metabolite of n-hexane.
  • A.C.S. International
  • Advanced Biotech
  • Apiscent Labs
    • Apiscent Labs, LLC
      Delivery of Quality
      Custom manufacturer and international supplier of fine ingredients.
      We believe inspired chemistry enriches lives. That's why our team is guided by a mission to provide fine ingredients to the worldwide pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance markets with a primary focus on the manufacturing of value-added, research-based molecules. We're innovative problem solvers committed to excellence at every phase. Our work builds the foundation for our clients' continued success.
      Email: Info
      Email: Carl Sheeley
      Email: Customer Service
      Voice: +1 (414) 744 3993
      Fax: +1 (414) 744 7111
  • Bedoukian Research
    • Bedoukian Research, Inc.
      Constantly Improving
      Working closely with our customers to meet their requirements.
      Paul Bedoukian founded the company to fill a niche as a supplier of high quality specialty aroma and flavor ingredients. In 1975 the company began manufacturing insect pheromones which are chemically similar to flavor and fragrance ingredients. Today, Bedoukian Research offers more than 450 Aroma Chemicals and 50 Insect Pheromones, while also providing custom manufacturing services to the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and specialty chemical industries.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: 1-203-830-4000
      US Fax: 1-203-830-4010
      Products List: View
      457 gamma-VALEROLACTONE 98.0% (sum of isomers)
      Toiletry fragrances.
      Vanilla and tobacco flavors
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email: Mr. Jia
      Email: Mr. Guo
      Voice: 86-10-68418738
      Fax: 86-10-68418739
      Mr. Guo86-10-68483445
      Mr. Guo86-10-68418739
      10331 gamma-Valerolactone
  • Berjé
    • Berjé Inc.
      The solution is clear
      Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals.
      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
      Email: For Information
      Email: For Sales
      Voice: 973-748-8980
      Fax: 973-680-9618
      Market Report
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      W221 gamma-valerolactone
  • Excellentia International
    • Excellentia International
      Ingredients by Nature
      Exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers requirements.
      Excellentia International was founded in 2010 through the merger of Excellentia Flavors LLC and Polarome International. Collectively, these companies account for more than one hundred years of industry experience, and are recognized for exceptional quality and excellence in meeting our customers’ requirements.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Email: Regulatory
      Voice: 732.749.9840
      Our Services
  • Indukern F&F
  • Lansdowne Chemicals
    • Lansdowne Chemicals
      With a focus on providing the highest level of service
      Lansdowne Chemicals has established itself at the forefront of the global chemical industry.
      Headquarters are in Carterton, Oxfordshire encompassing all of Lansdowne's Business Units. Our Regulatory Team and Quality Control Departments are based out of Carterton. Lansdowne Aromatic's state of the art warehouse facilities are located in Cricklade, covering 12,000 square ft. We are able to offer just-in-time deliveries for our full range of products, in a variety of pack sizes. Bonded facilities are available for goods going outside of the EU.
      Email: Contact Us:
      US Email: Dean Matienzo - Sales Manager
      Voice: +44 1993 843081
      Fax: +44 1993 841261
      US Voice: +1 973 886 3778
      US Fax: +1 973 346 1106
      Whats New
      Global Distribution
      gamma-Valerolactone natural
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax: +86-21-32515502 64204960
      US Voice: 908-359-9000
      US Fax: 908-359-9002
      A0079 gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Kosher
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      22-11000 gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Kosher
      22-11020 gamma-VALEROLACTONE NATURAL, Kosher
  • Sigma-Aldrich
  • Sunaux International
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
5-methyloxolan-2-one (Click)
CAS Number: 108-29-2 57129-69-8
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-569-5
Nikkaji Web: J5.072E
Beilstein Number: 0080420
MDL: MFCD00005400
CoE Number: 757
XlogP3-AA: 0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight: 100.11716000
Formula: C5 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: JECFA evaluted gamma-valerolactone (CASrn as in Register). Register CASrn refers to the racemate.
