EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

gamma-valerolactone
pentano-1,4-lactone

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:5-methyloxolan-2-one
CAS Number: 108-29-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:57129-69-8
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-569-5
FDA UNII:O7056XK37X
Nikkaji Web:J5.072E
Beilstein Number:0080420
MDL:MFCD00005400
CoE Number:757
XlogP3-AA:0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:100.11716000
Formula:C5 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
JECFA evaluted gamma-valerolactone (CASrn as in Register). Register CASrn refers to the racemate.
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:220 gamma-valerolactone
FLAVIS Number:10.013 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:10.013 pentano-1,4-lactone
FEMA Number:3103 gamma-valerolactone
FDA Mainterm: GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:1.04700 to 1.05400 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.712 to 8.770
Refractive Index:1.43100 to 1.43400 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -31.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 207.00 to 208.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 75.00 to 80.00 °C. @ 7.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure:0.235000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:3.45 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 205.00 °F. TCC ( 96.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.270
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 water
 water, 9.381e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:2 hour(s) at 100.00 %
herbal sweet warm tobacco cocoa woody
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. herbal sweet warm tobacco cocoa woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1986)
Odor sample from: Takasago International Corp
Flavor Type: tonka
">tonka coumarinic tobacco cocoa chocolate dark chocolate coconut
Taste Description: sweet tonka coumarinic tobacco cocoa dark chocolate coconut
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Bedoukian Research
gamma-VALEROLACTONE 98.0% (sum of isomers)
Odor Description:A diffusive sweet, hay and tobacco-like odor with a strawberry sweetness
Toiletry fragrances.
Taste Description:sweet
Vanilla and tobacco flavors
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
A.C.S. International
Valerolactone gamma
Odor: Herbal sweet warm tobacco cocoa woody
Operational Capabilities
Advanced Biotech
GAMMA VALEROLACTONE NATURAL
99% min.
Odor: Herbaceous
Advanced Biotech
GAMMA VALEROLACTONE SYNTHETIC
95% min.
Odor: Herbaceous
Apiscent Labs
GAMMA VALEROLACTONE
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
gamma-Valerolactone
Artiste
gamma-Valerolactone Natural
Aurochemicals
gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Natural
Bedoukian Research
gamma-VALEROLACTONE
98.0% (sum of isomers)
Odor: A diffusive sweet, hay and tobacco-like odor with a strawberry sweetness
Use: Toiletry fragrances.
Flavor: sweet
Vanilla and tobacco flavors
Beijing Lys Chemicals
gamma-Valerolactone
Berjé
gamma-Valeractone
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-VALEROLACTONE FCC 98.0%
CG Herbals
gamma-Valerolactone
Citrus and Allied Essences
gamma-Valerolactone FCC
Odor: soft sweet, tobacco-like
Market Report
Creatingperfume.com
gamma-Valerolactone FCC
Odor: diffusive sweet, hay and tobacco-like
Diffusions Aromatiques
gamma-VALEROLACTONE
Ernesto Ventós
VALEROLACTONE GAMMA
Odor: SWEET, FRUITY-FLORAL
Excellentia International
gamma-Valerolactone
Indenta Group
gamma-Valerolactone
Indukern F&F
GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE
Odor: FRUITY, MILK, BUTTER
Inoue Perfumery
gamma-VALEROLACTONE
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Valerolactone Natural99%
New functional food ingredients
Kun Shan P&A
gamma-Valerolactone
Kun Shan P&A
Natural gamma-Valerolactone
Kunshan Sainty
gamma-Valerolactone, Kosher
Kunshan Sainty
gamma-Valerolactone, Natural
Lluch Essence
gamma-VALEROLACTONE
M&U International
gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Kosher
M&U International
NAT.GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE, Kosher
Odowell Co.,ltd
Gamma-Valerolactone
PURITY: 99%MIN.
