Blends well with acetals, aldehydes and alcohols to give fresh top notes. xref geranial: geraniol is also available; xref neral: nerol is also available; vitamin a antagonist; oxygenated monoterpene; inhibits cytosolic dehydrogenases. Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either of, or a mixture of, a pair of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O. The two compounds are double bond isomers. The E-isomer is known as geranial or citral A. The Z-isomer is known as neral or citral B. (Wikipedia)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
Name: 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienal
CAS Number: 5392-40-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 226-394-6
Beilstein Number: 1721871
MDL: MFCD00006997
FEMA Number: 2303
CoE Number: 109
XlogP3-AA: 3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 152.23672000
Formula: C10 H16 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Also(can) Contains: (E)-citral
EFSA/JECFA Comments: CASrn does not specify stereoisomers. According to JECFA: Min. assay value is "96 % (sum of cis- and trans- isomers)". Mixture of (Z)- and (E)-isomer (EFFA, 2010). CASrn in Register does not specify stereoisomeric composition.
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
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Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1225  citral
Flavis Number: 05.020 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 05.020  citral
FEMA Number: 2303  citral
FDA Mainterm: CITRAL
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.60 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00 % sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.88500 to 0.89100 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.364 to  7.414
Refractive Index: 1.48600 to 1.49000 @  20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 228.00 to  229.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 103.00 to  104.00 °C. @ 12.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 3.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure: 0.200000 mmHg @ 20.00 °C.
Vapor Density: 5.2 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 195.00 °F. TCC ( 90.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.450
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 dipropylene glycol
 fixed oils
 paraffin oil
 propylene glycol
 water, 1340 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcoholic lotion
 deo stick
 fabric softener
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength: medium
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
sharp lemon sweet
Substantivity: 12 hour(s) at 100.00 %
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: flavoring agents
perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
  R 38 - Irritating to skin.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Human Experience: 8 % solution: sensitising. 32 % solution: skin irritation.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  oral-rat LD50  4960 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 327, 1964.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  460 mg/kg
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Vol. 55, Pg. 347, 1979.

oral-mouse LD50  6000 mg/kg
Biochemical Journal. Vol. 34, Pg. 1196, 1940.

Dermal Toxicity:
  skin-rabbit LD50 2250 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 25, Pg. 505, 1987.

Inhalation Toxicity:
  Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
Fragrance usage is IFRA RESTRICTED. View Standard for complete information.
Please review all IFRA documents for complete information.
IFRA categories: limits in the finished product: (For a description of the categories, refer to the IFRA QRA Information Booklet.)
Category 1:  0.04 % (1)
Category 2:  0.05 %
Category 3:  0.20 %
Category 4:  0.60 %
Category 5:  0.30 %
Category 6:  1.00 % (1)
Category 7:  0.10 %
Category 8:  1.40 %
Category 9:  5.00 %
Category 10:  2.50 %
Category 11: See Note (2)

(1) IFRA would recommend that any material used to impart perfume or flavour in products intended for human ingestion should consist of ingredients that are in compliance with appropriate regulations for foods and food flavourings in the countries of planned distribution and, where these are lacking, with the recommendations laid down in the Code of Practice of IOFI (International Organisation of the Flavor Industry). Further information about IOFI can be found on its website (


(2) Category 11 includes all non-skin contact or incidental skin contact products. Due to the negligible skin contact from these types of products there is no justification for a restriction of the concentration of this fragrance ingredient in the finished product.

Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 5844.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 6990.00 (μg/capita/day)
Adequate NOAEL exists: Yes
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3. Update in publication number(s): 24
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 133.00000178.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 17.0000028.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 3.000006.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: -0.20000
chewing gum: 7000.0000010000.00000
condiments / relishes: 10.0000010.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 22.0000034.00000
fruit ices: -23.00000
gelatins / puddings: 174.00000210.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 0.500000.80000
hard candy: 950.000001000.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 1.000002.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: 142.00000181.00000
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 53, Revision 1 (FGE.53Rev1): Consideration of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid and related acetals and esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) FGE.23Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 54, Revision 1 (FGE.54Rev1): Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 61, Revision 1 (FGE.61Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic acetals evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated aldehydes and one orthoester of formic acid evaluated
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 202: 3-Alkylated aliphatic acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and precursors with or without additional double bonds from chemical subgroup 1.1.3 of FGE.19[1]
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 72 (FGE.72): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids. Esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2 (2010)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 95 (FGE.95): Consideration of aliphatic, linear or branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters evaluated by JECFA (69th meeting) structurally related to esters of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and of one secondary alcohol, and branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of a,ß-unsaturated straight-chain and branched-chain aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters belonging to chemical group 3 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 5392-40-5
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 8843
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WISER: UN 1993
WGK Germany:1
Chemidplus: 0005392405
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS: RG5075000 for cas# 5392-40-5
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 5392-40-5
Pubchem (cid): 8843
Pubchem (sid): 134984224
Flavornet: 5392-40-5
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C01499
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB35092
FooDB: FDB013721
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB01656
Export Tariff Code: 2912.19.1000
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 lemon leaf flavor 
green pepper 
 zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit 
 zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit oilFL/FR
 cymbopogon citratus dc. stapf. oil cubaFR
 litsea cubeba fruit extractFR
 adoxal (Givaudan)FL/FR
 citrus carbaldehydeFR
 decanal (aldehyde C-10)FL/FR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 fresh carbaldehydeFR
2-methyl undecanal dimethyl acetalFR
 octanal (aldehyde C-8)FL/FR
 amber caraneFR
 abronia fragranceFR
 acetaldehyde citronellyl methyl acetalFR
 agathis australis oil 
 agathis australis oleoresin 
 aldehydic nitrileFR
 backhousia citriodora f. muell. leaf oil 
 backhousia citriodora leaf oilFR
 bergamot oilFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 cedrat peel oilFL/FR
 citral / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
 citral diethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral ethylene glycol acetalFR
 citral propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 citronella oil ceylonFL/FR
 citronellyl nitrileFR
 citrus limon extractFL/FR
 citrus limon flower/leaf/stem extractFR
 citrus limon fruit extractFL/FR
 citrus limon fruit oilFL/FR
 citrus limon fruit waterFL/FR
 citrus limon juice extractFL/FR
 citrus limon juice powderFL/FR
 citrus limon peel extractFL/FR
 citrus limon peel oil c.p. floridaFL/FR
 citrus limon peel oil expressedFL/FR
 citrus limon peel tinctureFL/FR
(E)-citrus nitrileFR
 citrus paradisi peel extractFL/FR
 citrus specialtyFR
 crithmum maritimum oilFR
(E+Z)-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetateFL/FR
citrus floral fragranceFR
homogeranyl nitrileFR
 geranyl nitrileCS
(E)-geranyl nitrile 
 grapefruit oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 grapefruit pentanolFR
 heptyl phenyl acetate 
 kauri-copal leaf oil 
 lemon absolute replacerFR
 lemon balm fragranceFR
 lemon essence (oil phase)FL/FR
 lemon essence (water phase)FL/FR
 lemon fragranceFR
 lemon hexadieneFL/FR