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 220  gamma-valerolactone
Flavis Number: 10.013 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 10.013  pentano-1,4-lactone
FEMA Number: 3103  gamma-valerolactone
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity: 1.04700 to 1.05400 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.712 to  8.770
Refractive Index: 1.43100 to 1.43400 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -31.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 207.00 to  208.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 75.00 to  80.00 °C. @ 7.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure: 0.235000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 3.45 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 205.00 °F. TCC ( 96.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.270
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Strength: medium
 herbal  sweet  warm  tobacco  cocoa  woody  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
herbal sweet warm tobacco cocoa woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1986)
Substantivity: 2 hour(s) at 100.00 %
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
A.C.S. International
Valerolactone gamma
Odor: Herbal sweet warm tobacco cocoa woody
Operational Capabilities
Advanced Biotech
99% min.
Odor: Herbaceous
Advanced Biotech
95% min.
Odor: Herbaceous
Apiscent Labs
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
Aromiens International
gamma-Valerolactone, Natural
gamma-Valerolactone Natural
gamma-VALEROLACTONE, Natural
Bedoukian Research
98.0% (sum of isomers)
Odor: A diffusive sweet, hay and tobacco-like odor with a strawberry sweetness
Use: Toiletry fragrances.
Flavor: sweet
Vanilla and tobacco flavors
Beijing Lys Chemicals
CG Herbals
Citrus and Allied Essences
gamma-Valerolactone FCC
Odor: soft sweet, tobacco-like
Market Report
gamma-Valerolactone FCC
Odor: diffusive sweet, hay and tobacco-like
CTC Organics
Diffusions Aromatiques
Ernesto Ventós
Excellentia International
Indenta Group
Indukern F&F
Inoue Perfumery
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Valerolactone Natural99%
Kun Shan P&A
Kun Shan P&A
Natural gamma-Valerolactone
Kunshan Sainty
gamma-Valerolactone, Kosher
Kunshan Sainty
gamma-Valerolactone, Natural
Lansdowne Chemicals
gamma-Valerolactone natural
Lluch Essence
M&U International
M&U International
Pearlchem Corporation
Penta International
Penta International
Reincke & Fichtner
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Shanghai Vigen Fine Chemical
g-Valerolactone, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Odor: anise; herbaceous
Certified Food Grade Products
g-Valerolactone, natural, 95%, FG
Odor: warm; sweet; herbac
Sunaux International
Sunaux International
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Valerolactone >98.0%(GC)
Vigon International
Valerolactone Gamma Natural
Vigon International
Valerolactone Gamma
WEN International
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
gamma-Valerolactone ≥ 99.0%, Natural
Wujiang CIYUN Flavor & Fragrance
gamma-Valerolactone ≥ 99.0%
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
gavage-rat LD50  8800 mg/kg
(Deichmann et al., 1945)

oral-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1978e)

gavage-rabbit LD50  2480 mg/kg
(Deichmann et al., 1945)

oral-rabbit LD50  2480 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 27, Pg. 263, 1945.

oral-rat LD50  8800 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 27, Pg. 263, 1945.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, Pg. 847, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for gamma-valerolactone usage levels up to:
  10.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 120.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -50.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -4.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -20.00000
fruit ices: -20.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -50.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) reference(s):
The FEMA GRAS assessment of lactones used as flavor ingredients.View pdf
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 108-29-2
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7921
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
Chemidplus: 0000108292
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: LU3580000 for cas# 108-29-2
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Leffingwell: chirality
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 108-29-2
Pubchem (cid): 7921
Pubchem (sid): 134972902
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
Export Tariff Code: 2932.20.5050
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
2-acetyl furanFL/FR
2-acetyl pyrazineFL/FR
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 allyl cyclohexyl propionateFL/FR
 amyl cinnamateFL/FR
isoamyl cinnamateFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamyl acetateFL/FR
 amyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 amyl salicylateFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 animal carbolactoneFR
 anise indeneFR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 benzyl cinnamateFL/FR
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
 bornyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
 bornyl butyrateFL/FR
 butyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 butyl cinnamateFL/FR
 butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
isobutyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
2-isobutyl-3,5-(and 3,6)-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2(4)-isobutyl-4(2),6-dimethyl dihydro-4H-1,3,5-dithiazineFL
 caramel furanoneFL
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
 chocolate pyrazine AFL/FR
 chocolate pyrazine BFL
 cinnamon acroleinFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 clover nitrileFR
 cocoa butenalFL/FR
 cocoa hexenalFL/FR
 cocoa oleoresinFL/FR
 cocoa pentenalFL/FR
 cocoa propanalFL
3,6-cocoa pyrazineFL/FR
 coriander oleoresinFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 costus valerolactoneFR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
isocyclocitral (IFF)FL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
 artemisia pallens herb oilFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
2,5-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,6-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
4,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl thiazoleFL
2,4-dimethyl-5-vinyl thiazoleFL
2-ethyl butyraldehydeFL
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl levulinateFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 ethyl vanillin isobutyrateFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 fenugreek oleoresinFL/FR
 fenugreek resinoidFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 green acetateFR
 heliotropyl acetateFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 herbal undecanoneFR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 immortelle flower oilFL/FR
 karo karounde absoluteFR
 lavandula angustifolia flower oilFL/FR
 lavender oil franceFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 marine formateFR
 yerba mate absoluteFL/FR
2-methyl butyraldehydeFL/FR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 methyl ethoxypyrazineFL
2-methyl furanFL
para-methyl hydratropaldehydeFL/FR
 methyl nicotinateFL/FR
2-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
1-methyl pyrroleFL
gamma-nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))FL/FR
 nonisyl propionateFR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare oil himalaya 
curled parsley leaf oilFL/FR
 dimethyl cyclormol (IFF)FR
 peanut dithiazineFL
 pennyroyal oilFL/FR
 petitgrain bigarade oilFL/FR
 phenethyl octanoateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehydeFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
 prenyl benzoateFL/FR
 prenyl salicylateFL/FR
isopropyl formateFL/FR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 spruce needle oil canadaFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
common tansy flower oil argentinaFL/FR
common tansy leaf oil dutch 
 tea leaf absoluteFL/FR
2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 thyme oil wild or creepingFL/FR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
 tricyclodecenyl isobutyrateFR
 tricyclodecenyl propionateFR
2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,4,5-trimethyl thiazoleFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
 vanillyl acetateFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 vinyl sulfurolFL/FR
 watermelon ketoneFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 woody ketoneFL/FR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 bread crisp bread 
 cheese swissFL
 chocolate cocoa 
 fungus mushroomFR
 nut filbertFR
 nut peanutFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Natural Occurrence in: note
 barley roasted barley
GRIN Trop Picture
 beef heated beef
 cheese swiss cheese
GRIN Trop Picture
GRIN Trop Picture
 filbert roasted filbert
GRIN Trop Picture
 milk products
 peanut roasted peanut
 pork heated pork
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
2(3H)-furanone, dihydro-5-methyl-
4-hydroxypentanoic acid gamma-lactone
4-hydroxyvaleric acid gamma-lactone
4-hydroxyvaleric acid lactone
4-methyl butan-4-olide
5-methyl tetrahydro-2-furanone
4-methyl-4-hydroxybutanoic acid lactone
gamma valerolactone
gamma-valerolactone FCC
 valerolactone gamma
 valerolactone gamma natural
gamma-valerolactone natural
gamma-valerolactone synthetic
gamma-valeryl lactone
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: Integration of mild acid hydrolysis in γ-valerolactone/water system for enhancement of enzymatic saccharification from cotton stalk.
PubMed: Conversion of corn stalk into furfural using a novel heterogeneous strong acid catalyst in γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Atom-economical synthesis of γ-valerolactone with self-supplied hydrogen from methanol.
PubMed: Effects of Metabolites Produced from (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate by Rat Intestinal Bacteria on Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Activity and Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
PubMed: Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.
PubMed: Porous Zirconium-Phytic Acid Hybrid: a Highly Efficient Catalyst for Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reductions.
PubMed: Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies.
PubMed: Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed γ-Valerolactone Production.
PubMed: Profiling a gut microbiota-generated catechin metabolite's fate in human blood cells using a metabolomic approach.
PubMed: Influence of age on the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in healthy subjects.
PubMed: Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol in the Presence of a Recyclable Cobalt/SBA-15 Catalyst.
