thaumatin
proteins thaumatins
 
Notes:
Sweet tasting protein from fruit of Thaumatococcus daniellie benth, a plant from tropical Africa. sweet tasting protein from fruit of thaumatococcus daniellie benth, a plant from tropical africa. Obt. from ripe miracle berry fruits (Thaumatococcus daniellii). Sweetener (5,000 times sweeter than sucrose), flavour enhancer for coffee, peppermint flavours etc. Permitted in EU at 50-400 ppm in chewing gum, vitamin preparations and some other sugar-free products. Use limited by slow contact and persistence of sensation Thaumatin has been approved as a sweetener in the European Union (E957), Israel, and Japan. In the United States, it is a Generally Recognized as Safe flavoring agent (FEMA GRAS 3732).; Thaumatin is a low-calorie (virtually calorie-free) protein sweetener and flavour modifier. The substance is often used primarily for its flavour modifying properties and not exclusively as a sweetener.; Thaumatin production is induced in katemfe in response to an attack upon the plant by viroid pathogens. Several members of the thaumatin protein family display significant in vitro inhibition of hyphal growth and sporulation by various fungi. The thaumatin protein is considered a prototype for a pathogen-response protein domain. This thaumatin domain has been found in species as diverse as rice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Thaumatins are pathogenesis related (PR) proteins, which are induced by various agents ranging from ethylene to pathogens, are structurally diverse and apparently ubiquitous in plants: they include thaumatin, osmotin, tobacco major and minor PR proteins, alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, and P21 and PWIR2 soybean and wheat leaf proteins. The proteins are involved in systematically acquired resistance and stress response in plants, although their precise role is unknown. Thaumatin is an intensely sweet tasting protein (on a molar basis about 100,000 times as sweet as sucrose) found in the West African shrub Thaumatococcus daniellii: it is induced by attack by viroids, which are single-stranded unencapsulated RNA molecules that do not code for protein.
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CAS Number: 53850-34-3 
ECHA EC Number: 258-822-2
MDL: MFCD00132420
Formula: unspecified
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Additive: Thaumatin
GSFA Codex: Thaumatin (957)
DG SANTE Food Additives: thaumatin
FEMA Number: 3732  thaumatin
FDA Mainterm: THAUMATIN
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: cream crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 water
Insoluble in:
 acetone
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
 sweet  
Taste Description:
very sweet
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
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Suppliers:
Anhui Haibei
Thaumatin
CTC Organics
thaumatin
Naturex
Talin® Natural
Penta International
THAUMATIN 10% ON GUM ARABIC, Kosher
Penta International
THAUMATIN 10% ON MALTODEXTRIN, Kosher
Penta International
THAUMATIN 5% IN AQUEOUS GLYCEROL, Kosher
Penta International
THAUMATIN 5% IN AQUEOUS PROPYLENE GLYCOL, Kosher
Penta International
THAUMATIN, Kosher
Silver Fern Chemical
Thaumatin
Odor: characteristic
Use: Thaumatin is approved as a sweetener in Europe, the USA, Japan, and Israel, and is generally recognized as safe for food additives.
