alpha,alpha-dimethyl benzyl isobutyrate
alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate

Sponsors

Name: 2-phenylpropan-2-yl 2-methylpropanoate
CAS Number: 7774-60-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 231-876-4
FDA UNII: 40AZG77VFH
Nikkaji Web: J183.038D
CoE Number: 11828
XlogP3-AA: 3.20 (est)
Molecular Weight: 206.28486000
Formula: C13 H18 O2
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1657 alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate
Flavis Number: 09.509 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 09.509 1-methyl-1-phenethyl isobutyrate
FEMA Number: 2388 alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate
FDA Mainterm: ALPHA,ALPHA-DIMETHYLBENZYL ISOBUTYRATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless clear liquid to solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 72.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 259.00 to 260.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.012000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 199.00 °F. TCC ( 92.78 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.510
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 20.5 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: fruity
Odor Strength: medium
 sweet fruity apricot peach plum green dry
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %.
sweet fruity apricot peach plum green dry
Flavor Type: fruity
 fruity citrus green dry banana plum
Taste Description:
fruity citrus green dry banana plum
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Parchem
alpha,alpha-dimethyl benzyl isobutyrate
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for alpha,alpha-dimethyl benzyl isobutyrate usage levels up to:
  8.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.012 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): ND (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3900 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -20.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -40.00000
fruit ices: -40.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -30.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 7.0000035.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 5.0000025.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 10.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 7.0000035.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 5.0000025.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 89 (FGE.89): Consideration of phenyl-substituted aliphatic tertiary alcohols and related aldehydes and esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd and 68th meetings) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.18Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 7774-60-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 11830590
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 2-phenylpropan-2-yl 2-methylpropanoate
Chemidplus: 0007774609
 
