EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

tolu balsam resin
oleoresin (balsam tolu) obtained from the bark exudate of balsam tolu tree, myroxylon balsamum l., leguminosae

Supplier Sponsors

Name:myroxylon toluiferum l. resin
CAS Number: 9000-64-0
ECHA EC Number:232-550-4
Formula:unspecified
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FEMA Number:3070 tolu balsam resin
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):9000-64-0 ; TOLU, BALSAM, GUM (MYROXYLON SPP.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:amber crystalline solid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 biosoft ea-8, 9%
 castor oil, <.0005%
 chloroform, .07%
 dimethyl sulfoxide, 17%
 duponol waqe, 24%
 ethyl alcohol 40a, 19%
 isopropyl alcohol, .8%
 isopropyl myristate, <.0001%
 isopropyl palmitate, <.0001%
 mineral oil, light <.0001%
 olive oil, <.0005%
 poly-solv de, 12%
 poly-solv em, 32%
 polyethylene glycol 400, 12%
 propylene glycol, 13%
 sipon lls, 31%
 solulan 98, 1%
 tween 40, 4%
 water, 53%
 water, 9.269 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Stability:
 ph from 4.5 - 9.5
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: balsamic
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:400 hour(s) at 20.00 %
sweet balsamic woody
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. sweet balsam woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1981)
Odor sample from: Nickstadt Moeller, Inc.
Flavor Type: balsamic
tolu balsam
Taste Description: tolu balsam
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: film formers
hair conditioning
masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Frutarom
TOLU RESIN
Global Essence
Tolu Balsam Resin
Penta International
TOLU BALSAM RESIN
Penta International
TOLU BALSAM SOLUBLE RESIN 50% IN BB
Penta International
TOLU BALSAM SOLUBLE RESIN 50% IN DEP
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
cinnamaldehyde Max. Found: <1.70 % and Reason: Sensitization
cinnamyl alcohol Max. Found: <0.60 % and Reason: Sensitization
eugenol Max. Found: <0.10 % and Reason: Sensitization
Recommendation for tolu balsam resin usage levels up to:
  4.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -8.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.60000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -13.00000
fruit ices: -13.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -5.20000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9000-64-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
myroxylon toluiferum l. resin
Chemidplus:0009000640
 
References:
 myroxylon toluiferum l. resin
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9000-64-0
Pubchem (sid):135346415
 
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.30.0000
Wikipedia:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
eremophila mitchelli wood oil australia
FR
amber
amber
ambrain
FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FL/FR
balsamic
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
balsam fragrance
FR
sumatra
benzoin absolute
FL/FR
siam
benzoin absolute
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resin
FL/FR
sumatra
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl propionate
FL/FR
brachyleana hutchinsii wood oil
FR
butyl benzoate
FL/FR
callitropsis araucarioides wood oil
FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl butyrate
FL/FR
cinnamyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cistus leaf oil
FR
conifer acetate
FR
copaifera reticulata extract
FL/FR
cotinus coggygria branch/leaf oil
FL/FR
croton glabellus bark extract
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir balsam absolute (abies balsamea)
FR
fir balsam oregon
FR
fir carboxylate
FR
fir needle oil canada
FL/FR
fir needle oil terpeneless canada
FL/FR
geranyl cinnamate
FR
guaiyl butyrate
FR
gurjun balsam
FR
hemlock western oil (tsuga heterophylla) canada
FR
hexyl cinnamate
FR
juniper absolute
FL/FR
juniper berry absolute
FL/FR
juniper berry oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
alpha-
methyl cinnamyl alcohol
FR
methyl hydrogenated rosinate
FR
myroxylon toluiferum extract
FL/FR
myrrh absolute
FL/FR
myrrh gum
FL/FR
myrrh oil yemen
FL/FR
myrrh resin
FL/FR
myrrh resinoid
FR
opoponax absolute (commiphora erythraea var. glabrescens engle)
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
opoponax resinoid (commiphora erythraea var. glabrescens engle)
FR
peru balsam absolute
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl acetate
FL/FR
picea pungens leaf oil
FR
scotch
pine wood/needles resinoid