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: sweeteners, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for thaumatin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 13. Update in publication number(s): 18, 22, 28
Click here to view publication 13
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -7.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -7.00000
beverages(alcoholic): -7.00000
breakfast cereal: -7.00000
cheese: -7.00000
chewing gum: -150.00000
condiments / relishes: -7.00000
confectionery froastings: -7.00000
egg products: -7.00000
fats / oils: -7.00000
fish products: -7.00000
frozen dairy: -7.00000
fruit ices: -7.00000
gelatins / puddings: -7.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: -7.00000
hard candy: -7.00000
imitation dairy: -7.00000
instant coffee / tea: -7.00000
jams / jellies: -7.00000
meat products: -7.00000
milk products: -7.00000
nut products: -7.00000
other grains: -7.00000
poultry: -7.00000
processed fruits: -7.00000
processed vegetables: -7.00000
reconstituted vegetables: -7.00000
seasonings / flavors: -7.00000
snack foods: -7.00000
soft candy: -7.00000
soups: -7.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: -7.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Opinion on the safety of the extension of use of thaumatin (E 957)
View page or View pdf
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 53850-34-3
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0053850343
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References:
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 53850-34-3
Pubchem (sid): 135317179
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB32529
FooDB: FDB000515
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: THAUMATIN
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
acidic
 cyclohexyl acetic acidFL/FR
aldehydic
 citronellyl oxyacetaldehydeFL/FR
animal
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
anisic
para-anisyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
balsamic
2-acetyl furanFL/FR
 guaiacyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
buttery
 acetoinFL/FR
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
3,4-hexane dioneFL/FR
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-oxobutyric acidFL/FR
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 coffee dioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 cyclotene hydrateFL/FR
 diethyl malateFL/FR
alpha,alpha-dimethyl anisyl acetoneFL/FR
 ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl cyclopentenoloneFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
5-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-oneFL/FR
 fenugreek absoluteFL/FR
 immortelle absoluteFL/FR
 levulinic acidFL/FR
 maltolFL/FR
 maltyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 maltyl propionateFL/FR
 maple furanoneFL/FR
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
5-methyl furfuralFL/FR
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
 rosefuranFL/FR
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
chocolate
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 cocoa pentenalFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl phenyl acetateFL/FR
coconut
gamma-heptalactoneFL/FR
creamy
gamma-butyrolactoneFL/FR
ethereal
 ethyl 4-pentenoateFL/FR
 ethyl pyruvateFL/FR
 methyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
fermented
 ethyl (E)-2-crotonateFL/FR
 cardamom absoluteFL/FR
 citronellyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 citronellyl valerateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl phenyl acetateFR
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
 decyl formateFR
 ethyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 genet concreteFR
 geranyl anthranilateFR
 geranyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 hyacinth acetalsFL/FR
 kewda absolute 
 linalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
ortho-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 octyl isovalerateFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 phenethyl benzoateFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl formateFL/FR
isopropyl anthranilateFL/FR
isopropyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia) moroccoFL/FR
 rose concrete (rosa centifolia)FR
 tuberose absolute (from concrete)FL/FR
 tuberose absolute (from pommade)FL/FR
 wallflower absoluteFR
fruity
 allyl phenoxyacetateFL/FR
(E)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
(Z)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
beta-damasconeFL/FR
(E)-ethyl tiglateFL/FR
(Z)-3-octen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
 osmanthus flower absoluteFL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 2FL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl acetateFL/FR
green
isoamyl 3-(2-furan) propionateFL/FR
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
(Z,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehydeFL/FR
hay
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 artemisyl ketoneFL/FR
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
american elder flower absoluteFR
 matricaria chamomilla flower oilFL/FR
honey
 allyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl furoateFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
 phenyl pyruvic acidFL/FR
 propyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
melon
(Z)-6-nonen-1-olFL/FR
musty
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
 cocoa butenalFL/FR
nutty
2-acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
2,3-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty cyclohexenoneFL/FR
phenolic
4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenolFL/FR
spicy
 eugenyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
isoeugenyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
(E)-tiglic acidFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla oleoresin baliFL/FR
