EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

pyruvic acid
2-oxo-propanoic acid

Supplier Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:2-oxopropanoic acid
CAS Number: 127-17-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:204-824-3
FDA UNII:8558G7RUTR
Nikkaji Web:J2.015J
Beilstein Number:0506211
MDL:MFCD00002585
CoE Number:19
XlogP3-AA:-0.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:88.06248000
Formula:C3 H4 O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:936 pyruvic acid
FLAVIS Number:08.019 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.019 pyruvic acid
FEMA Number:2970 pyruvic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):127-17-3 ; PYRUVIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow green clear viscous liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.26200 to 1.27200 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 10.501 to 10.584
Refractive Index:1.42400 to 1.43200 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 11.00 to 13.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 164.00 to 166.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 65.00 °C. @ 12.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.968000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:3.0 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 180.00 °F. TCC ( 82.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.240 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: acidic
Odor Strength:medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity: > 8 hour(s) at 100.00 %
sharp sour acetic caramellic
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in propylene glycol. sharp sour acetic caramellic
Flavor Type: caramellic
caramellic sugar brown sugar sour
Taste Description: caramellic brown sugar
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Bedoukian Research
PYRUVIC ACID BRI ≥95.0%, Kosher
Odor Description:sour acetic
Could be used very sparingly in appropriate applications.
Taste Description:Characteristic brown sugar
Brown sugar, caramel, and rum.
Indukern F&F
PYRUVIC ACID
Odor Description:ACID, POWERFUL, SOUR, VINEGAR
Prodasynth
PYRUVIC ACID (> 94%)
Odor Description:ACIDIC,SHARP,SOUR,CARAMEL
Taste Description:PLEASANT SOUR,MILDLY BURNT CARAMEL
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
Pyruvic Acid 99%
Advanced Biotech
PYRUVIC ACID NATURAL
Augustus Oils
Pyruvic Acid
Services
Aurochemicals
PYRUVIC ACID, Natural
Bedoukian Research
PYRUVIC ACID BRI
≥95.0%, Kosher
Odor: sour acetic
Use: Could be used very sparingly in appropriate applications.
Flavor: Characteristic brown sugar
Brown sugar, caramel, and rum.
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Pyruvic acid
Berjé
Pyruvic Acid
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
PYRUVIC ACID BRI 95.0%
Fleurchem
pyruvic acid natural
Indukern F&F
PYRUVIC ACID
Odor: ACID, POWERFUL, SOUR, VINEGAR
Inoue Perfumery
PYRUVIC ACID
Kun Shan P&A
Natural Pyruvic Acid
Kunshan Sainty
Pyruvic Acid, Natural
Lluch Essence
PYRUVIC ACID 97%
M&U International
Nat. Pyruvic Acid, Kosher
M&U International
Pyruvic Acid, Kosher
Minasolve
Pyruvic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Pyruvic acid is a very important compound involved in some very important biochemical processes. It occurs naturally as an intermediate product in carbohydrate and protein metabolisms in the body. The six-carbon glucose molecule is broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid in aerobic condition as the main input for Krebs cycle, whereas to two molecules of lactic acid (alpha hydroxy acid) in anaerobic condition. Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle; tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a sequent process of enzymatic reaction which a two-carbon acetyl unit is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water to provide energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Pyruvic acid is a key intersection in the network of metabolic pathways; it can be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol. Therefore it unites several key metabolic processes.
Penta International
PYRUVIC ACID NATURAL
Penta International
PYRUVIC ACID SYNTHETIC
Prodasynth
PYRUVIC ACID
(> 94%)
Odor: ACIDIC,SHARP,SOUR,CARAMEL
Flavor: PLEASANT SOUR,MILDLY BURNT CARAMEL
Reincke & Fichtner
Pyruvic Acid natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Pyruvic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyruvic acid, ≥97%, FG
Odor: caramel; creamy; vegetable; coffee; meaty; wine-like
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyruvic acid, natural, ≥80%
Odor: caramel; creamy; vegetable; coffee; meaty; wine-like
Sunaux International
nat.Pyruvic Acid
Synerzine
Pyruvic Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Pyruvic Acid >97.0%(GC)
WEN International
PYRUVIC ACID Natural
WholeChem
Pyruvic acid
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
Pyruvic Acid ≥ 95.0%,Natural
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
C - Corrosive.
R 34 - Causes burns.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 3533 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 81, Pg. 1225, 1961.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
Recommendation for pyruvic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 30.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 69.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -30.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.25000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -110.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 0.2500020.00000
fruit ices: 0.2500020.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -27.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):127-17-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1060
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 3265
WGK Germany:3
2-oxopropanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000127173
RTECS:UZ0829800 for cas# 127-17-3
 
