diethyl malate
malic acid, diethyl ester
 
Notes:
Flavouring compound [Flavornet]
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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      Product(s):
      04-15100 DIETHYL MALATE, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
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      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
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      Product(s):
      W237418 Diethyl malate, ≥97%, FG
      SDS
       
  • Synerzine
    • Synerzine, Inc.
      Innovation. Customization. Aroma Ingredients.
      Synerzine is a leading supplier of flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      Synerzine expresses what we have grown to embody as an organization - the synergy and connection between raw ingredients, science, technology, and the final product. Our experienced team is passionate about bringing our customers high-quality innovative ingredients that they can trust.
      Building upon our 44 year history, the Synerzine team provides customers around the globe with convenient access to over 1200 high-quality aroma ingredients. We actively engage with customers to add a wide array of new products and services on a regular basis. Our aim is to delight every customer with our exceptional services, large product selection, customization and the highest quality and safety standards. We provide our customers with true value designed to help them bring their products to market faster.
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      Product(s):
      W0421 Diethyl Malate
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
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      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
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      Product(s):
      M0024 Diethyl DL-Malate >98.0%(GC)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate (Click)
CAS Number: 7554-12-3Picture of molecule
Other: 626-11-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 231-444-5
FDA UNII: 59W97T99HI
Nikkaji Web: J44.123F
MDL: MFCD00048556
CoE Number: 382
XlogP3-AA: 0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 190.19558000
Formula: C8 H14 O5
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: JECFA evaluated diethyl malate.CASrn in Register refers to the racemate. Deleted:Substances for which CoE had no information as to their real use in foodstuffs and/or for which insufficient technical and/or toxicological information was available(CoE, 1992).
Category: flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 620  diethyl malate
Flavis Number: 09.439 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 09.439  diethyl malate
FEMA Number: 2374  diethyl malate
FDA Mainterm: DIETHYL MALATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.12000 to 1.12800 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.320 to  9.386
Refractive Index: 1.43600 to 1.44600 @  20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 91.00 to  92.00 °C. @ 1.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000410 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 185.00 °F. TCC ( 85.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.300 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils
 water
 water, 2.137e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: caramellic
 
Odor Strength: medium
 
 caramellic  sugar brown sugar  sweet  winey  fruity  herbal  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
brown sugar sweet wine fruity herbal
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Diethyl Malate
Inoue Perfumery
DIETHYL MALATE
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Diethyl Malate
Odor: Wine fruity apple skin
Penta International
DIETHYL MALATE, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl malate, ≥97%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Synerzine
Diethyl Malate
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Diethyl DL-Malate >98.0%(GC)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and cosmetic fragrance agents
Recommendation for diethyl malate usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 3.70 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -44.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -6.50000
fruit ices: -6.50000
gelatins / puddings: -1.50000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -18.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 7554-12-3
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 24197
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
Chemidplus: 0007554123
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References:
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 7554-12-3
Pubchem (cid): 24197
Pubchem (sid): 135059507
Flavornet: 7554-12-3
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
UM BBD: Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB40220
FooDB: FDB029757
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
FAO: Diethyl malate
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 propyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
anisic
 amyl furoateFL/FR
balsamic
 cinnamyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 methyl furoate 
caramellic
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 coffee dioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
 maltyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
 mesitene lactoneFR
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
earthy
 amyl octanoateFL/FR
ethereal
isoamyl acetoacetateFL/FR
isobutyl alcoholFL/FR
 methyl acetateFL/FR
fatty
 butyl undecylenateFL/FR
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
