diethyl malate
malic acid, diethyl ester
 
Notes:
Flavouring compound [Flavornet]
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
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      Product(s):
      W0421 diethyl malate
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
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      Product(s):
      04-15100 DIETHYL MALATE, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W237418 Diethyl malate, ≥97%, FG
      SDS
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate (Click)
CAS Number: 7554-12-3Picture of molecule
Other: 626-11-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 231-444-5
FDA UNII: 59W97T99HI
Nikkaji Web: J44.123F
MDL: MFCD00048556
CoE Number: 382
XlogP3-AA: 0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 190.19558000
Formula: C8 H14 O5
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: JECFA evaluated diethyl malate.CASrn in Register refers to the racemate. Deleted:Substances for which CoE had no information as to their real use in foodstuffs and/or for which insufficient technical and/or toxicological information was available(CoE, 1992).
Category: flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 620  diethyl malate
Flavis Number: 09.439 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 09.439  diethyl malate
FEMA Number: 2374  diethyl malate
FDA Mainterm: DIETHYL MALATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.12000 to 1.12800 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.320 to  9.386
Refractive Index: 1.43600 to 1.44600 @  20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 91.00 to  92.00 °C. @ 1.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000410 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 185.00 °F. TCC ( 85.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.300 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils
 water
 water, 2.137e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength: medium
 caramellic  sugar brown sugar  sweet  winey  fruity  herbal  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
brown sugar sweet wine fruity herbal
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
CTC Organics
diethyl malate
Inoue Perfumery
DIETHYL MALATE
Penta International
DIETHYL MALATE, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl malate, ≥97%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
Recommendation for diethyl malate usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 3.70 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -44.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -6.50000
fruit ices: -6.50000
gelatins / puddings: -1.50000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -18.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 7554-12-3
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 24197
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
Chemidplus: 0007554123
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References:
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 7554-12-3
Pubchem (cid): 24197
Pubchem (sid): 135059507
Flavornet: 7554-12-3
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
UM BBD: Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB40220
FooDB: FDB029757
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: Diethyl malate
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 zinc chelate of L-lysinate HCl 
anisic
 amyl furoateFL/FR
balsamic
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
caramellic
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 coffee dioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
 mesitene lactoneFR
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
earthy
 amyl octanoateFL/FR
ethereal
isoamyl acetoacetateFL/FR
isobutyl alcoholFL/FR
fatty
 butyl undecylenateFL/FR
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
fermented
 hexanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
 methyl decanoateFL/FR
3-methyl-1-pentanolFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
(Z)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-damasconeFR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 menthadienyl formateFR
 methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)FL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
fruity
 allyl heptanoateFL/FR
 allyl propionateFL/FR
 amyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 amyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 amyl isovalerateFL/FR
isoamyl valerateFL/FR
 apple ketalFL/FR
 benzyl isovalerateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
isobutyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
 butyl hexanoateFL/FR
 butyl isovalerateFL/FR
isobutyl isovalerateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl butyrateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl isovalerateFL/FR
(E)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl laevo-tartrateFL/FR
 diethyl sebacateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl 3-methyl valerateFL/FR
 ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoateFR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
 ethyl isovalerateFL/FR
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 fruity ketalFL/FR
 geranyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 geranyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
 grape butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal dimethyl acetal 
 hexyl formateFL/FR
para-menth-1-ene-9-olFL/FR
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl nonanoateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
 nonyl isovalerateFL/FR
2-pentanoneFL/FR
 propyl heptanoateFL/FR
isopropyl isobutyrateFL/FR
isopropyl isovalerateFL/FR
 propyl isovalerateFL/FR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
green cognac oilFL/FR
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
 galbascone (IFF)FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
3-hexenyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
 pineapple heptadienone 10%FR
 propyl tiglateFL/FR
herbal
isoamyl heptanoateFL/FR
isoamyl tiglateFL/FR
 buchu mercaptan acetateFL/FR
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
 chamomile valerateFR
white cognac oilFL/FR
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl chrysanthemateFR
 linalyl octanoateFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 phenethyl senecioateFL/FR
 tricyclodecenyl propionateFR
honey
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
orris
 orris capronateFL/FR
roasted
2-methyl-1-butanolFL/FR