PubMed: In Situ Catalytic Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Levulinate to γ-Valerolactone in Methanol.
PubMed: Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.
PubMed: Solvent-enabled nonenyzmatic sugar production from biomass for chemical and biological upgrading.
PubMed: High performing and stable supported nano-alloys for the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Biotransformation of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin by intestinal bacteria involved in isoflavone metabolism.
PubMed: A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.
PubMed: Titania-Supported Catalysts for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation: Influence of Support and its Impact on γ-Valerolactone Yield.
PubMed: Highly sensitive analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites in human blood cells using dispersive SPE extraction and LC-MS/MS.
PubMed: Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.
PubMed: Advanced biorefinery based on the fractionation of biomass in γ-valerolactone and water.
PubMed: Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.
PubMed: Efficient, solvent-free hydrogenation of α-angelica lactone catalysed by Ru/C at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.
PubMed: Role of water in metal catalyst performance for ketone hydrogenation: a joint experimental and theoretical study on levulinic acid conversion into gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of rat intestinal bacteria involved in biotransformation of (-)-epigallocatechin.
PubMed: Catalytic conversion of γ-valerolactone to ε-caprolactam: towards nylon from renewable feedstock.
PubMed: Is the age-related loss in olfactory sensitivity similar for light and heavy molecules?
PubMed: Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Production of furfural from xylose, xylan and corncob in gamma-valerolactone using FeCl3·6H2O as catalyst.
PubMed: Production of 4-valerolactone by an equilibrium-limited transformation in a partitioning bioreactor: impact of absorptive polymer properties.
PubMed: Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Domino reaction catalyzed by zeolites with Brønsted and Lewis acid sites for the production of γ-valerolactone from furfural.
PubMed: Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.
PubMed: Eco-solvents--cluster-formation, surfactantless microemulsions and facilitated hydrotropy.
PubMed: Studies on the microbial synthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates containing 4-hydroxyvalerate using γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: RANEY® Ni catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of levulinate esters to γ-valerolactone at room temperature.
PubMed: Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.
PubMed: Uptake of gamma-valerolactone--detection of gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid in human urine samples.
PubMed: Ionic-liquid-catalyzed efficient transformation of γ-valerolactone to methyl 3-pentenoate under mild conditions.
PubMed: Electricity storage in biofuels: selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid to valeric acid or γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: A chemo-enzymatic route to synthesize (S)-γ-valerolactone from levulinic acid.
PubMed: Conversion of hemicellulose into furfural using solid acid catalysts in γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Electrophysiological responses of the olfactory receptors of the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to host-related and tick pheromone-related synthetic compounds.
PubMed: Development of heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.
PubMed: Structural elucidation and quantification of phenolic conjugates present in human urine after tea intake.
PubMed: Origin of selectivity of Tsuji-Trost allylic alkylation of lactones: highly ordered transition states with lithium-containing enolates.
PubMed: Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).
PubMed: Production of aromatic hydrocarbons through catalytic pyrolysis of γ-valerolactone from biomass.
PubMed: Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by green and white tea and their simulated intestinal metabolites.
PubMed: Intake of dietary procyanidins does not contribute to the pool of circulating flavanols in humans.
PubMed: Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma valerolactone (GVL): similarities and differences in their effects on the acoustic startle reflex and the conditioned enhancement of startle in the rat.
PubMed: In vitro fermentation of a red wine extract by human gut microbiota: changes in microbial groups and formation of phenolic metabolites.
PubMed: Conversion of biomass-derived levulinate and formate esters into γ-valerolactone over supported gold catalysts.
PubMed: Liquid-phase catalytic transfer hydrogenation and cyclization of levulinic acid and its esters to γ-valerolactone over metal oxide catalysts.
PubMed: Selective homogeneous hydrogenation of biogenic carboxylic acids with [Ru(TriPhos)H]+: a mechanistic study.
PubMed: Hydrogen-independent reductive transformation of carbohydrate biomass into γ-valerolactone and pyrrolidone derivatives with supported gold catalysts.
PubMed: Synthesis, analytical features, and biological relevance of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a microbial metabolite derived from the catabolism of dietary flavan-3-ols.