fermented
 hexanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
 methyl decanoateFL/FR
3-methyl-1-pentanolFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
gamma-damasconeFR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
(Z)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 menthadienyl formateFR
 methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)FL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
fruity
 acetaldehyde hexyl isoamyl acetalFL/FR
 allyl heptanoateFL/FR
 allyl propionateFL/FR
 amyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 amyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 amyl isovalerateFL/FR
isoamyl valerateFL/FR
 apple ketalFL/FR
 benzyl ethyl malonate 
 benzyl isovalerateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
isobutyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
 butyl hexanoateFL/FR
isobutyl isovalerateFL/FR
 butyl isovalerateFL/FR
1-isobutyl-2-methyl butyl 2-butenoate 
 cyclohexyl butyrateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl isovalerateFL/FR
(E)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl laevo-tartrateFL/FR
 diethyl sebacateFL/FR
1,2-dimethyl propyl 2-butenoate 
 dodecyl propionateFL/FR
 eriocephalus punctulatus flower oilFR
 ethyl 2-ethyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl 3-methyl valerateFL/FR
 ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoateFR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
 ethyl isovalerateFL/FR
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 fruity ketalFL/FR
 geranyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 geranyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
 grape butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal dimethyl acetal 
 hexyl formateFL/FR
 hexyl isovalerateFL/FR
para-menth-1-ene-9-olFL/FR
2-methyl butyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl nonanoateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
 nonyl isovalerateFL/FR
2-pentanoneFL/FR
 propyl angelate 
 propyl heptanoateFL/FR
isopropyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 propyl isovalerateFL/FR
isopropyl isovalerateFL/FR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
(E,E)-5,6,7,7-tetramethyl-2,5-octadien-4-oneFR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
green cognac oilFL/FR
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
 galbascone (IFF)FR
 green note propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl angelateFR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
(E)-2-hexenal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
3-hexenyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
 methyl (E)-3-hexenoateFL/FR
3-octyl formateFL/FR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
 pineapple heptadienone 10%FR
 propyl tiglateFL/FR
herbal
isoamyl heptanoateFL/FR
isoamyl tiglateFL/FR
 buchu mercaptan acetateFL/FR
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
 chamomile valerateFR
white cognac oilFL/FR
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl chrysanthemateFR
 linalyl octanoateFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 phenethyl senecioateFL/FR
 tagete oil indiaFL/FR
 tricyclodecenyl propionateFR
honey
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
oily
(R)-(-)-2-butanol 
orris
 orris capronateFL/FR
roasted
2-methyl-1-butanolFL/FR
sulfurous
 ethyl methyl mercaptopropionateFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
isoamyl laurateFL/FR
 ethyl decanoateFL/FR
 ethyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl octanoateFL/FR
winey
 butyl angelateFL/FR
2-hexanolFL/FR
 methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoateFL/FR
woody
 kaempferia galanga rhizome oilFL/FR
 marine formateFR
lariciu pine needle oilFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
 acetaldehyde hexyl isoamyl acetalFL/FR
 amyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 amyl furoateFL/FR
 amyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 amyl isovalerateFL/FR
 amyl octanoateFL/FR
isoamyl tiglateFL/FR
2-amyl-5 or 6-keto-1,4-dioxaneFL
 benzyl ethyl malonate 
(R)-(-)-2-butanol 
 butyl angelateFL/FR
2-butyl furanFL
1-isobutyl-2-methyl butyl 2-butenoate 
isobutyraldehyde propylene glycol acetalFL
 cuminyl acetateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl laevo-tartrateFL/FR
1,2-dimethyl propyl 2-butenoate 
 dodecyl propionateFL/FR
 ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoateFL
 ethyl 3-methyl valerateFL/FR
 ethyl aconitateFL
 farnesyl acetoneFL/FR
 geranyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 geranyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 heptyl 2-methyl butyrateFL
 hexanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
2-hexanolFL/FR
(E)-3-hexenalFL
(Z)-3-hexenal diethyl acetalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenal dimethyl acetal 
(E)-2-hexenal dimethyl acetalFL
(E)-2-hexenal propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
2-hexyl acetateFL
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
 methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoateFL/FR
 methyl benzyl acetate (mixed ortho-,meta-,para-)FL/FR
 methyl furoate 
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
2-methyl-1-butanolFL/FR
 nonyl isovalerateFL/FR
3-octanon-1-olFL/FR
 oenanthic etherFL
 phenethyl senecioateFL/FR
 propyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 propyl angelate 
isopropyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 propyl isovalerateFL/FR
isopropyl isovalerateFL/FR
 propyl tiglateFL/FR
 sorbyl propionateFL
acidic
(E)-2-hexenoic acidFL
alliaceous
 allyl propionateFL/FR
burnt