 lemon oilFL/FR
citral-less lemon oilFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. africaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. argentinaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reducedFL/FR
meyer lemon oil cold pressedFL/FR
 lemon oil decolorizedFL/FR
 lemon oil foldedFL/FR
 lemon oil folded argentinaFL/FR
 lemon oil folded brazilFL/FR
 lemon oil folded californiaFL/FR
 lemon oil folded italyFL/FR
 lemon oil italyFL/FR
 lemon oil replacerFR
 lemon oil residuesFL/FR
 lemon oil terpenelessFL/FR
 lemon oil terpenesFL/FR
 lemon oil washedFL/FR
 lemon specialtyFL/FR
 lemon verbena oil 
 lemon verbena oil turkey 
 lemongrass oilFL/FR
 lemongrass oil guatemalaFL/FR
 lemongrass oil moroccoFL/FR
 lime oil distilled mexicoFL/FR
 lime oil fractionsFR
 lime pyranFR
 limonene aldehydeFR
 limonia acidissima fruit extract 
(Z)-linalool oxide (pyranoid)FL/FR
 litsea cubeba fruit oilFL/FR
 litsea cubeba oil terpenelessFL/FR
 mandarin lemon fagranceFR
 mandarin oil (citrus reticulata nova var. mandarin) uruguayFL/FR
 mandarin oil (citrus reticulata var. ponkan)FL/FR
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
(Z+E)-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl) cyclopropane carbaldehydeFL/FR
alpha-methylene citronellalFR
 neroli ketoneFR
 nonanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
bitter orange peel oil brazilFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil foldedFL/FR
 petitgrain combava oilFR
 tangerine oil americaFL/FR
lemon scented tea tree oilFR
 trimethyl cyclohexeneFR
 verbena absolute franceFL/FR
 verbena oil replacerFR
 verbena oil spainFL/FR
 verbena oil terpenelessFL/FR
 verbena specialtyFR
 aeolanthus graveolens oilFR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde diethyl acetalFR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
isoamyl geranateFR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclamen propanalFR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
 dihydrocitronellyl ethyl etherFR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-furoateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 lemon oil distilledFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 muguet octadienolFR
 nonanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
3-nonanon-1-yl acetateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
(R)-ocean propanal 
 octahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene-5-acetaldehyde + 6-methyl-octahydro-4,7-methano-indene-5-carbaldehydFR
 petitgrain lemon oilFL/FR
clementine petitgrain oilFL/FR
 petitgrain oil paraguayFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
 phenyl amyl alcoholFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinalyl acetateFR
 undecanal dimethyl acetalFR
 amyl heptanoateFL/FR
 eucalyptus staigeriana oilFR
 methyl acetoacetateFL/FR
 propyl hexanoateFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
 citral / diisotridecyl acetalFR
isocyclocitral (IFF)FL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 green carbaldehydeFR
 green carboxylateFR
 green dioxolaneFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
 ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
2,4-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
3,5-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
2,4-ivy carbaldehyde / methyl anthranilate schiff's baseFR
(E)-2-octen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
 olive oil absoluteFL/FR
 canarium luzonicum gumFL/FR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl formateFL/FR
 kunzea ericoides leaf oilFR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 piper longum fruit oilFL/FR
 piper longum fruit oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 elemi resinoidFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit extractFL/FR
 decanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
 decanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
 agathis australis oil 
 agathis australis oleoresin 
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 backhousia citriodora f. muell. leaf oil 
 balm leaf powderFL
 cedrat peel oilFL/FR
 citral propylene glycol acetalFL/FR
 citrus limon juice powderFL/FR
 decanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetateFL/FR
(E)-geranyl nitrile 
 heptyl phenyl acetate 
3,5-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 kauri-copal leaf oil 
 lemon oil residuesFL/FR
 lemon specialtyFL/FR
 lemon verbena oil 
 lemon verbena oil turkey 
 limonia acidissima fruit extract 
(Z)-linalool oxide (pyranoid)FL/FR
 linalyl formateFL/FR
 melissa oilFL
 methyl acetoacetateFL/FR
(Z+E)-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl) cyclopropane carbaldehydeFL/FR
(R)-ocean propanal 
green pepper 
 phenyl amyl alcoholFL/FR
 piper longum fruit oil CO2 extractFL/FR
 octanal (aldehyde C-8)FL/FR
 bergamot oilFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 butter lemon orange flavorFL
 cherry lemon lime flavorFL
 citral diethyl acetalFL/FR
 citral dimethyl acetalFL/FR
 citronella oil ceylonFL/FR
 citrus enhancerFL
 citrus limon extractFL/FR
 citrus limon fruit extractFL/FR
 citrus limon fruit oilFL/FR
 citrus limon fruit waterFL/FR
 citrus limon juiceFL
 citrus limon juice extractFL/FR
 citrus limon peel extractFL/FR
 citrus limon peel oil c.p. floridaFL/FR
 citrus limon peel oil expressedFL/FR
 citrus limon peel tinctureFL/FR
 citrus paradisi peel extractFL/FR
 curacao flavorFL
 grapefruit oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 kiwi lemon lime flavorFL
 lemon carbonylsFL
 lemon essence (oil phase)FL/FR
 lemon essence (water phase)FL/FR
bitter lemon flavorFL
pink lemon flavorFL
 lemon flavorFL
italian lemon flavorFL
meyer lemon flavorFL
 lemon fractionsFL
 lemon hexadieneFL/FR
 lemon juice concentrateFL
 lemon juice flavorFL
 lemon lime flavorFL
citral-less lemon oilFL/FR
 lemon oilFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. africaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. argentinaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. californiaFL/FR
 lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reducedFL/FR
meyer lemon oil cold pressedFL/FR
 lemon oil decolorizedFL/FR
 lemon oil distilledFL/FR
 lemon oil foldedFL/FR
 lemon oil folded argentinaFL/FR
 lemon oil folded brazilFL/FR
 lemon oil folded californiaFL/FR
 lemon oil folded italyFL/FR
 lemon oil italyFL/FR
 lemon oil sesquiterpenelessFL
 lemon oil terpenelessFL/FR
 lemon oil terpenesFL/FR
 lemon oil washedFL/FR
 lemon verbena distillatesFL
 lemon zest flavorFL
 lemongrass oilFL/FR
 lemongrass oil guatemalaFL/FR
 lemongrass oil moroccoFL/FR
 lemonless lemon keyFL
 lime oil distilled mexicoFL/FR
 limoncello flavorFL
 litsea cubeba fruit oilFL/FR
 mandarin oil (citrus reticulata nova var. mandarin) uruguayFL/FR
 mandarin oil (citrus reticulata var. ponkan)FL/FR
 orange lemon lime flavorFL
blood orange oil italyFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil c.p. brazilFL/FR
sweet orange peel oil foldedFL/FR
 petitgrain lemon oilFL/FR
clementine petitgrain oilFL/FR
 tangerine oil americaFL/FR
 verbena absolute franceFL/FR
 verbena oil franceFL
 verbena oil moroccoFL
 verbena oil spainFL/FR
 verbena oil terpenelessFL/FR
 zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit 
 zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit oilFL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 linalyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 amyl heptanoateFL/FR
 apple essence concentrateFL
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 ethyl (E)-2-hexenoateFL/FR
 lilikoi float flavorFL
3-nonanon-1-yl acetateFL/FR
bitter orange peel oil brazilFL/FR
 propyl hexanoateFL/FR
 canarium luzonicum gumFL/FR
 canarium luzonicum oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
isocyclocitral (IFF)FL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 elemi resinoidFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl valerateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-furoateFL/FR
 hexyl 2-methyl butyrateFL/FR
2,4-ivy carbaldehydeFL/FR
 lemon leaf flavor 
 methyl heptenoneFL/FR
 nonanal dimethyl acetalFL/FR
(E)-2-octen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
lemon balm essenceFL
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 lemon honey mint flavorFL
 lemon mint cream flavorFL
 petitgrain oil paraguayFL/FR
 litsea cubeba oil terpenelessFL/FR
 olive oil absoluteFL/FR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 benzylidene acetoneFL
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 piper longum fruit oilFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 passiflora edulis fruit extractFL/FR
 adoxal (Givaudan)FL/FR
 decanal (aldehyde C-10)FL/FR
 decanal diethyl acetalFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 phenethyl hexanoateFL/FR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 agrumen aldehydeFR
 apple green appleFR
 basil oil replacerFR
 coconut tropical coconutFR
 eucalyptus oil replacerFR
 fir needle oil replacerFR
 fresh and cleanFR
 linden flowerFR
 litsea cubebaFL/FR
 my sin 
 orange blossomFR
 passion fruitFR
 petitgrain lemon petitgrainFL/FR
 rose red roseFR
 rose white roseFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 artemisia vestita wall. flower oil @ 9.80%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 artemisia vestita wall. leaf oil @ 13.30%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 basil oil
Search Trop  Picture
 basil plant
Search Trop  Picture
 bay laurel fruit oil
Search Trop  Picture
 bay laurel leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 bergamot peel
Search Trop  Picture
Search Trop  Picture
 carrot seed
Search Trop  Picture
Search  PMC Picture
 fennel seed oil
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 garlic bulb
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 citral (ex Litsea)
 citral 10% dpg
 citral E.Q.