PubMed: Isolation of catechin-converting human intestinal bacteria.
PubMed: Reactive extraction of levulinate esters and conversion to γ-valerolactone for production of liquid fuels.
PubMed: Antioxidative activity of microbial metabolites of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate produced in rat intestines.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Metabolism of green tea catechins by the human small intestine.
PubMed: Conversion of levulinic acid and formic acid into γ-valerolactone over heterogeneous catalysts.
PubMed: Plasma protein binding of polyphenols from maritime pine bark extract (USP).
PubMed: Chemistry. Connecting biomass and petroleum processing with a chemical bridge.
PubMed: γ-Valerolactone ring-opening and decarboxylation over SiO2/Al2O3 in the presence of water.
PubMed: Integrated catalytic conversion of gamma-valerolactone to liquid alkenes for transportation fuels.
PubMed: A methodology to estimate concentration profiles from two-dimensional covariance spectroscopy applied to kinetic data.
PubMed: Bioavailability and catabolism of green tea flavan-3-ols in humans.
PubMed: Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative [4 + 3] cyclization of gamma-methylidene-delta-valerolactones with 1,1-dicyanocyclopropanes.
PubMed: Profile of plasma and urine metabolites after the intake of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] polyphenols in humans.
PubMed: Characterization of two lactones in liquid phase: an experimental and computational approach.
PubMed: Targeted metabolic profiling of phenolics in urine and plasma after regular consumption of cocoa by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates into gamma-valerolactone without using an external H2 supply.
PubMed: MCR-ALS for sequential estimation of FTIR-ATR spectra to resolve a curing process using global phase angle convergence criterion.
PubMed: Procyanidin dimers are metabolized by human microbiota with 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone as the major metabolites.
PubMed: Human urinary metabolite profile of tea polyphenols analyzed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with data-dependent acquisition.
PubMed: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the blood of impaired drivers, users of illicit drugs, and medical examiner cases.
PubMed: Maximising opportunities in supercritical chemistry: the continuous conversion of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone in CO(2).
PubMed: Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.
PubMed: Block copolymers for drug solubilisation: relative hydrophobicities of polyether and polyester micelle-core-forming blocks.
PubMed: Towards 'bio-based' Nylon: conversion of gamma-valerolactone to methyl pentenoate under catalytic distillation conditions.
PubMed: Cytoprotective constituent of Hoveniae Lignum on both Hep G2 cells and rat primary hepatocytes.
PubMed: Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers.
PubMed: "Ionic carbenes": synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity of rare-Earth metal methylidene complexes.
PubMed: Trends in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and related drug intoxication: 1999 to 2003.
PubMed: Analysis of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB in postmortem matrices after long-term storage.
PubMed: A theoretical study on the origin of pi-facial stereoselectivity in the alkylation of enolates derived from 4-substituted gamma-butyrolactones.
PubMed: Sequential arrangement of gamma-valerolactone enantiomers enclathrated in cholic acid channels as studied by 13C solid-state NMR: elucidation of the optical resolution mechanism.
PubMed: Phenol and lactone receptors in the distal sensilla of the Haller's organ in Ixodes ricinus ticks and their possible role in host perception.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol).
PubMed: Urinary excretion of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, a ring-fission metabolite of (-)-epicatechin, in rats and its in vitro antioxidant activity.
PubMed: Identification of metabolites of (-)-epicatechin gallate and their metabolic fate in the rat.
PubMed: Clinical pharmacokinetics of antioxidants and their impact on systemic oxidative stress.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, an active component of Onpi-to, in rats.
PubMed: [Preparation of gas chromatographic capillary columns with beta-cyclodextrin polymer stationary phase modified with methyl phenyl silicone(OV-17)].
PubMed: Biosynthesis and local sequence specific degradation of poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability.
PubMed: Urinary tea polyphenols in relation to gastric and esophageal cancers: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China.
PubMed: Identification and characterization of methylated and ring-fission metabolites of tea catechins formed in humans, mice, and rats.
PubMed: Urinary metabolites of French maritime pine bark extract in humans.
PubMed: Metabolic fate of (-)-[4-(3)H]epigallocatechin gallate in rats after oral administration.