FR
pistacia lentiscus gum water
FR
propyl cinnamate
FL/FR
quercus robur oil
FR
styrax speciality
FR
tolu balsam
FL/FR
tolu balsam absolute
FL/FR
tolu balsam absolute replacer
FL/FR
tolu balsam oil
FL/FR
tolu balsam replacer
FR
tolu balsam resinoid
FL/FR
tolu balsam specialty
FR
valeriana wallichii root oil
FR
berry
raspberry ketone methyl ether
FL/FR
caramellic
5-
ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one
FL/FR
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil
FL/FR
earthy
orris specialty
FR
fatty
hexyl pivalate
FR
fir needle
abies amabilis oil canada
FR
floral
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
anise indene
FR
benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
benzyl formate
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
boronia absolute replacer
FL/FR
boronia fragrance
FR
bursera graveolens wood oil
FL/FR
cananga oil
FL/FR
cananga oil china
FL/FR
cardamom absolute
FL/FR
cinnamyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetone
FL/FR
cyclohexyl salicylate
FR
dihydrogeranyl linalool
FR
2,4-
dimethyl cyclohexyl methyl acetate
FR
eucalyptus macarthurii oil
FR
iso
eugenyl ethyl acetal
FR
floral undecenone
FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
2-
hexylidene cyclopentanone
FL/FR
beta-
ionol
FL/FR
ionone mixed isomers
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
lilyall
FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
N-
methyl ionone
FR
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
orris fragrance
FR
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
1-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl propionate
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-3-buten-2-ol
FL/FR
phytol
FL/FR
(Z,E)-
phytol
FL/FR
rhodinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia) morocco
FL/FR
rose carboxylate
FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from concrete)
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from pommade)
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower absolute
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower oil
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
brandy extract
FL/FR
buchu wood specialty
FL/FR
cinnamyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl crotonate
FR
1-(3,3-
dimethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl)-2-methyl cyclohex-3-ene carbaldehyde
FR
1,4-
dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl acetate
FR
1,2-
dimethyl butyl 2-butenoate
FR
trans-1-
ethyl-2-methyl propyl 2-butenoate
FL/FR
fruity butanate
FR
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
heptyl isovalerate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
octyl propionate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
perillyl acetate
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
green
galbanum oleoresin
FL/FR
galbanum resinoid
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
octanal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil CO2 extract china
FL/FR
herbal
artemisia pallens herb absolute
FL/FR
artemisia vestita wall. leaf oil
FR
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
calendula officinalis flower oil CO2 extract
FR
cananga fruit oil
FR
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
clary sage absolute
FL/FR
american
elder flower absolute
FR
eucalyptus citriodora oil
FR
herbal undecanone
FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
marigold pot flower oil
FL/FR
methyl cyclogeranate (Firmenich)
FR
monarda fistulosa oil
FR
nonisyl acetate
FR
beta-
pinene
FL/FR
rosemary absolute
FL/FR
rosemary oil
FL/FR
rosemary oil africa
FL/FR
rosemary oil morocco
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
rosemary oil tunisia
FL/FR
green
tea leaf absolute
FL/FR
tricyclodecenyl propionate
FR
valerian rhizome oil
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil china
FL/FR
honey
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
mossy
oakmoss concrete
FR
treemoss resinoid
FR
musk
juniper lactone
FL/FR
nutty
sesame absolute
FL/FR
sesame absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
pine
abies sibirica needle extract
FR
white
pine bark oil
FL/FR
pine specialty
FR
resinous
amber oil CO2 extract
FR
mastic absolute
FL/FR
smoky
beech wood creosote
FL/FR
boswellia serrata wood tar oil
FR
spicy
amyl isoeugenol
FR
homo
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
cananga leaf oil
FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cassia bark oil replacer
FL/FR
cassia fragrance
FR
cinnamomum culilawan bark oil
FR
cinnamon bark oil