OQEMA
gamma-Valerolactone natural
OQEMA
gamma-Valerolactone natural
Pearlchem Corporation
gamma-Valerolactone
Penta International
gamma-VALEROLACTONE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Kosher
Reincke & Fichtner
gamma-Valerolactone
Riverside Aromatics
gamma-VALEROLACTONE
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Valerolactone
Shanghai Vigen Fine Chemical
gamma-Valerolactone
Sigma-Aldrich
g-Valerolactone, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Odor: anise; herbaceous
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
g-Valerolactone, natural, 95%, FG
Odor: warm; sweet; herbac
Soda Aromatic
gamma-Valerolactone
Sunaux International
gamma-Valerolactone
Sunaux International
nat.gamma-Valerolactone
Synerzine
gamma-Valerolactone
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Valerolactone >98.0%(GC)
Treatt
gamma-Valerolactone
Vigon International
Valerolactone Gamma Natural
Vigon International
Valerolactone Gamma
Odor: SOFT, SWEET, TOBACCO-LIKE
WEN International
GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE Natural
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
gamma-Valerolactone ≥ 99.0%, Natural
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
gamma-Valerolactone ≥ 99.0%
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
gavage-rat LD50 8800 mg/kg
(Deichmann et al., 1945)

oral-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1978e)

gavage-rabbit LD50 2480 mg/kg
(Deichmann et al., 1945)

oral-rabbit LD50 2480 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 27, Pg. 263, 1945.

oral-rat LD50 8800 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 27, Pg. 263, 1945.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, Pg. 847, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for gamma-valerolactone usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 120.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -50.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -4.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -20.00000
fruit ices: -20.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -50.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):108-29-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :7921
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
5-methyloxolan-2-one
Chemidplus:0000108292
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:LU3580000 for cas# 108-29-2
 
References:
Leffingwell:Chirality or Article
 5-methyloxolan-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:108-29-2
Pubchem (cid):7921
Pubchem (sid):134972902
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB33840
FooDB:FDB012018
Export Tariff Code:2932.20.5050
Haz-Map:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
animal
animal carbolactone
FR
costus valerolactone
FR
balsamic
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
iso
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
dextro,laevo-iso
borneol
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
clover nitrile
FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
prenyl benzoate
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
buttery
acetoin
FL/FR
camphoreous
dextro-
camphor
FL/FR
caramellic
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
fenugreek oleoresin
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
chocolate
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
chocolate pyrazine A
FL/FR
cocoa hexenal
FL/FR
cocoa oleoresin
FL/FR
cocoa pentenal
FL/FR
2,5-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methoxypyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyraldehyde
FL/FR
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
citrus
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
cocoa
2-iso
butyl-3,5-(and 3,6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
coconut
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
earthy
2-
octanone
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
propyl formate
FL/FR
fermented
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
amyl cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
anise indene
FR
benzyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
ilex paraguariensis oleoresin
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
karo karounde absolute
FR
lavandula angustifolia flower oil
FL/FR
lavender oil france
FL/FR
leerall
FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
nonisyl propionate
FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
orris rhizome resinoid (iris pallida)
FL/FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
prenyl salicylate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl amyl glycolate
FR
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
artemisia pallens herb oil
FL/FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
ethyl levulinate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
iso
cyclocitral (IFF)
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadien-1-ol
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde
FL/FR
syringaldehyde
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil CO2 extract china
FL/FR
hay
woodruff absolute
FR
herbal
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
beta-
bourbonene
FL/FR
alpha-
cadinol
FL/FR
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
dimethyl cyclormol (IFF)
FR
herbal undecanone
FR
immortelle flower oil
FL/FR
methyl nicotinate
FL/FR
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
tea leaf absolute
FL/FR
thyme oil wild or creeping
FL/FR
tricyclodecenyl isobutyrate
FR
tricyclodecenyl propionate
FR
valerian rhizome oil
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil china
FL/FR
yerba mate absolute
FL/FR
honey