PubMed: Versatile 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one: stereoselective methodology for generating C-glycosides, delta-valerolactones, and polyacetate segments.
PubMed: Analysis of urinary metabolites of tea catechins by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Structural identification of two metabolites of catechins and their kinetics in human urine and blood after tea ingestion.
PubMed: Pronounced differences in inhibition potency of lactone and non-lactone compounds for mouse and human coumarin 7-hydroxylases (CYP2A5 and CYP2A6).
PubMed: Determination of free and glucuronated hexane metabolites without prior hydrolysis by liquid- and gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Comparison of thermal characteristics and degradation properties of epsilon-caprolactone copolymers.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) by recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Method for the simultaneous quantification of n-hexane metabolites: application to n-hexane metabolism determination.
PubMed: Toxic effects of hexane derivatives on cultured rat Schwann cells.
PubMed: The metabolism of n-nonane in male Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Ixodidae). I. Receptors within the Haller's organ capsule.
PubMed: The influence of solvent stress on MMS-induced genetic change in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Induction of chromosome loss by mixtures of organic solvents including neurotoxins.
PubMed: Aprotic polar solvents that affect porcine brain tubulin aggregation in vitro induce aneuploidy in yeast cells growing at low temperatures.
PubMed: Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies workers exposed to hexane.
PubMed: Identification of the n-heptane metabolites in rat and human urine.
PubMed: Impairment of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by 2,5-hexanedione.
PubMed: The microbial metabolism of condensed (+)-catechins by rat-caecal microflora.
PubMed: Methodological investigations on the determination of n-hexane metabolites in urine.
PubMed: Analysis of n-hexane, 2-hexanone, 2,5-hexanedione, and related chemicals by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Genetic change may be caused by interference with protein-protein interactions.
PubMed: Identification of volatile metabolites of inhaled n-heptane in rat urine.
PubMed: Changes of n-hexane neurotoxicity and its urinary metabolites by long-term co-exposure with MEK or toluene.
PubMed: A study on biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure.
PubMed: Changes of n-hexane metabolites in urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene or MEK.
PubMed: Urinary excretion of n-hexane metabolites. A comparative study in rat, rabbit and monkey.
PubMed: Neurotoxic metabolites of "commercial hexane" in the urine of shoe factory workers.
PubMed: Experimental neurotoxicity and urinary metabolites of the C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons used as glue solvents in shoe manufacture.
PubMed: Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure.
PubMed: Measurement of the urinary metabolites of N-hexane, cyclohexane and their isomers by gas chromatography.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics of 14C-2-allophanyl-2-allyl -gamma-valero-lactone: a prodrug of proxibarbal in rats.
PubMed: Cyclohexyl analogues of some antiinflammatory drugs.
PubMed: Kinetics and mechanism of decomposition of some derivatives of 5-allylbarbituric acid. Part V. The course of hydrolysis of 5 allyl-5-(2'-hydroxypropyl)barbituric acid.
PubMed: Central properties of alpha-allophanyl-alpha-allyl-gamma-valerolactone (valofan) [proceedings].
PubMed: Prevention of experimental gastric ulcers in rats by dial derivatives.
PubMed: Presence of (+/-)-delta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone in human urine.
PubMed: Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Biliary and urinary excretion of metabolites of (+)-(U- 14 C)catechin.
PubMed: New derivatives of alpha-ethyl-alpha-allophanyl-gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed: Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Metabolism of (+)-[14C] catechin in the rat and guinea pig.
PubMed: [Mutagenic action of alpha-aceto-beta-vinyl-gamma-valerolactone].
PubMed: 2-benzyl-5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-gamma-valerolactone, an inhibitor of plasma cholinesterase.
PubMed: The influence of prolonged administration of alpha-allyl-allophanylphenyl-gamma-valerolactone (T1) on behavior and bioelectric brain activity in cats.
PubMed: Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Metabolism of (+)-catechin in the guinea pig.
PubMed: Metabolism of alpha-allyl-alpha-allophanyl-gamma-valerolactone.
PubMed: Some derivatives of gamma-valerolactone.
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Soluble in:
 fixed oils
 water, 9.381e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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