolFR
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 decanal (aldehyde C-10)FL/FR
 decanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 dihydrocitronellyl ethyl etherFR
 dihydromyrcenyl acetateFR
 dihydroterpinyl acetateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
 dodecane nitrileFR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl linaloolFR
 ethyl linalyl acetalFR
 ethyl linalyl acetateFR
 ethyl linalyl etherFL/FR
 ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 floral butanalFR
 floral pyranolFR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 geranyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 geranyl propionateFL/FR
 gingergrass oilFR
 grapefruit pentanolFR
 green acetateFR
 green carboxylateFR
 hay absoluteFR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 ho leaf oilFR
 ho wood oilFR
2,4-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 ivy dioxolaneFR
 jasmin cyclopentanolFR
 jonquil absoluteFR
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
abrialis lavandin oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 lime oil distilled mexicoFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
(Z)-linalool oxide (pyranoid)FL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
dextro-linalyl acetateFL/FR
laevo-linalyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl anthranilateFL/FR
 linalyl benzoateFL/FR
 linalyl butyrateFL/FR
 linalyl formateFL/FR
 linalyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 linalyl isovalerateFL/FR
 linalyl propionateFL/FR
 melon heptenalFL/FR
 methyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 methyl anthranilateFL/FR
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
2-methyl undecanal (aldehyde C-12 mna)FL/FR
alpha-methylene citronellalFR
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 muguet undecadienalFR
 myrcenyl acetateFL/FR
(1S,5R)-myrtenyl acetateFL/FR
 myrtle oilFL/FR
 neroli oil bigardeFL/FR
 neroli ketoneFR
 nerolidyl isobutyrateFR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 neryl isovalerateFL/FR
 nonanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 ocimen-1-yl acetateFR
 octanal (aldehyde C-8)FL/FR
 octanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-octyl acetateFL/FR
 octyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
 orange leaf absoluteFL/FR
 orange nitrileFR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
 papaya isobutyrateFL/FR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 perilla alcoholFL/FR
 petitgrain heptaneFR
 petitgrain oil paraguayFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
2-phenyl propionaldehyde ethylene glycol acetalFR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 sandalwood oilFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 sweet pea absoluteFR
 terpineol acetateFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl acetateFL/FR
 terpinyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
 terpinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
alpha-terpinyl methyl etherFL/FR
 terpinyl propionateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinalyl acetateFR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
 verdyl acetateFR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
 watermelon ketoneFR
 woody acetateFR
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Potential Uses:
 a suma 
 acacia cassie farnesianaFR
 baisers du printemps 
 blue dream 
 blue grass 
 chanel #5 
 clover trefle le'trefle incarnatFR
 couronne de fleurs 
 elder flowerFR
 fern fougereFR
 fleurs de montpellier 
 florida breeze 
 florida soap 
 genet genista broomFR
 huile de mille fleurs 
 je reviens 
 juniper berryFR
 muguet lily of the valleyFR
 orange blossomFR
 rain springFR
 reseda mignonetteFR
 rose whiteFR
 sweet peaFR
 vol de nuit 
 west end 
 white shoulders 
 windsor soap 
 wisteria wistaria glycineFR
 ylang ylangFR
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Natural Occurrence in: note
 citrus bergamia peel
GRIN Trop Picture
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 bergamot B.F oil organic
 bergamot EO-hiXform
 bergamot ess. oil (for fragrance) (Robertet)
 bergamot essential oil BF
 bergamot italy BF essential oil
 bergamot oil bergaptene free italy
 bergamot oil (bergaptene free) italy, calabria organic
 bergamot oil B.F.
 bergamot oil bergaptene free
 bergamot oil bergaptene free FCC
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced (citrus aurantium var. bergamia wright et arn.) italy
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
 bergamot oil italian bergaptene free
 bergamot oil psoralen reduced italy
 bergamot oil rectified ivory coast
 bergamot oil, B.F.
 bergamot oil, bergaptene free colorless
 bergamot orange oil bergaptene reduced italy
 bergamote SS bergaptene deco eo
 bergamote SS bergaptene ess select 01
 citrus aurantium bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 citrus aurantium var. bergamia peel oil bergaptene reduced italy
 citrus bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 citrus × bergamia peel oil psoralen reduced italy
 oil bergamot italian rectified, furo coumarin reduced
 volatile oil obtained from the peel of citrus aurantium bergamia, rutaceae, bergaptene reduced
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PubMed: Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) Flavonoids and Their Potential Benefits in Human Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis: an Overview.
PubMed: The essential oil of Citrus bergamia Risso induces vasorelaxation of the mouse aorta by activating K(+) channels and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx.
PubMed: In vitro effect of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) juice against cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed: Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females.
PubMed: Effect of Citrus bergamia juice on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in metastatic xenograft models.
PubMed: Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap TOF-MS for the fast characterization of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed: Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia Risso Elevates Intracellular Ca (2+) in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells due to Release of Ca (2+) from Primary Intracellular Stores.
PubMed: In vitro activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) oil against clinical isolates of dermatophytes.
PubMed: Protective effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia against inflammatory injury in interferon-γ and histamine exposed human keratinocytes.
PubMed: In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Citrus bergamia essential oil and its major components.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.
PubMed: Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.
PubMed: Antiviral activity of seed extract from Citrus bergamia towards human retroviruses.
PubMed: Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.
PubMed: Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.
PubMed: In vitro photo-induced cytotoxic activity of Citrus bergamia and C. medica L. cv. Diamante peel essential oils and identified active coumarins.