References:
 2-phenylpropan-2-yl 2-methylpropanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 7774-60-9
Pubchem (cid): 11830590
Pubchem (sid): 135341879
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB37623
FooDB: FDB016737
Export Tariff Code: 2915.60.0000
ChemSpider: View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
iso
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
iso
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzophenone
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
guaiyl butyrate
FR
3-
phenyl propyl cinnamate
FL/FR
citrus
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
2-
heptanol
FL/FR
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
creamy
creamy lactone
FL/FR
dry
autumn specialty
FR
ethereal
2-
methyl valeraldehyde
FL/FR
fatty
methyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
fermented
iso
butyl decanoate
FL/FR
floral
anise indene
FR
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
butyl nonanoate
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
(E)-
citronellyl tiglate
FL/FR
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
farnesol
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
heptyl propionate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
jasmin lactone (IFF)
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
neryl formate
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil
FL/FR
phenethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
phenethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
1-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
propyl salicylate
FR
styralyl propionate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
allyl 2-ethyl butyrate
FL/FR
allyl amyl glycolate
FR
allyl butyrate
FL/FR
allyl cinnamate
FL/FR
allyl cyclohexyl acetate
FL/FR
allyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
iso
amyl nonanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
amyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl valerate
FL/FR
apple crotonate
FR
apricot isobutyrate
FR
benzyl butyrate
FL/FR
benzyl heptanoate
FL/FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
butyl 2-decenoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
butyl formate
FL/FR
iso
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
butyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
iso
butyl propionate
FL/FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
citronellyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl cinnamate
FL/FR
2-
cyclopentyl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
(Z)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
(E)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
decen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
dihydroactinidolide
FL/FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
gamma-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
epsilon-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
(R)-delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
ethyl 2-cyclohexyl propionate
FR
ethyl 2-octenoate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-acetoxyhexanoate
FL/FR
ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoate
FR
ethyl 4-phenyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
ethyl cyclohexane propionate
FL/FR
fleuramone (IFF)
FR
fruity butanate
FR
fruity cyclopentanone
FR
heptanal cyclic ethylene acetal
FR
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
2-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl (E)-tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl formate
FL/FR
beta-
ionyl ethyl ether
FR
linalyl valerate
FL/FR
methyl 3-nonenoate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl heptanoate
FL/FR
nerolidyl isobutyrate
FR
octen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
peach cyclopentanone
FR
peach nitrile
FR
peach pivalate
FR
2-
pentyl furan
FL/FR
2-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
pineapple pentenoate
FL/FR
plum crotonate
FR
prenol
FL/FR
prenyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
propyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
propyl butyrate
FL/FR
rhubarb undecane
FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate
FL/FR
4-(para-
tolyl)-2-butanone
FL/FR
tropical indene
FR
tropical thiazole
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
(E)-2-
undecenal
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl formate
FL/FR
benzyl hexanoate
FL/FR
cognac heptanone
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
galbanum absolute replacer
FR
geranic acid
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
heptyl formate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl formate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
hexyl octanoate
FL/FR
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
oakmoss oil
FR
phenoxyethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
propylene acetal
FL/FR
thiogeraniol
FL/FR
violet dienyne
FR
herbal
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
freesia heptanol
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
5-
methyl-3-heptanone
FL/FR
honey
propyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
spicy
cuminyl nitrile
FR
myrcene
FL/FR
sulfurous
buchu mercaptan
FL/FR
grapefruit menthane
FL/FR
tropical
beta-
cyclocitral
FL/FR
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
octanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
woody
camphene
FL/FR
verdoxan
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
allyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
allyl cinnamate
FL/FR
allyl cyclohexyl valerate
FL
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
amyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl valerate
FL/FR
benzyl heptanoate
FL/FR
benzyl hexanoate
FL/FR
benzyl octanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl decanoate
FL/FR
butyl formate
FL/FR
butyl nonanoate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl cinnamate
FL/FR
2-
cyclopentyl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
dihydroactinidolide
FL/FR
epsilon-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
(R)-delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
ethyl 3-acetoxyhexanoate
FL/FR
ethyl 4-phenyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl cyclohexane propionate
FL/FR
2-
hexenal
FL
2-
hexenal diethyl acetal
FL
hexyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL
jasmin lactone (IFF)
FL/FR
linalyl valerate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
methyl-2-octenal
FL
2-
methyl-2-octenal
FL
3-
methyl-3-pentanol
FL
(E,E)-3,5-
octadien-2-one
FL
phenethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
1-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
prenyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
propylene acetal
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
alliaceous
alliaceous
allyl propionate
FL/FR
tropical thiazole
FL/FR
anisic
para-
anisyl butyrate
FL/FR
balsamic
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
camphoreous
camphene
FL/FR
citrus
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
cognac heptanone
FL/FR
freesia heptanol
FL/FR
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil
FL/FR
styralyl propionate
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
cooling
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
creamy
creamy lactone
FL/FR
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
jasmin pyranone
FL/FR
massoia lactone
FL
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
estery
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
ethereal
allyl 2-ethyl butyrate
FL/FR
fatty
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
heptyl formate
FL/FR
floral
citronellol
FL/FR
citronellyl propionate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
farnesol
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
linalyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
neroli oil bigarde
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl butyrate
FL/FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
butyl 2-decenoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
iso
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
butyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
iso
butyl propionate
FL/FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
citronellyl formate
FL/FR
citronellyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
(E)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
decen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
gamma-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-2-octenoate
FL
ethyl 2-octenoate
FL/FR
furfuryl propionate
FL
2-
furyl pentyl ketone
FL
2-
heptanol
FL/FR
heptyl propionate
FL/FR
2-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl isovalerate
FL/FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-3-nonenoate
FL
methyl 3-nonenoate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl formate
FL
methyl heptanoate
FL/FR
5-
methyl-3-heptanone
FL/FR
neryl formate
FL/FR
octen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
phenethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
pineapple pentenoate
FL/FR
prenol
FL/FR
iso
propyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
propyl butyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate
FL/FR
4-(para-
tolyl)-2-butanone
FL/FR
iso
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
geranium
benzophenone
FL/FR
green
allyl butyrate
FL/FR
iso
amyl formate
FL/FR
iso
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
(E)-
citronellyl tiglate
FL/FR
geranic acid
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
hepten-1-ol
FL/FR
heptyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal diethyl acetal
FL
hexyl (E)-tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl formate
FL/FR
hexyl octanoate
FL/FR
methyl 2-undecynoate
FL
nerolidol
FL/FR
(E)-
nerolidol
FL/FR
2-
pentyl furan
FL/FR
phenoxyethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
herbal
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
honey
phenethyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
propyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
minty
thiogeraniol
FL/FR
rummy
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl formate
FL/FR
spicy
2-
phenyl propyl butyrate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl cinnamate
FL/FR
sulfurous
buchu mercaptan
FL/FR
grapefruit menthane
FL/FR
tropical
beta-
cyclocitral
FL/FR
malibu moment flavor
FL
vegetable
2-
methyl valeraldehyde
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
furfuryl octanoate
FL
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
octanol
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
undecenal
FL/FR
winey
iso
amyl nonanoate
FL/FR
woody
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
dehydroxylinalool oxide
FL/FR
myrcene
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
 apricotFR
 bananaFR
 fruitFR
 fruit tropical fruit 
 peachFR
 plumFR
 tropicalFL
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
isobutyric acid alpha,alpha-dimethyl benzyl ester
alpha,alpha-dimethyl benzyl 2-methyl propanoate
alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate
2-methyl propanoic acid 1-methyl-1-phenyl ethyl ester
1-methyl-1-phenethyl isobutyrate
1-methyl-1-phenyl ethyl 2-methyl propanoate
1-methyl-1-phenyl ethyl isobutyrate
1-methyl-1-phenylethyl isobutyrate
 phenyl dimethyl carbinyl isobutyrate
2-phenyl propan-2-yl 2-methyl propanoate
2-phenyl propan-2-yl isobutyrate
2-phenylpropan-2-yl 2-methylpropanoate
 

Articles:

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Notes:
Flavouring ingredient
 
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