 citral EOA synthetic food/grade
 citral ex lemon natural
 citral ex litsea
 citral ex litsea natural
 citral ex litsea natural isolate
 citral extra
 citral extra FCC (natural)
 citral extra natural
 citral FCC
 citral FCC natural
 citral FCC synthetic
 citral FF
 citral FG
 citral lemarome N (Givaudan)
 citral N
 citral nat
 citral natural
 citral natural (ex litsea)
 citral natural ex lemongrass
 citral natural ex litsea
 citral R synthetic
 citral spain, natural isolated constituent
 citral super FCC (natural)
 citral synthetic
 citral synthetic FCC
 citral, technical grade
2,6-dimethyl octadien-2,6-al-8
 lemarome N
 lemsyn (IFF)
2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: Citral: A monoterpene with prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects in experimental models of acute and chronic pain.
J-Stage: Encapsulation of Citral Isomers in Extracted Lemongrass Oil with Cyclodextrins: Molecular Modeling and Physicochemical Characterizations
PubMed: Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.
PubMed: HPLC-DAD for the determination of three different classes of antifungals: method characterization, statistical approach, and application to a permeation study.
PubMed: Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
PubMed: Role of Ros and HMGB1 In Contact Allergen-Induced IL-18 Production in Human Keratinocytes.
PubMed: Dose-Dependent Behavioral Response of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus to Floral Odorous Compounds.
PubMed: Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles.
PubMed: Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.
PubMed: No induction of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes during continuous exposure to eugenol and citral.
PubMed: Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.
PubMed: Monoterpene citral derivatives as potential antimalarials.
PubMed: Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.
PubMed: Modeling with the logistic regression of the growth/no growth interface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to 2 antimicrobial terpenes (citral and linalool), pH, and aw.
PubMed: Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.
PubMed: Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).
PubMed: Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Essential Oil as Herbal Preservatives Based on Antifungal, Antiaflatoxin, and Antiochratoxin Activities and In Vivo Efficacy during Storage.
PubMed: Influence of the treatment of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with citral on the efficacy of various antibiotics.
PubMed: Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed: The relationship between growth stages and aroma composition of lemon basil Ocimum citriodorum Vis.
PubMed: Effect of citral and carvacrol on the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua to antibiotics.
PubMed: Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).
PubMed: Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic Acid Contained in Fruits of Cupressus sempervirens Suppresses Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rat and In Vitro Human Models Through Inhibition of Androgen and STAT-3 Signaling.
PubMed: In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.
PubMed: Cytotoxic effects of air freshener biocides in lung epithelial cells.
PubMed: Rapid LC-MS method for the detection of common fragrances in personal care products without sample preparation.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of flower volatiles from nine citrus at three blooming stages.
PubMed: Metabolomics of ginger essential oil against alcoholic fatty liver in mice.
PubMed: Flavor of cold-hardy grapes: impact of berry maturity and environmental conditions.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects.
PubMed: Citral is renoprotective for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and activating Nrf2 pathway in mice.
PubMed: In vitro phytotherapy of vector snails by binary combinations of larvicidal active components in effective control of fascioliasis.
PubMed: Effect of precursors feeding and media manipulation on production of novel anticancer pro-drug camptothecin from endophytic fungus.
PubMed: Efficient construction of pyrano[3,2-a]carbazoles: application to a biomimetic total synthesis of cyclized monoterpenoid pyrano[3,2-a]carbazole alkaloids.
PubMed: Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.
PubMed: A chemometrics as a powerful tool in the elucidation of the role of metals in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds in Hungarian thyme samples.
PubMed: Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).
PubMed: Antispasmodic effects and composition of the essential oils from two South American chemotypes of Lippia alba.
PubMed: Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.
PubMed: Expression of Pisum sativum PsAO3 gene, which encodes an aldehyde oxidase utilizing abscisic aldehyde, is induced under progressively but not rapidly imposed drought stress.
PubMed: Effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin production.
PubMed: Effect of ubiquinol-10 on citral stability and off-flavor formation in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions.
PubMed: Development of a solid phase microextraction protocol for the GC-MS determination of volatile off-flavour compounds from citral degradation in oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed: Lutein, a nonprovitamin A, activates the retinoic acid receptor to induce HAS3-dependent hyaluronan synthesis in keratinocytes.
PubMed: Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.
PubMed: A screen for disruptors of the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway.
PubMed: Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.
PubMed: Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.
PubMed: Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth to the monoterpenoid citral alone and in combination with sex pheromone.
PubMed: Effect of naturally occurring antimicrobials and chemical preservatives on the growth of Aspergillus Parasiticus.
PubMed: Influence of cultivar and maturity at harvest on the essential oil composition, oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in fresh ginger from northeast India.
PubMed: Resolving the mechanism of bacterial inhibition by plant secondary metabolites employing a combination of whole-cell biosensors.
PubMed: Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.
PubMed: Inhibition of citral degradation in an acidic aqueous environment by polyoxyethylene alkylether surfactants.
PubMed: Chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of the essential oil of Vepris macrophylla (BAKER) I.VERD. endemic to Madagascar.
PubMed: Vasodilator activity of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and its main constituent citral in rat aorta.
PubMed: Small molecules inhibit growth, viability and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.
PubMed: The sensitivity of the KeratinoSens™ assay to evaluate plant extracts: a pilot study.