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
melon
watermelon ketone
FR
minty
pennyroyal oil
FL/FR
musty
cocoa butenal
FL/FR
nutty
3,6-
cocoa pyrazine
FL/FR
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazoline
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
2-
methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,3,5,6-
tetramethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,3,5-
trimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
vinyl sulfurol
FL/FR
phenolic
2,3-
dimethyl benzofuran
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
roasted
fenugreek resinoid
FL/FR
spicy
atractylis root oil
FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon acrolein
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
turmeric root absolute
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
thujonic
common
tansy flower oil argentina
FL/FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
tobacco
2,6,6-
trimethyl-2-hydroxycyclohexanone
FL/FR
tonka
deertongue absolute
FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
phenethyl octanoate
FL/FR
woody
(+)-
camphene
FL/FR
camphene
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
marine formate
FR
polylimonene
FL/FR
santall
FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody cyclohexanone
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
beta-
bourbonene
FL/FR
butyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
2-iso
butyl-3,5-(and 3,6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2(4)-iso
butyl-4(2),6-dimethyl dihydro-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine
FL
alpha-
cadinol
FL/FR
(+)-
camphene
FL/FR
chocolate pyrazine A
FL/FR
chocolate pyrazine B
FL
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl thiazole
FL
fig leaf absolute
FL
ilex paraguariensis oleoresin
FL/FR
2-
methoxypyrazine
FL/FR
methyl nicotinate
FL/FR
1-
methyl pyrrole
FL
peanut dithiazine
FL
polylimonene
FL/FR
prenyl benzoate
FL/FR
4-iso
propyl-2-cyclohexenone
FL/FR
rosa canina seed extract
FL
2,6,6-
trimethyl-2-hydroxycyclohexanone
FL/FR
woody ketone
FL/FR
beta-
damascone
FL/FR
paullinia cupana seed tincture
FL
apple
apple
(E,Z)-2,6-
nonadien-1-ol
FL/FR
aromatic
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
balsamic
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
berry
heliotropyl acetone
FL/FR
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
bitter
methyl ethoxypyrazine
FL
paullinia cupana seed extract
FL
brown
fenugreek oleoresin
FL/FR
camphoreous
dextro,laevo-iso
borneol
FL/FR
camphene
FL/FR
caramellic
caramel furanone
FL
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
fenugreek resinoid
FL/FR
maltol
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
chemical
2,3-
dimethyl benzofuran
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
chocolate
cocoa oleoresin
FL/FR
cocoa propanal
FL
creme de cocoa flavor
FL
citrus
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
petitgrain bigarade oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
cocoa
iso
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
butyraldehyde
FL
cocoa hexenal
FL/FR
2-
methyl furan
FL
syringaldehyde
FL/FR
coconut
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
creamy
acetoin
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
dairy
2-
octanone
FL/FR
earthy
alpha-
amyl cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
cocoa butter distillates
FL
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
floral
iso
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
iso
amyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
cocoa pentenal
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrate
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
heliotropyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
orris rhizome resinoid (iris pallida)
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
artemisia pallens herb oil
FL/FR
3-
benzyl-4-heptanone
FL/FR
alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl levulinate
FL/FR
phenethyl octanoate
FL/FR
iso
propyl formate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil china
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil CO2 extract china
FL/FR
fusel
2-
methyl butyraldehyde
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cocoa butenal
FL/FR
coriander oleoresin
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
iso
cyclocitral (IFF)
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
2-
ethyl butyraldehyde
FL
linalool oxide
FL/FR
para-
methyl hydratropaldehyde
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
herbal
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
daucus carota fruit oil
FL/FR
immortelle flower oil
FL/FR
lavandula angustifolia flower oil
FL/FR
lavender oil france
FL/FR
curled
parsley leaf oil
FL/FR
prenyl salicylate
FL/FR
thyme oil wild or creeping
FL/FR
yerba mate absolute
FL/FR
honey
benzyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
butyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde
FL/FR
lactonic
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
malty
yeast thiazoline
FL
medicinal
dextro-
camphor
FL/FR
minty
pennyroyal oil
FL/FR
musty
2,5-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
propionaldehyde
FL
2,3,5-
trimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
3,6-
cocoa pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazoline
FL/FR
2,4-
dimethyl-5-vinyl thiazole
FL
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
2-
methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,3,5,6-
tetramethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
vinyl sulfurol
FL/FR
roasted
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
rooty
guarana flavor