thujonic
 cistus cyclohexanoneFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
vegetable
 tetrahydrofurfuryl alcoholFL/FR
waxy
1-dodecanolFL/FR
 methyl butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
woody
 santalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
1-acetyl cyclohexyl acetateFL
2-acetyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridineFL
 allyl 2-furoateFL
para-anisyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 artemisyl ketoneFL/FR
 benzyl disulfideFL
 cistus cyclohexanoneFL/FR
 citronellyl valerateFL/FR
(Z)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
 diethyl malateFL/FR
2,5-diethyl tetrahydrofuranFL
alpha,alpha-dimethyl anisyl acetoneFL/FR
 ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl 4-pentenoateFL/FR
 ethyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
5-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-oneFL/FR
 eugenyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 fig leaf absoluteFL
 furfuryl acetoneFL
(E)-2-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 kewda absolute 
 linalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 mango furanoneFL
 menthone lactoneFL/FR
 methyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
ortho-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 methyl hydrocinnamateFL/FR
 octyl isovalerateFL/FR
 osmanthus flower absoluteFL/FR
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 phenethyl benzoateFL/FR
 phenethyl furoateFL/FR
2-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl formateFL/FR
isopropyl anthranilateFL/FR
 rosefuranFL/FR
 santalyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 toffee furanoneFL/FR
isoamyl 3-(2-furan) propionateFL/FR
beta-damasconeFL/FR
acidic
 levulinic acidFL/FR
dextro,laevo-tartaric acidFL
aromatic
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 hyacinth acetalsFL/FR
berry
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
brown
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
2-oxobutyric acidFL/FR
5-methyl furfuralFL/FR
 tetrahydrofurfuryl acetateFL/FR
(E)-tiglic acidFL/FR
burnt
 furfuryl alcoholFL
isopropenyl pyrazineFL/FR
buttery
 diacetylFL
3,4-hexane dioneFL/FR
caramellic
 caramel furanoneFL
 caramel pentadioneFL/FR
 cycloteneFL/FR
 cyclotene hydrateFL/FR
 ethyl maltolFL/FR
5-ethyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl cyclohexen-2-oneFL
 fenugreek absoluteFL/FR
 maltolFL/FR
 maltyl propionateFL/FR
 maple furanoneFL/FR
3-methyl butyl 2-furyl butyrateFL
 shoyu furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanoneFL/FR
 strawberry furanone acetateFL/FR
citrus
 citronellyl oxyacetaldehydeFL/FR
coffee
 coffee dioneFL/FR
2-thiophene thiolFL
creamy
 acetoinFL/FR
2-propanoyl thiopheneFL
fatty
2,4-undecadienalFL
(E,E)-2,4-undecadienalFL
floral
isoamyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 cardamom absoluteFL/FR
 citronellyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 cocoa pentenalFL/FR
 geranyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
bitter orangeflower absolute moroccoFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia) moroccoFL/FR
 tuberose absolute (from concrete)FL/FR
 tuberose absolute (from pommade)FL/FR
fruity
 allyl phenoxyacetateFL/FR
(E)-ethyl tiglateFL/FR
 furfuryl valerateFL
(Z)-3-octen-1-yl propionateFL/FR
2-pentanoyl furanFL
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 2FL/FR
green
2-isobutyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 cocoa butenalFL/FR
(E)-beta-damasconeFL/FR
(E)-3-hexenoic acidFL
 immortelle absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 butyl levulinateFL/FR
5-hydroxymethyl furfuralFL
 matricaria chamomilla flower oilFL/FR
honey
 allyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehydeFL/FR
isopropyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 propyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
jammy
 ethyl cyclopentenoloneFL/FR
 maltyl isobutyrateFL/FR
lactonic
gamma-heptalactoneFL/FR
leafy
 methyl butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
meaty
2-mercaptomethyl pyrazineFL
milky
gamma-butyrolactoneFL/FR
musty
2,3-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-crotonateFL/FR
nutty
2-acetyl furanFL/FR
3-acetyl-2,5-dimethyl furanFL/FR
2-acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazineFL/FR
3,5(6)-cocoa pyrazineFL
 nutty cyclohexenoneFL/FR
 peanut oxazoleFL
 tetrahydrofurfuryl alcoholFL/FR
phenolic
 guaiacyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenolFL/FR
 phenyl pyruvic acidFL/FR
rummy
 ethyl pyruvateFL/FR
soapy
1-dodecanolFL/FR
sour
2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic acidFL
spicy
isoeugenyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
sweet
 caramel dioneFL
 cyclohexyl acetic acidFL/FR
dextro-sorbitolFL
 vanilla oleoresin baliFL/FR
toasted
 acetyl propionylFL/FR
vanilla
 ethyl vanillinFL/FR
 vanillyl isobutyrateFL/FR
waxy
 furfuryl octanoateFL
(Z,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
(Z)-6-nonen-1-olFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
 rhodinyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
woody
beta-damascenoneFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 naturex carries 
 sweetFL
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 thaumatococcus daniellii fruit
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 proteins thaumatins
 talin natural
 thaumatin
 thaumatin 10% on gum arabic
 thaumatin 10% on maltodextrin
 thaumatin 5% in aqueous glycerol
 thaumatin 5% in aqueous propylene glycol
 thaumatins proteins
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Natural sweeteners in a human diet.
PubMed: Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach.
PubMed: Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.
PubMed: Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.
PubMed: Wine protein haze: mechanisms of formation and advances in prevention.