PubMed: Preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.
PubMed: Citral induces auxin and ethylene-mediated malformations and arrests cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.
PubMed: Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: effects of linguistic labeling.
PubMed: Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.
PubMed: Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth.
PubMed: Combined effects of high pressure homogenization treatment and citral on microbiological quality of apricot juice.
PubMed: Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.
PubMed: Contribution of ALDH1A1 isozyme to detoxification of aldehydes present in food products.
PubMed: Novel limonene and citral based 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles: a natural product coupled approach to semicarbazones for antiepileptic activity.
PubMed: Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array.
PubMed: Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties.
PubMed: Anti-Candida albicans effectiveness of citral and investigation of mode of action.
PubMed: Contact and fumigant toxicity of Pinus densiflora needle hydrodistillate constituents and related compounds and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oil to Dermatophagoides farinae.
PubMed: Effect of mitotic inducers and retinoic acid blocker on expression of pluripotent genes in ES cells derived from early stage in vitro-produced embryos in buffalo.
PubMed: Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Two Chemotypes of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae).
PubMed: Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.
PubMed: Evaluation of the masking of dimethyl sulfide odors by citronellal, limonene and citral through the use of trained odor sensor mice.
PubMed: NCTC 2544 and IL-18 production: a tool for the identification of contact allergens.
PubMed: Chemical composition of hexane extract of Citrus aurantifolia and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of some of its constituents.
PubMed: Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice.
PubMed: Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).
PubMed: Evaluation of bioefficacy of three Citrus essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in correlation to their components enantiomeric distribution.
PubMed: Monoterpene alcohol metabolism: identification, purification, and characterization of two geraniol dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Polygonum minus leaves.
PubMed: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.
PubMed: Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand.
PubMed: Blending synthetic pheromones of cerambycid beetles to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species.
PubMed: Comparative molecular docking analysis of essential oil constituents as elastase inhibitors.
PubMed: Sequence comparisons of odorant receptors among tortricid moths reveal different rates of molecular evolution among family members.
PubMed: Contact allergy to air-exposed geraniol: clinical observations and report of 14 cases.
PubMed: Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.
PubMed: Patch tests with fragrance mix II and its components.
PubMed: Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.
PubMed: The in vitro study of apoptosis in NB4 cell induced by citral.
PubMed: Timing of male sex pheromone biosynthesis in a butterfly - different dynamics under direct or diapause development.
PubMed: In vitro inhibitory activity of essential oil vapors against Ascosphaera apis.
PubMed: Anti-Candida and radical scavenging activities of essential oils and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and essential oils of other plants belonging to the family Zingiberaceae.
PubMed: Antimicrobial impact of the components of essential oil of Litsea cubeba from Taiwan and antimicrobial activity of the oil in food systems.
PubMed: Autopolyploidy differentially influences body size in plants, but facilitates enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites, causing increased cytosine methylation.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of the antimicrobial components of a citrus essential oil vapor.
PubMed: Efficacy of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia oil and its primary components on inhibition of Listeria species by direct contact and exposure to vapors.
PubMed: In vitro control of post-harvest fruit rot fungi by some plant essential oil components.
PubMed: Retinoic acid signaling and the initiation of mammary gland development.
PubMed: An isoniazid analogue promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis-nanoparticle interactions and enhances bacterial killing by macrophages.
PubMed: Geraniol and geranial dehydrogenases induced in anaerobic monoterpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.
PubMed: Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.
PubMed: A dual catalyst system provides the shortest pathway for L-menthol synthesis.
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera) on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats.
PubMed: Effects of carvacrol, (E)-2-hexenal, and citral on the thermal death kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass).
PubMed: Antibiofilm activity of certain phytocompounds and their synergy with fluconazole against Candida albicans biofilms.
PubMed: Stability of citral in emulsions coated with cationic biopolymer layers.
PubMed: Encapsulation of citral isomers in extracted lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins: molecular modeling and physicochemical characterizations.
PubMed: Intake of dried bonito broth flavored with dextrin solution induced conditioned place preference in mice.
PubMed: Fascioliasis control: in vivo and in vitro phytotherapy of vector snail to kill fasciola larva.
PubMed: Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.
PubMed: 2,6,6-Trimethyl-cyclo-hexene-1-carbaldehyde oxime.
PubMed: The relative effect of citral on mitotic microtubules in wheat roots and BY2 cells.
PubMed: Essential oil composition of two unique ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars from Sikkim.
PubMed: In vitro rumen fermentation and methane production are influenced by active components of essential oils combined with fumarate.
PubMed: Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.
PubMed: Antibacterial potential of citral derivatives.
PubMed: Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils.
PubMed: Flavor-intensity perception: effects of stimulus context.
PubMed: Ascaridole, a sensitizing component of tea tree oil, patch tested at 1% and 5% in two series of patients.
PubMed: Characterization of biofumigated Ralstonia solanacearum cells using micro-Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy.
PubMed: In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.
PubMed: Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of some essential oils against Ephestia kuehniella.
PubMed: Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.
PubMed: Microwave-assisted partial hydrogenation of citral by using ionic liquid-coated porous glass catalysts.
PubMed: Retinoic acid modulates chondrogenesis in the developing mouse cranial base.
PubMed: Experimental and theoretical investigations of the autoxidation of geranial: a dioxolane hydroperoxide identified as a skin sensitizer.
PubMed: Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.
PubMed: Chemical composition and therapeutic effects of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown leaves hydro-alcoholic extract in patients with migraine.
PubMed: Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.
PubMed: Lemongrass and citral effect on cytokines production by murine macrophages.
PubMed: Anti-candidal activity of essential oils alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole against multi-drug resistant isolates of Candida albicans.
PubMed: Karyotype analysis, DNA content and molecular screening in Lippia alba (Verbenaceae).
PubMed: Effects of citral, a naturally occurring antiadipogenic molecule, on an energy-intense diet model of obesity.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.
PubMed: Antiinflammatory effects of ginger and some of its components in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells.
PubMed: Near-infrared spectroscopy of orbitofrontal cortex during odorant stimulation.
PubMed: Fumigant toxicity of lemon eucalyptus oil constituents to acaricide-susceptible and acaricide-resistant Tetranychus urticae.
PubMed: Aversive learning overcomes appetitive innate responding in honeybees.
PubMed: The retinol signaling pathway in mouse pluripotent P19 cells.
PubMed: Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.
PubMed: Efficacy of essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown and Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet and their major constituents on mortality, oviposition and feeding behaviour of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.
PubMed: Impact of supra-physiologic retinoids on ovalbumin-sensitized f344 lung tissue and reversal of related pathology by citral - biomed 2011.
PubMed: Inhibition of citral degradation by oil-in-water nanoemulsions combined with antioxidants.
PubMed: Temperature-dependent fumigant activity of essential oils against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).
PubMed: Flavored waters: influence of ingredients on antioxidant capacity and terpenoid profile by HS-SPME/GC-MS.
PubMed: Hydrogel allergic contact dermatitis and imidazolidinyl urea/diazolidinyl urea.
PubMed: Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.
PubMed: Composition of a monoterpenoid-rich essential oil from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale from north western Himalayas.
PubMed: The effect of lemongrass oil and its major components on clinical isolate mastitis pathogens and their mechanisms of action on Staphylococcus aureus DMST 4745.