References:
 2-oxopropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:127-17-3
Pubchem (cid):1060
Pubchem (sid):134973905
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00022
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00243
FooDB:FDB008293
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00175
Export Tariff Code:2918.30.9000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
balsamic
iso
amyl pyruvate
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
opoponax resinoid (balsamodendron kafal)
FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
valerian rhizome absolute
FL/FR
caramellic
diethyl malate
FL/FR
ethyl cyclopentenolone
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
valeric acid
FL/FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
earthy
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
amyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl alcohol
FL/FR
decyl propionate
FL/FR
ethyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl pyruvate
FL/FR
1-
hexen-3-ol
FL/FR
(E)-
methyl tiglate
FL/FR
propyl formate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
fatty
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
decanoic acid
FL/FR
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
octanoic acid
FL/FR
fermented
ethyl (E)-2-crotonate
FL/FR
methyl decanoate
FL/FR
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
floral
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl hexanoate
FL/FR
artemisia pallens herb oil
FL/FR
berry pentadienoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
iso
butyl butyrate
FL/FR
butyl formate
FL/FR
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
sour
cherry essence
FL/FR
cyclohexanone diethyl acetal
FL/FR
diethyl laevo-tartrate
FL/FR
diethyl sebacate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl isobutyrate
FR
ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoate
FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
ethyl propionate
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
fig crotonate
FR
fruity carboxylate
FR
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
3-
hexanone
FL/FR
methyl nonanoate
FL/FR
methyl propionate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
prenyl formate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
fungal
methyl 2-furoate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl formate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
herbal
iso
amyl tiglate
FL/FR
clary sage concrete
FL/FR
white
cognac oil
FL/FR
ethyl chrysanthemate
FR
phenethyl senecioate
FL/FR
honey
allyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
phenoxyacetic acid
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
jammy
ethyl 2-methyl-2-pentenoate
FR
meaty
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
roasted
2-
methyl-1-butanol
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl 3-mercaptobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
winey
butyl angelate
FL/FR
2-
hexanol
FL/FR
woody
amber carbinol
FR
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl pyruvate
FL/FR
iso
amyl tiglate
FL/FR
2-
amyl-5 or 6-keto-1,4-dioxane
FL
arnica montana flower extract
FL/FR
butyl angelate
FL/FR
butyl formate
FL/FR
iso
butyraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL
cyclohexanone diethyl acetal
FL/FR
decyl propionate
FL/FR
diethyl laevo-tartrate
FL/FR
diethyl malate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-mercaptobutyrate
FL/FR
ethyl aconitate
FL
ethyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
2-
hexanol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
2-
hexyl acetate
FL
3-
hydroxypyruvic acid
FL
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
(E)-
methyl tiglate
FL/FR
2-
methyl-1-butanol
FL/FR
phenethyl senecioate
FL/FR
phenoxyacetic acid
FL/FR
prenyl formate
FL/FR
sorbyl propionate
FL
(±)-
tetrahydronootkatone
FL/FR
iso
amyl 3-(2-furan) propionate
FL/FR
acidic
acidic
iso
butyric acid
FL/FR
levulinic acid
FL/FR
propionic acid
FL
valeric acid
FL/FR
balsamic
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
berry
prunus spinosa extract
FL
brown
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate
FL/FR
buttery
2-
methyl valeric acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenoic acid
FL
caramellic
maple flavor
FL
methyl 2-furoate
FL/FR
pyruvaldehyde
FL
cheesy
(E)-2,4-
dimethyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL
hexanoic acid
FL/FR
iso
valeric acid
FL/FR
earthy
1-
hexen-3-yl acetate
FL
ethereal
iso
butyl alcohol
FL/FR
ethyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
methyl decanoate
FL/FR
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
(E)-2-
octenoic acid
FL
floral
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
fruity
allyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
artemisia pallens herb oil
FL/FR
berry pentadienoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
iso
butyl butyrate
FL/FR
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
sour
cherry essence
FL/FR
date flavor
FL
diethyl sebacate
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
ethyl propionate
FL/FR
3-
hexanone
FL/FR
hexyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl propionate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
pineapple distillates
FL
pineapple flavor
FL
propyl formate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tamarindus indica extract
FL
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
valerian rhizome absolute
FL/FR
fusel
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
white
cognac oil
FL/FR
green
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
1-
hexen-3-ol
FL/FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
herbal
clary sage concrete
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
honey
allyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
jammy
ethyl cyclopentenolone
FL/FR
musty
ethyl (E)-2-crotonate
FL/FR
propionaldehyde
FL
rummy
ethyl pyruvate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl formate
FL/FR
soapy
decanoic acid
FL/FR
octanoic acid
FL/FR
sour
acetic acid
FL
2-
methyl-2-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
spicy
2-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
sugar
cotton candy flavor
FL
sweet
molasses flavor
FL
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
whiskey
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
winey
methyl nonanoate
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLbeer
FLbread
FLcaramel
FLcoffee
FLmilk
FLpecan
FLprune
FLraisin
FLrum
FLstrawberry
FLwine
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple plant
Search Trop Picture
 asparagus
Search Trop Picture
 banana leaf
Search Trop Picture
 beef
Search PMC Picture
 beer
Search PMC Picture
 bread wheat bread
Search PMC Picture
 celery shoot
Search Trop Picture
 cheese bleu cheese
Search PMC Picture
 cheese cheddar cheese
Search PMC Picture
 cheese cottage cheese
Search PMC Picture
 cheese provolone cheese
Search PMC Picture
 chickpea
Search Trop Picture
 cocoa
Search Trop Picture
 corn sprout
Search Trop Picture
 cream
Search PMC Picture
 ginkgo biloba pollen
Search Trop Picture
 milk
Search PMC Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop Picture
 onion fruit juice
Search Trop Picture
 onion juice
Search Trop Picture
 pea
Search Trop Picture
 peanut
Search Trop Picture
 pecan
Search Trop Picture
 peppermint
Search Trop Picture
 rutabaga
Search Trop Picture
 sake
Search PMC Picture
 tobacco virginia tobacco
Search Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 wine
Search Picture
 wine white wine
Search Picture
 yogurt
Search Picture
 