FL
spicy
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cinnamon acrolein
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
black
currant bud absolute
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl cinnamate
FL/FR
white
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
turmeric root absolute
FL/FR
tea
tea leaf absolute
FL/FR
thujonic
common
tansy flower oil argentina
FL/FR
vanilla
ethyl vanillin
FL/FR
ethyl vanillin isobutyrate
FL/FR
vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)
FL/FR
vanillin
FL/FR
vanillyl acetate
FL/FR
vanillyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
waxy
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
whiskey
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
winey
valeraldehyde
FL/FR
woody
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
 bread crisp bread
FLcheese swiss
 chocolate cocoa
FRcoffee
FRfungus mushroom
FRherbal
FRmango
FLnut
FRnut filbert
FRnut peanut
FRpeach
 tea
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 barley roasted barley
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 beef heated beef
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 beer
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 cheese swiss cheese
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 cocoa
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 coffee
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 crispbread
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 filbert roasted filbert
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 mango fruit
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 milk
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 milk products
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 mushroom
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 peach fruit
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 peanut roasted peanut
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 pork heated pork
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 shoyu
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 tea
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 tomato
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 wine
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Synonyms:
 dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
2(3H)-furanone, dihydro-5-methyl-
4-hydroxypentanoic acid gamma-lactone
4-hydroxyvaleric acid gamma-lactone
4-hydroxyvaleric acid lactone
4-methyl butan-4-olide
5-methyl tetrahydro-2-furanone
4-methyl-4-hydroxybutanoic acid lactone
4-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone
gamma-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone
4-methylbutan-4-olide
5-methyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone
5-methyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
5-methyloxolan-2-one
gamma-pentalactone
 pentano-1,4-lactone
4-pentanolide
gamma-valeractone
(±)-gamma-valerolactone
4-valerolactone
gamma valerolactone
nat.gamma-valerolactone
gamma-valerolactone FCC
 valerolactone gamma
 valerolactone gamma natural
gamma-valerolactone natural
gamma-valerolactone synthetic
gamma-valeryl lactone
gamma-verolactone
 

Articles:

PubMed:Integration of mild acid hydrolysis in γ-valerolactone/water system for enhancement of enzymatic saccharification from cotton stalk.
PubMed:Conversion of corn stalk into furfural using a novel heterogeneous strong acid catalyst in γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Atom-economical synthesis of γ-valerolactone with self-supplied hydrogen from methanol.
PubMed:Effects of Metabolites Produced from (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate by Rat Intestinal Bacteria on Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Activity and Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
PubMed:Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.
PubMed:Porous Zirconium-Phytic Acid Hybrid: a Highly Efficient Catalyst for Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reductions.
PubMed:Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies.
PubMed:Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed γ-Valerolactone Production.
PubMed:Profiling a gut microbiota-generated catechin metabolite's fate in human blood cells using a metabolomic approach.
PubMed:Influence of age on the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol in the Presence of a Recyclable Cobalt/SBA-15 Catalyst.
PubMed:In Situ Catalytic Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Levulinate to γ-Valerolactone in Methanol.
PubMed:Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.
PubMed:Solvent-enabled nonenyzmatic sugar production from biomass for chemical and biological upgrading.
PubMed:High performing and stable supported nano-alloys for the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Biotransformation of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin by intestinal bacteria involved in isoflavone metabolism.
PubMed:A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.
PubMed:Titania-Supported Catalysts for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation: Influence of Support and its Impact on γ-Valerolactone Yield.
PubMed:Highly sensitive analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites in human blood cells using dispersive SPE extraction and LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.
PubMed:Advanced biorefinery based on the fractionation of biomass in γ-valerolactone and water.
PubMed:Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.
PubMed:Efficient, solvent-free hydrogenation of α-angelica lactone catalysed by Ru/C at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.