PubMed: Microparticles containing lemongrass volatile oil: preparation, characterization and thermal stability.
PubMed: Matrix type transdermal therapeutic systems of glibenclamide: Formulation, ex vivo and in vivo characterization.
PubMed: [Analysis of volatile oil from different parts of Litsea cubeba].
PubMed: In vitro effects of citral on trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.
PubMed: Effect of citral on the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in citrate phosphate buffer and apple juice.
PubMed: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent antagonism in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons.
PubMed: Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin-resistant adult head lice.
PubMed: [Effects of aromatherapy on changes in the autonomic nervous system, aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index in patients with essential hypertension].
PubMed: Induction of fatty acid composition modifications and tolerance to biocides in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by plant-derived terpenes.
PubMed: Comparative larvicidal activity of essential oils from three medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti L.
PubMed: Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of Cymbopogon citratus.
PubMed: [Autooxidation of a mixture of lemon essential oils, methyl linolenoate, and methyl oleinate].
PubMed: The combination of naproxen and citral reduces nociception and gastric damage in rats.
PubMed: Pulsed electric fields cause sublethal injuries in the outer membrane of Enterobacter sakazakii facilitating the antimicrobial activity of citral.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil on leukocyte migration in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed: Patch testing with fragrance mix II: results of the IVDK 2005-2008.
PubMed: In situ loading of palladium nanoparticles on mica and their catalytic applications.
PubMed: Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..
PubMed: Ionic-liquid-stabilized rhodium nanoparticles for citral cyclodehydration.
PubMed: Effect of a microemulsion system on hapten-peptide reactivity studies: examples of hydroxycitronellal and citral, fragrance skin sensitizers, with glutathione.
PubMed: Influence of droplet charge on the chemical stability of citral in oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed: Asymmetric reduction of activated alkenes using an enoate reductase from Gluconobacter oxydans.
PubMed: Evaluation of In Vitro Activity of Essential Oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi.
PubMed: In vitro photo-induced cytotoxic activity of Citrus bergamia and C. medica L. cv. Diamante peel essential oils and identified active coumarins.
PubMed: Meiosis initiation in the human ovary requires intrinsic retinoic acid synthesis.
PubMed: Retinoic acid synthesis promotes development of neural progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells by suppressing endogenous, Wnt-dependent nodal signaling.
PubMed: Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, activates PPARα and γ and suppresses COX-2 expression.
PubMed: Quantitative risk assessment of contact sensitization: clinical data to assess utility of the model.
PubMed: Synergistic effect of the interaction between naproxen and citral on inflammation in rats.
PubMed: Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) ameliorates murine spontaneous ileitis by decreasing lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed intestine.
PubMed: Use of IL-8 release and p38 MAPK activation in THP-1 cells to identify allergens and to assess their potency in vitro.
PubMed: A new gradient-controlled method for improving the spectral width of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments.
PubMed: Determination of suspected allergens in cosmetic products by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Retinoids and citral modulated cell viability, metabolic stability, cell cycle progression and distribution in the a549 lung carcinoma cell line - biomed 2010.
PubMed: Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.
PubMed: A chemical marker proposal for the Lantana genus: composition of the essential oils from the leaves of Lantana radula and L. canescens.
PubMed: Compositions and in vitro anticancer activities of the leaf and fruit oils of Litsea cubeba from Taiwan.
PubMed: Colloidal noble-metal and bimetallic alloy nanocrystals: a general synthetic method and their catalytic hydrogenation properties.
PubMed: Asymmetric Reduction of Activated Alkenes by Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Reductase: Specificity and Control of Stereochemical Outcome by Reaction Optimisation.
PubMed: Volatile organic components of fresh leaves as indicators of indigenous and cultivated citrus species in Taiwan.
PubMed: Antagonists of retinoic acid and BMP4 affect fetal mouse osteogenesis and odontoblast differentiation.
PubMed: Comparative anticonvulsant activities of the essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in mice.
PubMed: Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.
PubMed: Quantitative study of mast cells in experimentally induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Litsea cubeba.
PubMed: Safety evaluation of disposable baby diapers using principles of quantitative risk assessment.
PubMed: Quantitative determination of some volatile suspected allergens in cosmetic creams spread on skin by direct contact sorptive tape extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Verbena officinalis essential oil and its component citral as apoptotic-inducing agent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
PubMed: Nematicidal activity of monoterpenoids against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.
PubMed: Spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of Aloysia triphylla and citral, in vitro and in vivo studies.
PubMed: Coactivation of gustatory and olfactory signals in flavor perception.
PubMed: Binary Au/MWCNT and ternary Au/ZnO/MWCNT nanocomposites: synthesis, characterisation and catalytic performance.
PubMed: Inhibitory activity of hydrosols, herbal teas and related essential oils against filament formation and the growth of Candida albicans.
PubMed: Modeling of combined effects of citral, linalool and beta-pinene used against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in citrus-based beverages subjected to a mild heat treatment.
PubMed: Citral stability in oil-in-water emulsions with solid or liquid octadecane.
PubMed: Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis.
PubMed: Inactivation of Escherichia coli by citral.
PubMed: Microtubules are an intracellular target of the plant terpene citral.
PubMed: Stability of citral in oil-in-water emulsions prepared with medium-chain triacylglycerols and triacetin.
PubMed: Citral and carvone chemotypes from the essential oils of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown: composition, cytotoxicity and antifungal activity.
PubMed: Retinoic acid is both necessary for and inhibits myogenic commitment and differentiation in the chick limb.
PubMed: First synthesis of dimethyl-1H-isochromeno[3,4-b]carbazoles.
PubMed: Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.
PubMed: Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites.
PubMed: In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major component (citral) on Leishmania amazonensis.
PubMed: Citral inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells.
PubMed: Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils.
PubMed: The role of polar phytocomplexes on anticonvulsant effects of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown chemotypes.
PubMed: Essential oil of Lindera neesiana fruit: chemical analysis and its potential use in topical applications.
PubMed: Coupling reactions of catechins with natural aldehydes and allyl alcohols and radical scavenging activities of the triglyceride-soluble products.
PubMed: Biphasic effect of citral, a flavoring and scenting agent, on spatial learning and memory in rats.
PubMed: Insulin nanoparticles: stability and aerosolization from pressurized metered dose inhalers.
PubMed: Defense by volatiles in leaf-mining insect larvae.
PubMed: Effect of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on the ultrastructural changes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
PubMed: Molecular cloning and oxidative modification of human lens ALDH1A1: implication in impaired detoxification of lipid aldehydes.
PubMed: Odorant receptors from the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) recognize important volatile compounds produced by plants.
PubMed: A combined approach of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis for the transdermal delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride.
PubMed: Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.
PubMed: Encapsulation performance of proteins and traditional materials for spray dried flavors.
PubMed: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of the Schiff base from chitosan and citral.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activities of components of the glandular secretions of leaf cutting ants of the genus Atta.
PubMed: Development of different temoporfin-loaded invasomes-novel nanocarriers of temoporfin: characterization, stability and in vitro skin penetration studies.
PubMed: Male-produced aggregation pheromone blend in Platypus koryoensis.