PubMed: Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.
PubMed: In silico and experimental evaluation of DNA-based detection methods for the ability to discriminate almond from other Prunus spp.
PubMed: Absolute quantification of protein NP24 in tomato fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope-labelled tryptic peptide standard.
PubMed: Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.
PubMed: Grease matrix as a versatile carrier of proteins for serial crystallography.
PubMed: Atomic structure of recombinant thaumatin II reveals flexible conformations in two residues critical for sweetness and three consecutive glycine residues.
PubMed: A thaumatin-like protein, Rj4, controls nodule symbiotic specificity in soybean.
PubMed: The effect of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease actinidin on the occludin tight junction network in T84 intestinal epithelial cells.
PubMed: The allergenic structure of the thaumatin-like protein Ole e 13 is degraded by processing of raw olive fruits.
PubMed: The role of N-glycosylation in kiwi allergy.
PubMed: Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.
PubMed: Immunotherapy and tolerance—cutting edge.
PubMed: Identification and characterization of a basic thaumatin-like protein (TLP 2) as an allergen in sapodilla plum (Manilkara zapota).
PubMed: Biochemical characterization of fruit-specific pathogenesis-related antifungal protein from basrai banana.
PubMed: In silico analyses of structural and allergenicity features of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) acidic thaumatin-like protein in comparison with allergenic plant TLPs.
PubMed: Characterization and gene cloning of an acidic thaumatin-like protein (TLP 1), an allergen from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota).
PubMed: Identification of thaumatin-like protein and aspartyl protease as new major allergens in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).
PubMed: Kiwifruit proteins and enzymes: actinidin and other significant proteins.
PubMed: Five amino acid residues in cysteine-rich domain of human T1R3 were involved in the response for sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin.
PubMed: Diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (Actinidia).
PubMed: Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.
PubMed: Identification of avocado (Persea americana) pulp proteins by nano-LC-MS/MS via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.
PubMed: Roles of proteins, polysaccharides, and phenolics in haze formation in white wine via reconstitution experiments.
PubMed: The involvement of thaumatin-like proteins in plant food cross-reactivity: a multicenter study using a specific protein microarray.
PubMed: Comparative analyses of three legume species reveals conserved and unique root extracellular proteins.
PubMed: Lipid transfer proteins and thaumatins as relevant allergens in melon peel allergy.
PubMed: [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part III. Panallergens and breeding of hypoallergenic cultivars].
PubMed: Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change.
PubMed: Plant bioreactors - the taste of sweet success.
PubMed: Stability of white wine proteins: combined effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on their aggregation.
PubMed: Identification of novel sweet protein for nutritional applications.
PubMed: Identification of olive (Olea europaea) pulp proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27Å.
PubMed: High-resolution structure of the recombinant sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I.
PubMed: A new approach to the isolation and characterization of wheat flour allergens.
PubMed: Effects of ionic strength and sulfate upon thermal aggregation of grape chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins in a model system.
PubMed: Sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana.
PubMed: Roles of grape thaumatin-like protein and chitinase in white wine haze formation.
PubMed: Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers.
PubMed: Noah's nectar: the proteome content of a glass of red wine.
PubMed: Characterization of peach thaumatin-like proteins and their identification as major peach allergens.
PubMed: Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats.
PubMed: Variability in xylanase and xylanase inhibition activities in different cereals in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen and contribution of environment and genotype to this variability in common wheat.
PubMed: Thaumatin-like protein and baker's respiratory allergy.
PubMed: Thermal stability of thaumatin-like protein, chitinase, and invertase isolated from Sauvignon blanc and Semillon juice and their role in haze formation in wine.
PubMed: Two-step purification of pathogenesis-related proteins from grape juice and crystallization of thaumatin-like proteins.
PubMed: Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.
PubMed: Interactions of the sweet-tasting proteins thaumatin and lysozyme with the human sweet-taste receptor.
PubMed: QTL-specific microarray gene expression analysis of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight in Sumai-3 and two susceptible NILs.
PubMed: Aroma evaluation of transgenic, thaumatin II-producing cucumber fruits.
PubMed: Grape and wine proteins: their fractionation by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and identification by chromatographic and proteomic analysis.