sulfurous
 ethyl methyl mercaptopropionateFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
isoamyl laurateFL/FR
 ethyl decanoateFL/FR
 ethyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl octanoateFL/FR
winey
 butyl angelateFL/FR
2-hexanolFL/FR
woody
 marine formateFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 amyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 amyl furoateFL/FR
 amyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 amyl isovalerateFL/FR
 amyl octanoateFL/FR
isoamyl tiglateFL/FR
2-amyl-5 or 6-keto-1,4-dioxaneFL
 apple ketalFL/FR
 butyl angelateFL/FR
isobutyl isovalerateFL/FR
isobutyraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl laevo-tartrateFL/FR
 diethyl sebacateFL/FR
 ethyl 3-methyl valerateFL/FR
 ethyl aconitateFL
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 fruity ketalFL/FR
 geranyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 geranyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 heptyl 2-methyl butyrateFL
 hexanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
2-hexanolFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal dimethyl acetal 
(E)-2-hexenal dimethyl acetalFL
 hexyl formateFL/FR
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
 methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)FL/FR
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
2-methyl-1-butanolFL/FR
 nonyl isovalerateFL/FR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 phenethyl senecioateFL/FR
isopropyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 propyl isovalerateFL/FR
isopropyl isovalerateFL/FR
 propyl tiglateFL/FR
 sorbyl propionateFL
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
 zinc chelate of L-lysinate HCl 
acidic
(E)-2-hexenoic acidFL
alliaceous
 allyl propionateFL/FR
burnt
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
caramellic
 caramel furanoneFL
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
coconut
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
coffee
 coffee dioneFL/FR
cooling
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
ethereal
isobutyl alcoholFL/FR
fatty
isoamyl laurateFL/FR
 butyl undecylenateFL/FR
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
 methyl decanoateFL/FR
floral
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
fruity
 allyl heptanoateFL/FR
isoamyl acetoacetateFL/FR
isoamyl valerateFL/FR
 benzyl isovalerateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
 buchu mercaptan acetateFL/FR
isobutyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
 butyl hexanoateFL/FR
 butyl isovalerateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl isovalerateFL/FR
(E)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
 ethyl isovalerateFL/FR
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
 methyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
2-pentanoneFL/FR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
fusel
white cognac oilFL/FR
green cognac oilFL/FR
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
 grape butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
3-hexenyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
herbal
isoamyl heptanoateFL/FR
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
 linalyl octanoateFL/FR
para-menth-1-ene-9-olFL/FR
 orris capronateFL/FR
juicy
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
meaty
2-mercaptomethyl pyrazineFL
musty
 propionaldehydeFL
nutty
3,5(6)-cocoa pyrazineFL
sulfurous
 ethyl methyl mercaptopropionateFL/FR
sweet
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl decanoateFL/FR
 ethyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl octanoateFL/FR
 propyl heptanoateFL/FR
whiskey
3-methyl-1-pentanolFL/FR
winey
 methyl nonanoateFL/FR
woody
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 appleFL
 figFL
 gooseberryFL
 mangoFL
 plumFL
 raisinFL
 wineFL
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 cider
Search  Picture
 cognac
Search  Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 sherry
Search  Picture
 wine port wine
Search  Picture
 wine red wine
Search  Picture
 wine white wine
Search  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester, (±)-
 diethyl 2-hydroxy-1,4-butane dioate
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl DL-malate
 diethyl hydroxybutane dioate
 diethyl hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl-2-hydroxybutandioat
 ethyl malate
 hydroxybutane dioic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid, diethyl ester
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Investigation for antimicrobial resistance modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.
PubMed: Role of glutathione in lung retention of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in two unique rat models of hyperoxic lung injury.
PubMed: Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines--a comparative study.
PubMed: Acidic sphingomyelinase induced by electrophiles promotes proinflammatory cytokine production in human bladder carcinoma ECV-304 cells.
PubMed: Acute depletion of reduced glutathione causes extensive carbonylation of rat brain proteins.
PubMed: Cadmium-induced astroglial death proceeds via glutathione depletion.
PubMed: Na-K-ATPase in rat cerebellar granule cells is redox sensitive.
PubMed: Transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression by cadmium in vascular endothelial cells: role of NF-E2-related factor-2.
PubMed: Altered differentiation in rat and rabbit limb bud micromass cultures by glutathione modulating agents.
PubMed: Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase inhibits the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria by suppressing the peroxidation of cardiolipin in hypoglycaemia-induced apoptosis.
PubMed: Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase suppresses apoptosis mediated by a mitochondrial death pathway.
PubMed: Determination of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid produced in rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.
PubMed: Suppression of leukotriene formation in RBL-2H3 cells that overexpressed phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase.
PubMed: Mechanisms involved in aggravation of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in adrenalectomized rats.
PubMed: Glutathione protects against exogenous oxidant injury to rabbit renal proximal tubules.
PubMed: Association of substrates with alpha-chymotrypsin, diethyl alpha-acetoxysuccinate, and diethyl malate.
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