PubMed: Zr-zeolite beta: a new heterogeneous catalyst system for the highly selective cascade transformation of citral to (+/-)-menthol.
PubMed: Fragrant unsaturated aldehydes elicit activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 system leading to the upregulation of thioredoxin expression and protection against oxidative stress.
PubMed: Proteome alteration of U251 human astrocytoma cell after inhibiting retinoic acid synthesis.
PubMed: The effect of monoterpenes on swarming differentiation and haemolysin activity in Proteus mirabilis.
PubMed: Effects of chemopreventive citrus phytochemicals on human P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1.
PubMed: Relationship between sublethal injury and microbial inactivation by the combination of high hydrostatic pressure and citral or tert-butyl hydroquinone.
PubMed: Trichloroethylene cometabolic degradation by Rhodococcus sp. L4 induced with plant essential oils.
PubMed: Use of an ex vivo local lymph node assay to assess contact hypersensitivity potential.
PubMed: Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens.
PubMed: Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.
PubMed: Antimicrobial efficacy of citron essential oil on spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit-based salads.
PubMed: Cobalt nanowires prepared by heterogeneous nucleation in propanediol and their catalytic properties.
PubMed: The promoting effect of a dicyanamide based ionic liquid in the selective hydrogenation of citral.
PubMed: Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.
PubMed: Implementation of the dermal sensitization Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients.
PubMed: The monoterpenoids citral and geraniol are moderate inhibitors of CYP2B6 hydroxylase activity.
PubMed: Neurophysiological effects of naturally occurring defensive compounds on the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus: comparison with effects in insects.
PubMed: Comparative study on essential oils incorporated into an alginate-based edible coating to assure the safety and quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples.
PubMed: Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.
PubMed: Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.
PubMed: Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.
PubMed: Citral derived amides as potent bacterial NorA efflux pump inhibitors.
PubMed: Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium.
PubMed: Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
PubMed: The human brain distinguishes between single odorants and binary mixtures.
PubMed: Ferric hydroxide supported gold subnano clusters or quantum dots: enhanced catalytic performance in chemoselective hydrogenation.
PubMed: Solid-phase microextraction for determining twelve orange flavour compounds in a model beverage emulsion.
PubMed: Fed-batch production of gluconic acid by terpene-treated Aspergillus niger spores.
PubMed: Geraniol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in biosynthesis of the alarm pheromone, from the astigmatid mite Carpoglyphus lactis (Acari: Carpoglyphidae).
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of citral on NO production by suppression of iNOS expression and NF-kappa B activation in RAW264.7 cells.
PubMed: Evaluation of antifouling activity of eight commercially available organic chemicals against the early foulers marine bacteria and Ulva spores.
PubMed: Effects of spice constituents on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in vitro.
PubMed: Citral: identifying a threshold for induction of dermal sensitization.
PubMed: Topical application of temoporfin-loaded invasomes for photodynamic therapy of subcutaneously implanted tumours in mice: a pilot study.
PubMed: Polar intermetallic compounds as catalysts for hydrogenation reactions: synthesis, structures, bonding, and catalytic properties of Ca(1-x)Sr(x)Ni4Sn2 (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0) and catalytic properties of Ni3Sn and Ni3Sn2.
PubMed: Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series.
PubMed: Bioactive compounds of the volatile oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi.
PubMed: A male-produced aggregation pheromone blend consisting of alkanediols, terpenoids, and an aromatic alcohol from the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.
PubMed: Enhancing drugs absorption through third-degree burn wound eschar.
PubMed: Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity and potential use of monoterpenes as tropical fruits preservatives.
PubMed: Content, composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of three basil genotypes as a function of harvesting.
PubMed: The olfactory conditioning in the early postnatal period stimulated neural stem/progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of rats.
PubMed: Extraction of flavonoids from Rhodiola sachlinesis A. Bor by UPE and the antioxidant activity of its extract.
PubMed: Expression of two old yellow enzyme homologues from Gluconobacter oxydans and identification of their citral hydrogenation abilities.
PubMed: Wt1 and retinoic acid signaling are essential for stellate cell development and liver morphogenesis.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of essential oil components in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae by GC-MS combined with chemometric resolution method.
PubMed: Study on olfactory function in GABAC receptor/channel rho1 subunit knockout mice.
PubMed: Influence of cinnamon and clove essential oils on the D- and z-values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider.
PubMed: Permeabilization and inhibition of the germination of spores of Aspergillus niger for gluconic acid production from glucose.
PubMed: Identification of the genotype from the content and composition of the essential oil of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau).
PubMed: Citral, an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis, attenuates the frequency and severity of branchial arch abnormalities induced by triazole-derivative fluconazole in rat embryos cultured in vitro.
PubMed: Combined use of ultrasound and natural antimicrobials to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice.
PubMed: In vitro induction of mucosa-type dendritic cells by all-trans retinoic acid.
PubMed: Influence of five organic antifouling candidates on spore attachment and germination of a fouling alga Ulva pertusa.
PubMed: Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.
PubMed: Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).
PubMed: Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).
PubMed: Flavor authentication studies of alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, and alpha-ionol from various sources.
PubMed: Chelitis from contact allergy to citral in lip salve.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of aroma compounds against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and improvement of microbiological stability of soft drinks as assessed by logistic regression.
PubMed: Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation. Results of the IVDK and review of the literature.
PubMed: Fragrance ingredient labelling in products on sale in the U.K.
PubMed: Physicochemical and biological properties of 6(1),6(3),6(5)-tri-O-alpha-maltosyl-cyclomaltoheptaose (6(1),6(3),6(5)-tri-O-alpha-maltosyl-beta-cyclodextrin).
PubMed: High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of 24 fragrance allergens to study scented products.
PubMed: The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.
PubMed: Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of three species of Artemisia on some soil-borne phytopathogens.
PubMed: Assessment of sensitization potential of monoterpenes using the rat popliteal lymph node assay.
PubMed: Treatment of vegetable sauces with enterocin AS-48 alone or in combination with phenolic compounds to inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: Male sex pheromone release and female mate choice in a butterfly.
PubMed: [Mitochondria aberration of Aspergillus flavus under citral stress circumstance].
PubMed: Perceptual interactions between characteristic notes smelled above aqueous solutions of odorant mixtures.
PubMed: A facile phenol-driven intramolecular diastereoselective thermal/base-catalyzed dipolar [2+2] annulation reactions: an easy access to complex bioactive natural and unnatural benzopyran congeners.
PubMed: Synthesis and biological activity of novel pyranopyrones derived from engineered aromatic polyketides.
PubMed: Modeling the inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium growth by combination of food antimicrobials.
PubMed: Geraniol synthases from perilla and their taxonomical significance.
PubMed: Retinoic acid-induced glandular differentiation of the oesophagus.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against microorganisms deteriorating fruit juices.
PubMed: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic analysis of commercial lemon-flavored beverages.
PubMed: The effect of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in food systems.
PubMed: Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.
PubMed: Antimicrobial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-perillaldehyde, (-)-citronellal, citral, eugenol and carvacrol on airborne microbes using an airwasher.
PubMed: Flavor components of monoterpenes in citrus essential oils enhance the release of monoamines from rat brain slices.
PubMed: Gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryos after Triadimefon exposure.