PubMed: The three classes of wheat xylanase-inhibiting proteins accumulate in an analogous way during wheat ear development and germination.
PubMed: A quantitative portrait of three xylanase inhibiting protein families in different wheat cultivars using 2D-DIGE and multivariate statistical tools.
PubMed: Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.
PubMed: Immunoblot quantification of three classes of proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors in different wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivars and milling fractions.
PubMed: Biochemical and structural characterization of TLXI, the Triticum aestivum L. thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor.
PubMed: Characterization of Bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy.
PubMed: Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens.
PubMed: Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein.
PubMed: Mal d 2, the thaumatin-like allergen from apple, is highly resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and thermal processing.
PubMed: Critical molecular regions for elicitation of the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin I.
PubMed: Quantification of the thaumatin-like kiwi allergen by a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA.
PubMed: Airway disease and thaumatin-like protein in an olive-oil mill worker.
PubMed: Variability of polymorphic families of three types of xylanase inhibitors in the wheat grain proteome.
PubMed: Immunoglobulin E recognition patterns to purified Kiwifruit (Actinidinia deliciosa) allergens in patients sensitized to Kiwi with different clinical symptoms.
PubMed: Xylanase inhibitors bind to nonstarch polysaccharides.
PubMed: Effects of pre- and pro-sequence of thaumatin on the secretion by Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Cloning of the thaumatin I cDNA and characterization of recombinant thaumatin I secreted by Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Purification, cloning, and identification of two thaumatin-like protein isoforms in jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) Achenes.
PubMed: Sulfate--a candidate for the missing essential factor that is required for the formation of protein haze in white wine.
PubMed: TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family.
PubMed: Severe immediate allergic reactions to grapes: part of a lipid transfer protein-associated clinical syndrome.
PubMed: Developments in biotechnological production of sweet proteins.
PubMed: Mass spectrometry in the analysis of grape and wine proteins.
PubMed: Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the plant food allergen Pru av 2.
PubMed: Natural and recombinant molecules of the cherry allergen Pru av 2 show diverse structural and B cell characteristics but similar T cell reactivity.
PubMed: Pollen allergens are restricted to few protein families and show distinct patterns of species distribution.
PubMed: Thirteen-week feeding study of thaumatin (a natural proteinaceous sweetener), sterilized by electron beam irradiation, in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed: IgE sensitization profiles toward green and gold kiwifruits differ among patients allergic to kiwifruit from 3 European countries.
PubMed: In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts.
PubMed: Thaumatin-like proteins -- a new family of pollen and fruit allergens.
PubMed: Cloning, expression and characterization of recombinant sweet-protein thaumatin II using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.
PubMed: [Allergies associated with both food and pollen].
PubMed: How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?
PubMed: Environmental conditions during vegetative growth determine the major proteins that accumulate in mature grapes.
PubMed: Plant-based heterologous expression of Mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (Malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein.
PubMed: Identification of grape and wine allergens as an endochitinase 4, a lipid-transfer protein, and a thaumatin.
PubMed: Pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins identified as allergens.
PubMed: Isolation and biochemical characterization of a thaumatin-like kiwi allergen.
PubMed: Isolation and molecular analysis of six taproot expressed genes from sugar beet.
PubMed: Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
PubMed: Use of electrospray mass spectrometry for mass determination of grape (Vitis vinifera) juice pathogenesis-related proteins: a potential tool for varietal differentiation.
PubMed: Sweetness of sweet protein thaumatin is more thermoresistant under acid conditions than under neutral or alkaline conditions.
PubMed: Structure-sweetness relationship in thaumatin: importance of lysine residues.
PubMed: Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens.
PubMed: Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, the haze-forming proteins of wine, accumulate during ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and drought stress does not affect the final levels per berry at maturity.
PubMed: Thaumatin: a natural flavour ingredient.
PubMed: Heat-induced formation of intermolecular disulfide linkages between thaumatin molecules that do not contain cysteine residues.
PubMed: Issues and advances in the use of transgenic organisms for the production of thaumatin, the intensely sweet protein from Thaumatococcus danielli.
PubMed: Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins.
PubMed: Sweet taste receptor mechanisms.
PubMed: Safety evaluation of thaumatin (Talin protein).
PubMed: Sugar substitutes: reasons and indications for their use.
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