PubMed:Role of water in metal catalyst performance for ketone hydrogenation: a joint experimental and theoretical study on levulinic acid conversion into gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of rat intestinal bacteria involved in biotransformation of (-)-epigallocatechin.
PubMed:Catalytic conversion of γ-valerolactone to ε-caprolactam: towards nylon from renewable feedstock.
PubMed:Is the age-related loss in olfactory sensitivity similar for light and heavy molecules?
PubMed:Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Production of furfural from xylose, xylan and corncob in gamma-valerolactone using FeCl3·6H2O as catalyst.
PubMed:Production of 4-valerolactone by an equilibrium-limited transformation in a partitioning bioreactor: impact of absorptive polymer properties.
PubMed:Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Domino reaction catalyzed by zeolites with Brønsted and Lewis acid sites for the production of γ-valerolactone from furfural.
PubMed:Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.
PubMed:Eco-solvents--cluster-formation, surfactantless microemulsions and facilitated hydrotropy.
PubMed:Studies on the microbial synthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates containing 4-hydroxyvalerate using γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:RANEY® Ni catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of levulinate esters to γ-valerolactone at room temperature.
PubMed:Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.
PubMed:Uptake of gamma-valerolactone--detection of gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid in human urine samples.
PubMed:Ionic-liquid-catalyzed efficient transformation of γ-valerolactone to methyl 3-pentenoate under mild conditions.
PubMed:Electricity storage in biofuels: selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid to valeric acid or γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:A chemo-enzymatic route to synthesize (S)-γ-valerolactone from levulinic acid.
PubMed:Conversion of hemicellulose into furfural using solid acid catalysts in γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Electrophysiological responses of the olfactory receptors of the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to host-related and tick pheromone-related synthetic compounds.
PubMed:Development of heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.
PubMed:Structural elucidation and quantification of phenolic conjugates present in human urine after tea intake.
PubMed:Origin of selectivity of Tsuji-Trost allylic alkylation of lactones: highly ordered transition states with lithium-containing enolates.
PubMed:Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).
PubMed:Production of aromatic hydrocarbons through catalytic pyrolysis of γ-valerolactone from biomass.
PubMed:Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by green and white tea and their simulated intestinal metabolites.
PubMed:Intake of dietary procyanidins does not contribute to the pool of circulating flavanols in humans.
PubMed:Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma valerolactone (GVL): similarities and differences in their effects on the acoustic startle reflex and the conditioned enhancement of startle in the rat.
PubMed:In vitro fermentation of a red wine extract by human gut microbiota: changes in microbial groups and formation of phenolic metabolites.
PubMed:Conversion of biomass-derived levulinate and formate esters into γ-valerolactone over supported gold catalysts.
PubMed:Liquid-phase catalytic transfer hydrogenation and cyclization of levulinic acid and its esters to γ-valerolactone over metal oxide catalysts.
PubMed:Selective homogeneous hydrogenation of biogenic carboxylic acids with [Ru(TriPhos)H]+: a mechanistic study.
PubMed:Hydrogen-independent reductive transformation of carbohydrate biomass into γ-valerolactone and pyrrolidone derivatives with supported gold catalysts.
PubMed:Synthesis, analytical features, and biological relevance of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a microbial metabolite derived from the catabolism of dietary flavan-3-ols.
PubMed:Isolation of catechin-converting human intestinal bacteria.
PubMed:Reactive extraction of levulinate esters and conversion to γ-valerolactone for production of liquid fuels.
PubMed:Antioxidative activity of microbial metabolites of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate produced in rat intestines.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Metabolism of green tea catechins by the human small intestine.
PubMed:Conversion of levulinic acid and formic acid into γ-valerolactone over heterogeneous catalysts.
PubMed:Plasma protein binding of polyphenols from maritime pine bark extract (USP).
PubMed:Chemistry. Connecting biomass and petroleum processing with a chemical bridge.
PubMed:γ-Valerolactone ring-opening and decarboxylation over SiO2/Al2O3 in the presence of water.