PubMed: Fifth instar experience reduces aversiveness of the plant extract ruda (Ruta Graveolens) in the adult triatomine Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859.
PubMed: Acute effects of dietary retinoic acid on ocular components in the growing chick.
PubMed: In vivo larvicidal activity of monoterpenic derivatives from aromatic plants against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex s.l.
PubMed: Ethnopharmacological study of two Lippia species from Oriximiná, Brazil.
PubMed: Citral, a component of lemongrass oil inhibits the clastogenic effect of nickel chloride in mouse micronucleus test system.
PubMed: Foot odor due to microbial metabolism and its control.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.
PubMed: Potent inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavins on off-odor formation from citral.
PubMed: Retinoids during the in vitro transition from bovine morula to blastocyst.
PubMed: Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of citrus essential oils.
PubMed: Nonvolatiles of commercial lime and grapefruit oils separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.
PubMed: Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.
PubMed: Comparison of effects of octopamine and insecticidal essential oils on activity in the nerve cord, foregut, and dorsal unpaired median neurons of cockroaches.
PubMed: Synthesis, crystal structure, and catalytic properties of MgCo6Ge6.
PubMed: Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.
PubMed: [Study on morphological change of aspergillus flavus damaged by citral with a multi-channel micro-spectrophotometer system].
PubMed: How cysteine reacts with citral: an unexpected reaction of beta,beta-disubstituted acroleins with cysteine leading to hexahydro-1,4-thiazepines.
PubMed: Regioselective alkene carbon-carbon bond cleavage to aldehydes and chemoselective alcohol oxidation of allylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by [cis-Ru(II)(dmp)2(H2O)2]2+ (dmp = 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline).
PubMed: Synthesis of chromenochalcones and evaluation of their in vitro antileishmanial activity.
PubMed: Maturation of odor representation in the honeybee antennal lobe.
PubMed: Analysis of the enzymatic formation of citral in the glands of sweet basil.
PubMed: Reaction of Melipona rufiventris lepeletier to citral and against an attack by the Cleptobiotic bee Lestrimelitta limao (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina).
PubMed: [Allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratu volatile and its chemical components].
PubMed: Citral is a new inducer of caspase-3 in tumor cell lines.
PubMed: Inhibition of multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2 by a series of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
PubMed: Asymmetric organocatalytic epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes with hydrogen peroxide.
PubMed: Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products.
PubMed: Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.
PubMed: Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.
PubMed: Bioactive constituents from Dracocephalum subcapitatum (O. Kuntze) Lipsky.
PubMed: Synergistic inhibitory effect of citral with selected phenolics against Zygosaccharomyces bailii.
PubMed: Acute and genetic toxicity of essential oil extracted from Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.
PubMed: Novel approach for classifying chemicals according to skin sensitizing potency by non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay.
PubMed: LC determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil.
PubMed: Aspergillus flavus growth in the presence of chemical preservatives and naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds.
PubMed: Retinoic acid-dependent regulation of BMP4 and Tbx5 in the embryonic chick retina.
PubMed: Aldol condensations over reconstructed Mg-Al hydrotalcites: structure-activity relationships related to the rehydration method.
PubMed: Control of retinoic acid synthesis and FGF expression in the nasal pit is required to pattern the craniofacial skeleton.
PubMed: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of citrus essences on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation.
PubMed: Retinoic acid imprints gut-homing specificity on T cells.
PubMed: Micelle-hosted palladium nanoparticles catalyze citral molecule hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed: Formation mechanism of p-methylacetophenone from citral via a tert-alkoxy radical intermediate.
PubMed: Synthesis of 4-aryl substituted semicarbazones of some terpenes as novel anticonvulsants.
PubMed: Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.
PubMed: Treatment of alopecia areata in the DEBR model using Cyclosporin A lipid vesicles.
PubMed: [Investigation of chemical composition of propolis extract].
PubMed: Effects of citral on Aspergillus flavus spores by quasi-elastic light scattering and multiplex microanalysis techniques.
PubMed: Inactivation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores by high hydrostatic pressure combined with citral or lemongrass essential oil.
PubMed: Effects of methoprene, its metabolites, and breakdown products on retinoid-activated pathways in transfected cell lines.
PubMed: Validation of a stimulation protocol suited to the investigation of odor-taste interactions with fMRI.
PubMed: Analysis of anal secretions from phlaeothripine thrips.
PubMed: Toxic effects of lemon peel constituents on Ceratitis capitata.
PubMed: Utilisation of on-line acoustic irradiation as a means to counter-effect catalyst deactivation in heterogeneous catalysis.
PubMed: Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland.
PubMed: Action of different monoterpenic compounds against Anisakis simplex s.l. L3 larvae.
PubMed: Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells.
PubMed: A pharmacological profile of the aldehyde receptor repertoire in rat olfactory epithelium.
PubMed: Effect of some penetration enhancers on the permeation of glibenclamide and glipizide through mouse skin.
PubMed: Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced neutrophil adherence responses by essential oils.
PubMed: Characterization of geraniol synthase from the peltate glands of sweet basil.
PubMed: Synthesis of the polycyclic ring systems of artocarpol A and D.
PubMed: Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.
PubMed: Chemical ecology of oribatid mites III. Chemical composition of oil gland exudates from two oribatid mites, Trhypochthoniellus sp. and Trhypochthonius japonicus (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae).
PubMed: Modulation of olfactory learning in young rats through intrabulbar GABA(B) receptors.
PubMed: [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].
PubMed: Simulating secondary organic aerosol activation by condensation of multiple organics on seed particles.
PubMed: Receptor contributions to configural and elemental odor mixture perception.
PubMed: Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study.
PubMed: A comparative study of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and some members of the genus Citrus.
PubMed: Essential oils as components of a diet-based approach to management of Helicobacter infection.
PubMed: Are vectors able to learn about their hosts? A case study with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
PubMed: Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway leading to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation is required for the long-term facilitation process of aversive olfactory learning in young rats.
PubMed: OMP gene deletion results in an alteration in odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns.
PubMed: Toxicity of Australian essential oil Backhousia citriodora (lemon myrtle). Part 2. Absorption and histopathology following application to human skin.
PubMed: Methoprene photolytic compounds disrupt zebrafish development, producing phenocopies of mutants in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.
PubMed: Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.
PubMed: Cerium(III) chloride-mediated reactions of sulfonamide dianions.
PubMed: Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.
PubMed: The olfactory responses of the antenna and maxillary palp of the fleshfly, Neobellieria bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), and their sensitivity to blockage of nitric oxide synthase.
PubMed: Chemistry and biological significance of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus from Pakistan.
PubMed: Inhibition of citrus postharvest pathogens by vapor of citral and related compounds in culture.
PubMed: Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts.
PubMed: Provitamin A conversion to retinal via the beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (bcox) is essential for pattern formation and differentiation during zebrafish embryogenesis.
PubMed: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesiss studies of citral (microencapsulated) (CAS No. 5392-40-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies).
PubMed: Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi.
PubMed: Activation of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein signaling pathway in the olfactory bulb is required for the acquisition of olfactory aversive learning in young rats.
PubMed: A phase II detoxification enzyme inducer from lemongrass: identification of citral and involvement of electrophilic reaction in the enzyme induction.
