EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

diethyl malate
malic acid, diethyl ester

Sponsors

Name:diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
CAS Number: 7554-12-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:626-11-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:231-444-5
FDA UNII:59W97T99HI
Nikkaji Web:J44.123F
MDL:MFCD00048556
CoE Number:382
XlogP3-AA:0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:190.19558000
Formula:C8 H14 O5
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
JECFA evaluated diethyl malate.CASrn in Register refers to the racemate. Deleted:Substances for which CoE had no information as to their real use in foodstuffs and/or for which insufficient technical and/or toxicological information was available(CoE, 1992).
Category:flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:620 diethyl malate
FLAVIS Number:09.439 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:09.439 diethyl malate
FEMA Number:2374 diethyl malate
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: DIETHYL MALATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.12000 to 1.12800 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.320 to 9.386
Refractive Index:1.43600 to 1.44600 @ 20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 91.00 to 92.00 °C. @ 1.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000410 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 185.00 °F. TCC ( 85.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.300 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils
 water
 water, 2.137e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: caramellic
Odor Strength:medium
caramellic sugar brown sugar sweet winey fruity herbal
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. brown sugar sweet wine fruity herbal
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Diethyl Malate
Inoue Perfumery
DIETHYL MALATE
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Diethyl Malate
Odor: Wine fruity apple skin
Penta International
DIETHYL MALATE, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl malate, ≥97%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Synerzine
Diethyl Malate
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Diethyl DL-Malate >98.0%(GC)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
Recommendation for diethyl malate usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 3.70 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -44.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -6.50000
fruit ices: -6.50000
gelatins / puddings: -1.50000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -18.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):7554-12-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :24197
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
Chemidplus:0007554123
 
References:
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:7554-12-3
Pubchem (cid):24197
Pubchem (sid):135059507
Flavornet:7554-12-3
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
UM BBD:Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB40220
FooDB:FDB029757
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
FAO:Diethyl malate
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
propyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
anisic
anisic
amyl furoate
FL/FR
balsamic
cinnamyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
caramellic
2-iso
butyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
caramel pentadione
FL/FR
coffee dione
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
maltyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
menthone lactone
FL/FR
mesitene lactone
FR
iso
propenyl pyrazine
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
earthy
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
amyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl alcohol
FL/FR
methyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
3-
decen-2-one
FL/FR
fermented
hexanal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
methyl decanoate
FL/FR
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
gamma-
damascone
FR
(Z)-alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
geranyl tiglate
FL/FR
menthadienyl formate
FR
methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)
FL/FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
fruity
acetaldehyde hexyl isoamyl acetal
FL/FR
allyl heptanoate
FL/FR
allyl propionate
FL/FR
amyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
iso
amyl valerate
FL/FR
apple ketal
FL/FR
benzyl isovalerate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl butyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
(E)-alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
diethyl laevo-tartrate
FL/FR
diethyl sebacate
FL/FR
dodecyl propionate
FL/FR
eriocephalus punctulatus flower oil
FR
ethyl 2-ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-methyl valerate
FL/FR
ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoate
FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
ethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
ethyl valerate
FL/FR
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
fruity ketal
FL/FR
geranyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
geranyl isovalerate
FL/FR
grape butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl formate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
para-
menth-1-ene-9-ol
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl nonanoate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
nonyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E,E)-5,6,7,7-
tetramethyl-2,5-octadien-4-one
FR
green
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
butyl heptanoate
FL/FR
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate
FL/FR
galbascone (IFF)
FR
green note propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl angelate
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
3-
hexenyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
methyl (E)-3-hexenoate
FL/FR
3-
octyl formate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenal
FL/FR
pineapple heptadienone 10%
FR
propyl tiglate
FL/FR
herbal
iso
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl tiglate
FL/FR
buchu mercaptan acetate
FL/FR
butyl levulinate
FL/FR
chamomile valerate
FR
white
cognac oil
FL/FR
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl chrysanthemate
FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
1-para-
menthen-9-yl acetate
FL/FR
3-
octanon-1-ol
FL/FR
phenethyl senecioate
FL/FR
tagete oil india
FL/FR
tricyclodecenyl propionate
FR
honey
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
orris
orris capronate
FL/FR
roasted
2-
methyl-1-butanol
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl methyl mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
ethyl decanoate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
winey
butyl angelate
FL/FR
2-
hexanol
FL/FR
methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoate
FL/FR
woody
kaempferia galanga rhizome oil
FL/FR
marine formate
FR
lariciu
pine needle oil
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
acetaldehyde hexyl isoamyl acetal
FL/FR
amyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
amyl furoate
FL/FR
amyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl tiglate
FL/FR
2-
amyl-5 or 6-keto-1,4-dioxane
FL
butyl angelate
FL/FR
2-
butyl furan
FL
iso
butyraldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL
cuminyl acetate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
diethyl laevo-tartrate
FL/FR
dodecyl propionate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate
FL
ethyl 3-methyl valerate
FL/FR
ethyl aconitate
FL
farnesyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
heptyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL
hexanal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
2-
hexanol
FL/FR
(E)-3-
hexenal
FL
(Z)-3-
hexenal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal dimethyl acetal
FL
(E)-2-
hexenal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
2-
hexyl acetate
FL
menthone lactone
FL/FR
methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoate
FL/FR
methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)
FL/FR
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
2-
methyl-1-butanol
FL/FR
nonyl isovalerate
FL/FR
3-
octanon-1-ol
FL/FR
oenanthic ether
FL
phenethyl senecioate
FL/FR
propyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
iso
propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
iso
propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
propyl isovalerate
FL/FR
propyl tiglate
FL/FR
sorbyl propionate
FL
acidic
acidic
(E)-2-
hexenoic acid
FL
alliaceous
allyl propionate
FL/FR
burnt
iso
propenyl pyrazine
FL/FR
camphoreous
kaempferia galanga rhizome oil
FL/FR
caramellic
caramel furanone
FL
caramel pentadione
FL/FR
cyclotene
FL/FR
ethyl maltol
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone
FL/FR
strawberry furanone acetate
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
coffee
coffee dione
FL/FR
cooling
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
ethereal
iso
butyl alcohol
FL/FR
methyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
iso
amyl laurate
FL/FR
methyl decanoate
FL/FR
floral
geranyl tiglate
FL/FR
methyl citronellate
FL/FR
fruity
allyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
iso
amyl valerate
FL/FR
apple ketal
FL/FR
benzyl isovalerate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
buchu mercaptan acetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
butyl heptanoate
FL/FR
butyl hexanoate
FL/FR
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
(E)-alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
alpha-
damascone
FL/FR
diethyl sebacate
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
ethyl isovalerate
FL/FR
ethyl valerate
FL/FR
fruity ketal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl octanoate
FL/FR
1-para-
menthen-9-yl acetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl butyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
terpinyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fusel
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
white
cognac oil
FL/FR
methyl butyrate
FL/FR
green
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
iso
butyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-iso
butyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
3-
decen-2-one
FL/FR
ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate
FL/FR
geranyl isovalerate
FL/FR
grape butyrate
FL/FR
green note propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenal
FL/FR
3-
hexenyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl butyrate
FL/FR
hexyl formate
FL/FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-3-hexenoate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenal
FL/FR
herbal
iso
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
butyl levulinate
FL/FR
para-
menth-1-ene-9-ol
FL/FR
tagete oil india
FL/FR
jammy
maltyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
meaty
2-
mercaptomethyl pyrazine
FL
musty
propionaldehyde
FL
nutty
3,5(6)-
cocoa pyrazine
FL
orris
orris capronate
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl methyl mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
tropical
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
waxy
allyl nonanoate
FL/FR
butyl undecylenate
FL/FR
ethyl decanoate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
ethyl octanoate
FL/FR
3-
octyl formate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
whiskey
3-
methyl-1-pentanol
FL/FR
winey
cinnamyl butyrate
FL/FR
methyl nonanoate
FL/FR
woody
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLapple
FLfig
FLgooseberry
FLmango
FLplum
FLraisin
FLwine
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 cider
Search PMC Picture
 cognac
Search PMC Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 sherry
Search PMC Picture
 wine port wine
Search Picture
 wine red wine
Search Picture
 wine white wine
Search Picture
 