PubMed:Integrated catalytic conversion of gamma-valerolactone to liquid alkenes for transportation fuels.
PubMed:A methodology to estimate concentration profiles from two-dimensional covariance spectroscopy applied to kinetic data.
PubMed:Bioavailability and catabolism of green tea flavan-3-ols in humans.
PubMed:Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative [4 + 3] cyclization of gamma-methylidene-delta-valerolactones with 1,1-dicyanocyclopropanes.
PubMed:Profile of plasma and urine metabolites after the intake of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] polyphenols in humans.
PubMed:Characterization of two lactones in liquid phase: an experimental and computational approach.
PubMed:Targeted metabolic profiling of phenolics in urine and plasma after regular consumption of cocoa by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates into gamma-valerolactone without using an external H2 supply.
PubMed:MCR-ALS for sequential estimation of FTIR-ATR spectra to resolve a curing process using global phase angle convergence criterion.
PubMed:Procyanidin dimers are metabolized by human microbiota with 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone as the major metabolites.
PubMed:Human urinary metabolite profile of tea polyphenols analyzed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with data-dependent acquisition.
PubMed:Gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the blood of impaired drivers, users of illicit drugs, and medical examiner cases.
PubMed:Maximising opportunities in supercritical chemistry: the continuous conversion of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone in CO(2).
PubMed:Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.
PubMed:Block copolymers for drug solubilisation: relative hydrophobicities of polyether and polyester micelle-core-forming blocks.
PubMed:Towards 'bio-based' Nylon: conversion of gamma-valerolactone to methyl pentenoate under catalytic distillation conditions.
PubMed:Cytoprotective constituent of Hoveniae Lignum on both Hep G2 cells and rat primary hepatocytes.
PubMed:Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers.
PubMed:"Ionic carbenes": synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity of rare-Earth metal methylidene complexes.
PubMed:Trends in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and related drug intoxication: 1999 to 2003.
PubMed:Analysis of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB in postmortem matrices after long-term storage.
PubMed:A theoretical study on the origin of pi-facial stereoselectivity in the alkylation of enolates derived from 4-substituted gamma-butyrolactones.
PubMed:Sequential arrangement of gamma-valerolactone enantiomers enclathrated in cholic acid channels as studied by 13C solid-state NMR: elucidation of the optical resolution mechanism.
PubMed:Phenol and lactone receptors in the distal sensilla of the Haller's organ in Ixodes ricinus ticks and their possible role in host perception.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol).
PubMed:Urinary excretion of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, a ring-fission metabolite of (-)-epicatechin, in rats and its in vitro antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Identification of metabolites of (-)-epicatechin gallate and their metabolic fate in the rat.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacokinetics of antioxidants and their impact on systemic oxidative stress.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, an active component of Onpi-to, in rats.
PubMed:[Preparation of gas chromatographic capillary columns with beta-cyclodextrin polymer stationary phase modified with methyl phenyl silicone(OV-17)].
PubMed:Biosynthesis and local sequence specific degradation of poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability.
PubMed:Urinary tea polyphenols in relation to gastric and esophageal cancers: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China.
PubMed:Identification and characterization of methylated and ring-fission metabolites of tea catechins formed in humans, mice, and rats.
PubMed:Urinary metabolites of French maritime pine bark extract in humans.
PubMed:Metabolic fate of (-)-[4-(3)H]epigallocatechin gallate in rats after oral administration.
PubMed:Versatile 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one: stereoselective methodology for generating C-glycosides, delta-valerolactones, and polyacetate segments.
PubMed:Analysis of urinary metabolites of tea catechins by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Structural identification of two metabolites of catechins and their kinetics in human urine and blood after tea ingestion.
PubMed:Pronounced differences in inhibition potency of lactone and non-lactone compounds for mouse and human coumarin 7-hydroxylases (CYP2A5 and CYP2A6).