FL/FR
cinnamon bark oil replacer
FR
cinnamon fragrance
FR
(E)-
cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
clove bud absolute
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
clove bud oil replacer
FR
clove fragrance
FR
iso
cyclogeraniol (IFF)
FR
N,N-
diethyl octanamide
FR
elemol
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil guatemala
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
green oxane
FR
ortho-
methoxycinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
(E)-para-
methoxycinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
myristica fragrans fruit extract
FL/FR
myristica fragrans seed tincture
FL/FR
myristicin
FR
nutmeg absolute
FL/FR
pepper tree berry oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
(E)-
propyl 2-furan acrylate
FL/FR
sugandha kokila berry oil
FR
terpenic
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
pine needle oil dwarf
FL/FR
turpentine oil
FL/FR
tonka
tonka undecanone
FR
waxy
orris rhizome oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
woody
agarwood oil
FR
agarwood oil CO2 extract
FR
agarwood specialty
FR
boswellia rivae oil
FL/FR
bulnesia sarmienti extract
FR
cedarwood acetate
FR
cedarwood oil texas fractions
FR
cistus twig/leaf absolute
FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
copaiba balsam
FL/FR
daniellia oliveri bark oil CO2 extract
FR
frankincense wood specialty
FR
alpha-
guaiene
FL/FR
kaempferia galanga rhizome oil
FL/FR
melozol acetate
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
pistacia lentiscus leaf oil
FR
rhubarb oxirane
FR
sandal cyclohexanol
FR
sandal cyclopropane
FL/FR
(R)-
sandal hexanol
FR
sandal hexanol
FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
sandalwood oil west australia
FL/FR
sandalwood oil west australia (santalum spicatum)
FR
santall
FR
santalum paniculatum wood oil
FR
santalyl butyrate
FL/FR
siam wood oil
FR
spicy pentanone
FL/FR
treemoss concrete
FR
treemoss extract
FR
1-(5',5',6'-
trimethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2'-ylidene) propan-2-one
FR
vetiver oil bourbon
FL/FR
vetiver oil brazil
FL/FR
vetiver oil china
FL/FR
vetiver oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
vetiver oil haiti MD
FL/FR
vetiver oil india
FL/FR
vetiverol
FL/FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
homo
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
benzyl methyl tiglate
FL
bornyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
bornyl butyrate
FL/FR
boronia absolute replacer
FL/FR
buchu wood specialty
FL/FR
bursera graveolens wood oil
FL/FR
butyl benzoate
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
cinnamyl benzoate
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl butyrate
FL/FR
cinnamyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FL/FR
citronellyl acetone
FL/FR
cotinus coggygria branch/leaf oil
FL/FR
croton glabellus bark extract
FL/FR
elemol
FL/FR
O-
ethyl S-(2-furyl methyl) thiocarbonate
FL
trans-1-
ethyl-2-methyl propyl 2-butenoate
FL/FR
5-
ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one
FL/FR
fir needle oil canada
FL/FR
alpha-
guaiene
FL/FR
heptyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
hexylidene cyclopentanone
FL/FR
ionone mixed isomers
FL/FR
juniper absolute
FL/FR
marigold pot flower oil
FL/FR
(E)-para-
methoxycinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
methyl hydrocinnamate
FL/FR
(±)-3-((2-
methyl-3-furyl)thio)-2-butanone
FL
myrrh oil yemen
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl propionate
FL/FR
white
pine bark oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil west australia
FL/FR
santalyl butyrate
FL/FR
turpentine oil
FL/FR
hexyl 3-mercaptobutanoate
FL
amber
amber
sandal cyclopropane
FL/FR
balsamic
amyl cinnamate
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resin
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
sumatra
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl propionate
FL/FR
copaifera reticulata extract
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir needle oil terpeneless canada
FL/FR
juniper berry absolute
FL/FR
juniper berry oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
myroxylon toluiferum extract
FL/FR
myrrh absolute
FL/FR
myrrh gum
FL/FR
myrrh resin
FL/FR
opoponax absolute (commiphora erythraea var. glabrescens engle)
FL/FR
opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)
FL/FR
peru balsam absolute
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl acetate
FL/FR
1-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
(Z,E)-
phytol
FL/FR
styrax gum (liquidambar styraciflua)