PubMed: Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.
PubMed: Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed: Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.
PubMed: Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.
PubMed: Bergamot essential oil differentially modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: a new finding seen with fura-2.
PubMed: Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.
PubMed: [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].
PubMed: Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.
PubMed: Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.
PubMed: Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.
PubMed: Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.
PubMed: High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.
PubMed: [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].
PubMed: Evaluation of phototoxic and photogenotoxic risk associated with the use of photosensitizers in suntan preparations: application to tanning preparations containing bergamot oil.
PubMed: Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Pectin methylesterase in Citrus bergamia R.: purification, biochemical characterisation and sequence of the exon related to the enzyme active site.
PubMed: Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.
PubMed: The photochemistry and photobiology of bergamot oil as a perfume ingredient: an overview.
PubMed: Local sensitization of the skin to Grenz rays by bergamot oil.
PubMed: The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation.
PubMed: Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.
PubMed: Toxic profile of bergamot essential oil on survival and proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Hypolipidemic effects of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau juice in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.
PubMed: Distribution of flavonoids and furocoumarins in juices from cultivars of Citrus bergamia Risso.
PubMed: Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.
PubMed: A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. II. Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives.
PubMed: Study of the extraction procedure by experimental design and validation of a LC method for determination of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice.
PubMed: [Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].
PubMed: Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth.
PubMed: Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.
PubMed: [Chemical composition of the endocarpus of the fruit of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso)].
PubMed: [The zinc oxide and bergamot oil gingival dressing and rationale of its preparation].
PubMed: Evaluation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins from Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) juice and identification of new compounds.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.
PubMed: Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.
PubMed: Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).
PubMed: Rodenticidal activity of two natural coumarines from ether extract of Citrus bergamia.
PubMed: [Accidents due to tanning cosmetics with a base of bergamot oil].
PubMed: [Simplified method of preparation of the zinc oxide-bergamot oil gingival dressing].
PubMed: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of bergamot juice extract (BJe) in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed: Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.
PubMed: In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.
PubMed: A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.
PubMed: Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.
PubMed: Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils.
PubMed: The use of aromasticks at a cancer centre: a retrospective audit.
PubMed: The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
PubMed: Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis.
PubMed: Flavonoid fraction of Bergamot juice reduces LPS-induced inflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 monocytes.
PubMed: Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
PubMed: Magnetically recoverable, thermostable, hydrophobic DNA/silica encapsulates and their application as invisible oil tags.
PubMed: Role of D-Limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed: Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.
PubMed: The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.
PubMed: Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.
PubMed: The mechanism of action of a citrus oil blend against Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed: Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.
PubMed: Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.
PubMed: Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.
PubMed: Occurrence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) in Citrus genus plants.
PubMed: [Analysis of 14 elements for Jinhua bergamot by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and elemental analyser].
PubMed: Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro.
PubMed: The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems.
PubMed: Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.
PubMed: Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.
PubMed: Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils.
PubMed: Update of the toxicological assessment of furanocoumarins in foodstuffs (Update of the SKLM statement of 23/24 September 2004)--Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
PubMed: Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.
PubMed: UVB phototherapeutic modalities. Comparison of two treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.
PubMed: Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.
PubMed: Effects of music and essential oil inhalation on cardiac autonomic balance in healthy individuals.
PubMed: [Not Available].
PubMed: In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
PubMed: New asymmetrical per-substituted cyclodextrins (2-O-methyl-3-O-ethyl- and 2-O-ethyl-3-O-methyl-6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-derivatives) as chiral selectors for enantioselective gas chromatography in the flavour and fragrance field.
PubMed: [Purely natural: phototoxic dermatitis].
PubMed: Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.
PubMed: In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates.
PubMed: Inhibition of bergaptene toxicity by UV-A filters.
PubMed: Determination of 5-methoxypsoralen in human serum.
PubMed: [The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents].
PubMed: In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.
PubMed: Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.
PubMed: Further insights into the floral character of Touriga Nacional wines.
PubMed: Phytophotodermatitis.
PubMed: The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.
PubMed: Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed: Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.
PubMed: Dangers of the intake of psoralens and subsequent UV exposure producing significant burns.
PubMed: Quantitative assessment of epidermal melanogenesis in C3H/Tif hr/hr mice treated with topical furocoumarins and UVA radiation.
PubMed: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of citropten and bergapten in suction blister fluid after solar product application in humans.
PubMed: [Vitamin content of bergamot].
PubMed: Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.
PubMed: Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).
PubMed: Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.
PubMed: [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].
PubMed: Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances.
PubMed: [The effects of the inhalation method using essential oils on blood pressure and stress responses of clients with essential hypertension].
PubMed: The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons.
PubMed: High-throughput analysis of bergamot essential oil by fast solid-phase microextraction-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.
PubMed: Determination of some heavy metals and selenium in Sicilian and Calabrian citrus essential oils using derivative stripping chronopotentiometry.
PubMed: Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).
PubMed: Earl Grey, in excess.
PubMed: Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.
PubMed: How big is a drop? A volumetric assay of essential oils.
PubMed: Photoreactivity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and lack of photoreaction with DNA.
PubMed: Citropten and bergapten suction blister fluid concentrations after solar product application in man.
PubMed: A quantitative in vitro assay for the evaluation of phototoxic potential of topically applied materials.
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Soluble in:
 dipropylene glycol
 water, 20.12 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 bath foam
 hair spray
 non-discoloring in most media
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