PubMed:Determination of free and glucuronated hexane metabolites without prior hydrolysis by liquid- and gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Comparison of thermal characteristics and degradation properties of epsilon-caprolactone copolymers.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Method for the simultaneous quantification of n-hexane metabolites: application to n-hexane metabolism determination.
PubMed:Toxic effects of hexane derivatives on cultured rat Schwann cells.
PubMed:The metabolism of n-nonane in male Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed:Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Ixodidae). I. Receptors within the Haller's organ capsule.
PubMed:The influence of solvent stress on MMS-induced genetic change in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Induction of chromosome loss by mixtures of organic solvents including neurotoxins.
PubMed:Aprotic polar solvents that affect porcine brain tubulin aggregation in vitro induce aneuploidy in yeast cells growing at low temperatures.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies workers exposed to hexane.
PubMed:Identification of the n-heptane metabolites in rat and human urine.
PubMed:Impairment of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by 2,5-hexanedione.
PubMed:The microbial metabolism of condensed (+)-catechins by rat-caecal microflora.
PubMed:Methodological investigations on the determination of n-hexane metabolites in urine.
PubMed:Analysis of n-hexane, 2-hexanone, 2,5-hexanedione, and related chemicals by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Genetic change may be caused by interference with protein-protein interactions.
PubMed:Identification of volatile metabolites of inhaled n-heptane in rat urine.
PubMed:Changes of n-hexane neurotoxicity and its urinary metabolites by long-term co-exposure with MEK or toluene.
PubMed:A study on biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure.
PubMed:Changes of n-hexane metabolites in urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene or MEK.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of n-hexane metabolites. A comparative study in rat, rabbit and monkey.
PubMed:Neurotoxic metabolites of "commercial hexane" in the urine of shoe factory workers.
PubMed:Experimental neurotoxicity and urinary metabolites of the C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons used as glue solvents in shoe manufacture.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure.
PubMed:Measurement of the urinary metabolites of N-hexane, cyclohexane and their isomers by gas chromatography.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of 14C-2-allophanyl-2-allyl -gamma-valero-lactone: a prodrug of proxibarbal in rats.
PubMed:Cyclohexyl analogues of some antiinflammatory drugs.
PubMed:Kinetics and mechanism of decomposition of some derivatives of 5-allylbarbituric acid. Part V. The course of hydrolysis of 5 allyl-5-(2'-hydroxypropyl)barbituric acid.
PubMed:Central properties of alpha-allophanyl-alpha-allyl-gamma-valerolactone (valofan) [proceedings].
PubMed:Prevention of experimental gastric ulcers in rats by dial derivatives.
PubMed:Presence of (+/-)-delta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone in human urine.
PubMed:Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Biliary and urinary excretion of metabolites of (+)-(U- 14 C)catechin.
PubMed:New derivatives of alpha-ethyl-alpha-allophanyl-gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed:Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Metabolism of (+)-[14C] catechin in the rat and guinea pig.
PubMed:[Mutagenic action of alpha-aceto-beta-vinyl-gamma-valerolactone].
PubMed:2-benzyl-5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-gamma-valerolactone, an inhibitor of plasma cholinesterase.
PubMed:The influence of prolonged administration of alpha-allyl-allophanylphenyl-gamma-valerolactone (T1) on behavior and bioelectric brain activity in cats.
PubMed:Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Metabolism of (+)-catechin in the guinea pig.
PubMed:Metabolism of alpha-allyl-alpha-allophanyl-gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed:DERIVATIVES OF ALPHA-PHENYL-ALPHA-ALLYL-GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE.
PubMed:QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ALPHA-ALLYL-GAMMA-VALEROLACTONE IN PHYSIOLOGIC BODY FLUIDS.
PubMed:Some derivatives of gamma-valerolactone.
 
Notes:
metabolite of n-hexane. Flavouring agent. Present in peach, strawberry jam, tomato, wheat bread, Swiss cheese, Gruyere de Comte cheese, heated butter, cooked beef, white wine, red wine, coffee, black tea, roasted filbert, roasted peanut and Bourbon vanilla [DFC]
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