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
camphoreous
 kaempferia galanga rhizome oilFL/FR
caramellic
 caramel furanoneFL
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
coffee
 coffee dioneFL/FR
cooling
 manzanate (Givaudan)FL/FR
ethereal
isobutyl alcoholFL/FR
 methyl acetateFL/FR
fatty
isoamyl laurateFL/FR
 methyl decanoateFL/FR
floral
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
fruity
 allyl heptanoateFL/FR
isoamyl acetoacetateFL/FR
isoamyl valerateFL/FR
 apple ketalFL/FR
 benzyl isovalerateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
 buchu mercaptan acetateFL/FR
isobutyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 butyl anthranilateFL/FR
 butyl heptanoateFL/FR
 butyl hexanoateFL/FR
 butyl isovalerateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl isovalerateFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
(E)-alpha-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl sebacateFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-ethyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 ethyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl heptanoateFL/FR
 ethyl isovalerateFL/FR
 ethyl valerateFL/FR
 fruity ketalFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl octanoateFL/FR
1-para-menthen-9-yl acetateFL/FR
2-methyl butyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl valerateFL/FR
2-pentanoneFL/FR
 sorbyl butyrateFL/FR
 terpinyl cinnamateFL/FR
fusel
green cognac oilFL/FR
white cognac oilFL/FR
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
green
 benzaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
isobutyl isovalerateFL/FR
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
3-decen-2-oneFL/FR
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoateFL/FR
 geranyl isovalerateFL/FR
 grape butyrateFL/FR
 green note propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl butyrateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexenalFL/FR
3-hexenyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl butyrateFL/FR
 hexyl formateFL/FR
 hexyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 hexyl isovalerateFL/FR
 methyl (E)-3-hexenoateFL/FR
(E)-2-pentenalFL/FR
herbal
isoamyl heptanoateFL/FR
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
para-menth-1-ene-9-olFL/FR
 tagete oil indiaFL/FR
jammy
 maltyl isobutyrateFL/FR
meaty
2-mercaptomethyl pyrazineFL
musty
 propionaldehydeFL
nutty
3,5(6)-cocoa pyrazineFL
orris
 orris capronateFL/FR
sulfurous
 ethyl methyl mercaptopropionateFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
waxy
 allyl nonanoateFL/FR
 butyl undecylenateFL/FR
 ethyl decanoateFL/FR
 ethyl nonanoateFL/FR
 ethyl octanoateFL/FR
3-octyl formateFL/FR
 propyl heptanoateFL/FR
whiskey
3-methyl-1-pentanolFL/FR
winey
 cinnamyl butyrateFL/FR
 methyl nonanoateFL/FR
woody
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 appleFL
 figFL
 gooseberryFL
 mangoFL
 plumFL
 raisinFL
 wineFL
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 cider
Search  PMC Picture
 cognac
Search  PMC Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 sherry
Search  PMC Picture
 wine port wine
Search  Picture
 wine red wine
Search  Picture
 wine white wine
Search  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester
 butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, diethyl ester, (±)-
 diethyl 2-hydroxy-1,4-butane dioate
 diethyl 2-hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl DL-malate
 diethyl hydroxybutane dioate
 diethyl hydroxybutanedioate
 diethyl-2-hydroxybutandioat
 ethyl malate
 hydroxybutane dioic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid diethyl ester
 malic acid, diethyl ester
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Investigation for antimicrobial resistance modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.
PubMed: Role of glutathione in lung retention of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in two unique rat models of hyperoxic lung injury.
PubMed: Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines--a comparative study.
PubMed: Acidic sphingomyelinase induced by electrophiles promotes proinflammatory cytokine production in human bladder carcinoma ECV-304 cells.
PubMed: Acute depletion of reduced glutathione causes extensive carbonylation of rat brain proteins.
PubMed: Cadmium-induced astroglial death proceeds via glutathione depletion.
PubMed: Na-K-ATPase in rat cerebellar granule cells is redox sensitive.
PubMed: Transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression by cadmium in vascular endothelial cells: role of NF-E2-related factor-2.
PubMed: Altered differentiation in rat and rabbit limb bud micromass cultures by glutathione modulating agents.
PubMed: Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase inhibits the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria by suppressing the peroxidation of cardiolipin in hypoglycaemia-induced apoptosis.
PubMed: Mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase suppresses apoptosis mediated by a mitochondrial death pathway.
PubMed: Determination of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid produced in rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.
PubMed: Suppression of leukotriene formation in RBL-2H3 cells that overexpressed phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase.
PubMed: Mechanisms involved in aggravation of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in adrenalectomized rats.
PubMed: Glutathione protects against exogenous oxidant injury to rabbit renal proximal tubules.
PubMed: Association of substrates with alpha-chymotrypsin, diethyl alpha-acetoxysuccinate, and diethyl malate.
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