Synonyms:
 butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester, (±)-
 diethyl 2-hydroxy-1,4-butane dioate
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl DL-malate
 diethyl hydroxybutane dioate
 diethyl hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl-2-hydroxybutandioat
 ethyl malate
 hydroxybutane dioic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid, diethyl ester
 

Articles:

PubMed:Investigation for antimicrobial resistance modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.
PubMed:Role of glutathione in lung retention of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in two unique rat models of hyperoxic lung injury.
PubMed:Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines--a comparative study.
PubMed:Acidic sphingomyelinase induced by electrophiles promotes proinflammatory cytokine production in human bladder carcinoma ECV-304 cells.
PubMed:Acute depletion of reduced glutathione causes extensive carbonylation of rat brain proteins.
PubMed:Cadmium-induced astroglial death proceeds via glutathione depletion.
PubMed:Na-K-ATPase in rat cerebellar granule cells is redox sensitive.
PubMed:Transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression by cadmium in vascular endothelial cells: role of NF-E2-related factor-2.
PubMed:Altered differentiation in rat and rabbit limb bud micromass cultures by glutathione modulating agents.
PubMed:Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase inhibits the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria by suppressing the peroxidation of cardiolipin in hypoglycaemia-induced apoptosis.
PubMed:Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase suppresses apoptosis mediated by a mitochondrial death pathway.
PubMed:Determination of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid produced in rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.
PubMed:Suppression of leukotriene formation in RBL-2H3 cells that overexpressed phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase.
PubMed:Mechanisms involved in aggravation of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in adrenalectomized rats.
PubMed:Glutathione protects against exogenous oxidant injury to rabbit renal proximal tubules.
PubMed:Association of substrates with alpha-chymotrypsin, diethyl alpha-acetoxysuccinate, and diethyl malate.
 
Notes:
Flavouring compound [Flavornet]
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