Synonyms:
 acetyl formic acid
 acetylformic acid
2-ketopropanoic acid
2-oxopropanoic acid
2-oxo-propanoic acid
a-ketopropanoic acid
 propanoic acid, 2-oxo-
2-ketopropionic acid
2-oxopropionic acid
2-oxo-propionic acid
a-ketopropionic acid
a-keto propionic acid
alpha-ketopropionic acid
 pyroracemic acid
nat.pyruvic acid
 pyruvic acid (natural)
 pyruvic acid BRI
 pyruvic acid natural
 pyruvic acid synthetic
 pyruvicacid
 
 
Notes:
an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. in thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (from stedman, 26th ed) Isol. from cane sugar fermentation broth, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Pisum sativum (pea), Trigonella cerulea (sweet trefoil) and peppermint. Flavouring ingredient An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed.) Biological Source: Intermediate in primary metabolism including fermentation processes. Present in muscle in redox equilibrium with Lactic acid. A common constituent, as a chiral cyclic acetal linked to saccharide residues, of bacterial polysaccharides. Isolated from cane sugar fermentation broth and peppermint. Constituent of Bauhinia purpurea, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Delonix regia, Pisum sativum (pea) and Trigonella caerulea (sweet trefoil) Use/Importance: Reagent for regeneration of carbonyl compdounds from semicarbazones, phenylhydrazones and oximes. Flavoring ingredient (Dictionary of Organic Compounds); Pyruvate is a key intersection in the network of metabolic pathways. Pyruvate can be converted into carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol. Therefore it unites several key metabolic processes.; Pyruvate is an important chemical compound in biochemistry. It is the output of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose known as glycolysis. One molecule of glucose breaks down into two molecules of pyruvate, which are then used to provide further energy, in one of two ways. Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A, which is the main input for a series of reactions known as the Krebs cycle. Pyruvate is also converted to oxaloacetate by an anaplerotic reaction which replenishes Krebs cycle intermediates; alternatively, the oxaloacetate is used for gluconeogenesis. These reactions are named after Hans Adolf Krebs, the biochemist awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize for physiology, jointly with Fritz Lipmann, for research into metabolic processes. The cycle is also called the citric acid cycle, because citric acid is one of the intermediate compounds formed during the reactions.; Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is an organic acid. It is also a ketone, as well as being the simplest alpha-keto acid. The carboxylate (COOH) ion (anion) of pyruvic acid, CH3COCOO-, is known as pyruvate, and is a key intersection in several metabolic pathways. It can be made from glucose through glycolysis, supplies energy to living cells in the citric acid cycle, and can also be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol.; Pyruvic acid is a colorless liquid with a smell similar to that of acetic acid. It is miscible with water, and soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether. In the laboratory, pyruvic acid may be prepared by heating a mixture of tartaric acid and potassium hydrogen sulfate, by the oxidation of propylene glycol by a strong oxidizer (eg. potassium permanganate or bleach), or by the hydrolysis of acetyl cyanide, formed by reaction of acetyl chloride with potassium cyanide:; Pyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. Pyruvate is widely found in living organisms. It is not an essential nutrient since it can be synthesized in the cells of the body. Certain fruits and vegetables are rich in pyruvate. For example, an average-size red apple contains approximately 450 milligrams. Dark beer and red wine are also rich sources of pyruvate. Recent research suggests that pyruvate in high concentrations may have a role in cardiovascular therapy, as an inotropic agent. Supplements of this dietary substance may also have bariatric and ergogenic applications.
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