FL
tolu balsam
FL/FR
tolu balsam absolute
FL/FR
tolu balsam absolute replacer
FL/FR
tolu balsam oil
FL/FR
tolu balsam resinoid
FL/FR
berry
perillyl acetate
FL/FR
raspberry ketone methyl ether
FL/FR
camphoreous
kaempferia galanga rhizome oil
FL/FR
rosemary oil tunisia
FL/FR
caramellic
5-
ethyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl cyclohexen-2-one
FL
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil
FL/FR
dairy
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
estery
octyl propionate
FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
cananga oil
FL/FR
cananga oil china
FL/FR
cardamom absolute
FL/FR
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
beta-
ionol
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
phytol
FL/FR
rhodinyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
rose absolute (rosa centifolia) morocco
FL/FR
rose oil (rosa damascena) bulgaria
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from concrete)
FL/FR
tuberose absolute (from pommade)
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower absolute
FL/FR
ylang ylang flower oil
FL/FR
fruity
benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
benzyl formate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
brandy extract
FL/FR
cinnamyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
2-
pentanone
FL/FR
pineapple hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
(E)-
propyl 2-furan acrylate
FL/FR
propyl cinnamate
FL/FR
spicy pentanone
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil china
FL/FR
valerian rhizome oil CO2 extract china
FL/FR
green
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
clary sage absolute
FL/FR
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
galbanum oleoresin
FL/FR
galbanum resinoid
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-
hexadienal
FL
octanal diethyl acetal
FL/FR
herbal
artemisia pallens herb absolute
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl propionate
FL/FR
rosemary absolute
FL/FR
rosemary oil
FL/FR
rosemary oil africa
FL/FR
rosemary oil morocco
FL/FR
rosemary oil spain
FL/FR
medicinal,
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
musk
juniper lactone
FL/FR
musty
geranyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
nutty
sesame absolute
FL/FR
sesame absolute CO2 extract
FL/FR
pine
pine needle oil dwarf
FL/FR
beta-
pinene
FL/FR
resinous
mastic absolute
FL/FR
smoky
beech wood creosote
FL/FR
spicy
para-
anisyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
sumatra
benzoin absolute
FL/FR
siam
benzoin absolute
FL/FR
benzyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
cassia bark oil replacer
FL/FR
cinnamon bark oil
FL/FR
cinnamyl acetate
FL/FR
cinnamyl cinnamate
FL/FR
clove bud absolute
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
elettaria cardamomum seed oil guatemala
FL/FR
iso
eugenyl acetate
FL/FR
ortho-
methoxycinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
4-
methyl biphenyl
FL
myristica fragrans fruit extract
FL/FR
myristica fragrans seed tincture
FL/FR
nutmeg absolute
FL/FR
pepper tree berry oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
tea
green
tea leaf absolute
FL/FR
waxy
mimosa absolute france
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-3-buten-2-ol
FL/FR
woody
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
boswellia rivae oil
FL/FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
copaiba balsam
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
orris rhizome oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil
FL/FR
sandalwood oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
vetiver oil bourbon
FL/FR
vetiver oil brazil
FL/FR
vetiver oil china
FL/FR
vetiver oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
vetiver oil haiti MD
FL/FR
vetiver oil india
FL/FR
vetiverol
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRbalsam
FRstephanotis
FRtobacco
FRtolu balsam
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 tolu balsam
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 myroxylon toluiferum resin
 oleoresin (balsam tolu) obtained from the bark exudate of balsam tolu tree, myroxylon balsamum l., leguminosae
 tolu balsam gum
 tolu balsam resin
 tolu balsam soluble resin
 tolu balsam soluble resin 50% in BB
 tolu balsam soluble resin 50% in DEP
 
 
Notes:
tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. it consists primarily of resins, essential oils, and usually cinnamic and benzoic acids. (myroxylon balsamum, leguminosae).
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