PubMed: Modulating carbonyl cytotoxicity in intact rat hepatocytes by inhibiting carbonyl metabolizing enzymes. II. Aromatic aldehydes.
PubMed: SURE, why not? The SUbstitution-REciprocity method for measurement of odor quality discrimination thresholds: replication and extension to nonhuman primates.
PubMed: Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown.
PubMed: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of microencapsulated citral in rats and mice.
PubMed: [Study on biochemical mechanism of citral damage to the A. flavasi's mitochondria].
PubMed: [Study on quantitative test on the DNA damage of Aspergillus flavus caused by citral with a comet analysis system].
PubMed: [Preliminary study on citral impaires the Aspergillus flavus membrane].
PubMed: Retinoic acid involvement in the reciprocal neurotrophic interactions between newt spinal cord and limb blastemas in vitro.
PubMed: Bioactivity of Backhousia citriodora: antibacterial and antifungal activity.
PubMed: Breath test using a single 50-mg dose of 13C-urea to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in children.
PubMed: Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents.
PubMed: Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
PubMed: Geranial: the alarm pheromone in the nymphal stage of the oribatid mite, Nothrus palustris.
PubMed: A novel, inducible, citral lyase purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed: Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances.
PubMed: Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica.
PubMed: Toxicity of terpenes to spores and mycelium of Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed: The quantification of citral in lemongrass and lemon oils by near-infrared spectroscopy.
PubMed: The antibacterial activity of topical retinoids: the case of retinaldehyde.
PubMed: Aerosolized essential oils and individual natural product compounds as brown treesnake repellents.
PubMed: Thresholds of carcinogenicity of flavors.
PubMed: Selective liquid phase hydrogenation of citral on Au/Fe2O3 catalysts.
PubMed: Non-specific olfactory aversion induced by intrabulbar infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline in young rats.
PubMed: Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from lemongrass oil.
PubMed: In vitro antifungal activity of several antimicrobial compounds against Penicillium expansum.
PubMed: PAV-1, a new rat hepatic stellate cell line converts retinol into retinoic acid, a process altered by ethanol.
PubMed: Kinetic analysis of mouse retinal dehydrogenase type-2 (RALDH2) for retinal substrates.
PubMed: Aspergillus flavus dose-response curves to selected natural and synthetic antimicrobials.
PubMed: Toxicity of Australian essential oil Backhousia citriodora (Lemon myrtle). Part 1. Antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity.
PubMed: Comparison of extraction methods for marker compounds in the essential oil of lemon grass by GC.
PubMed: First isolation of geranyl disaccharides from ginger and their relations to aroma formation.
PubMed: Geraniol biotransformation-pathway in spores of Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed: Geraniol dehydrogenase activity related to aroma formation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).
PubMed: NTP announces bioassay results.
PubMed: Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.
PubMed: Sources and sink of retinoic acid in the embryonic chick retina: distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, CRABP-I, and sites of retinoic acid inactivation.
PubMed: Effects of senescence and citral on neuronal vacuolar degeneration in rat pelvic ganglia.
PubMed: Stability of monoterpenes encapsulated in gum Arabic by spray-drying.
PubMed: Development of non-radio isotopic endpoint of murine local lymph node assay based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation.
PubMed: Investigation of antimicrobial activity of essential oils of several Macedonian Thymus L. species (Lamiaceae).
PubMed: Determination of floral fragrances of Rosa hybrida using solid-phase trapping-solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Mode of action of hot-water dip in reducing decay of lemon fruit.
PubMed: Metabolic conversion of retinol to retinoic acid mediates the biological responsiveness of human mammary epithelial cells to retinol.
PubMed: Stabilization of Aldehydes as Propylene Glycol Acetals.
PubMed: Biotransformation of constituents of essential oils by germinating wheat seed.
PubMed: Retinoic acid-mediated gene expression in transgenic reporter zebrafish.
PubMed: Biotransformation of geraniol, nerol and citral by sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp.
PubMed: Amino acid-catalyzed conversion of citral: cis-trans isomerization and its conversion into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetaldehyde.
PubMed: Facilitatory effect of ritanserin is mediated by dopamine D(1) receptors on olfactory learning in young rats.
PubMed: Anticonvulsant activity of essential oils and active principles from chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown.
PubMed: OLN-93 oligodendrocytes synthesize all-trans-retinoic acid in vitro.
PubMed: The alpha-terpenyl acetate chemotype of essential oil of Thymus pulegioides L.
PubMed: Psychometrics of odor quality discrimination: method for threshold determination.
PubMed: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6, a cytosolic retinaldehyde dehydrogenase prominently expressed in sensory neuroepithelia during development.
PubMed: The use of linear expressions of solute boiling point versus retention to indicate special interactions with the molecular rings of modified cyclodextrin phases in gas chromatography
PubMed: Retinoic acid, midkine, and defects of secondary neurulation.
PubMed: Laboratory evaluations of methylated soy oil and monoterpenes as mosquito larvicides.
PubMed: Effects of branched cyclodextrins on the solubility and stability of terpenes.
PubMed: Odour representation in honeybee olfactory glomeruli shows slow temporal dynamics: an optical recording study using a voltage-sensitive dye.
PubMed: Light-adaptive effects of retinoic acid on receptive field properties of retinal horizontal cells.
PubMed: The control of Xenopus embryonic primary neurogenesis is mediated by retinoid signalling in the neurectoderm.
PubMed: Behavioral effects of essential oils from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown chemotypes.
PubMed: The main citral-geraniol and carvacrol chemotypes of the essential oil of thymus pulegioides L. growing wild in vilnius district (Lithuania).
PubMed: Retinoylation of proteins in rat hepatocytes following uptake of chylomicron remnant retinyl ester.
PubMed: Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder? II. Olfactory quality discrimination in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
PubMed: p53 induction as a genotoxic test for twenty-five chemicals undergoing in vivo carcinogenicity testing.
PubMed: Gabaergic control of olfactory learning in young rats.
PubMed: Biological activities of topical retinaldehyde.
PubMed: Is odor processing related to oral breathing?
PubMed: Mechanism of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase by citral, a retinoid antagonist.
PubMed: Aldehyde inhibitors of aldehyde dehydrogenases.
PubMed: Early changes in murine epidermal cell phenotype by contact sensitizers.
PubMed: Odour coding is bilaterally symmetrical in the antennal lobes of honeybees (Apis mellifera).
PubMed: Mutagenicity testing (+/-)-camphor, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, (-)-menthol and terpineol with the Salmonella/microsome assay.
PubMed: cDNA cloning and characterization of a new human microsomal NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase that oxidizes all-trans-retinol and 3alpha-hydroxysteroids.
PubMed: Retinoic acid has light-adaptive effects on horizontal cells in the retina.
PubMed: Fin duplications and deletions induced by disruption of retinoic acid signaling.
PubMed: Role of chronic inflammation in the promotion of prostatic hyperplasia in rats.
PubMed: Enzymatic characteristics of retinal dehydrogenase type I expressed in Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Retinoic acid signaling cascade in differentiating murine epidermal keratinocytes: alterations in papilloma- and carcinoma-derived cell lines.
PubMed: Retinoic acid reverses ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities in quail embryos.
PubMed: Learning in the Africanized honey bee: Apis mellifera L.
PubMed: In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by beta-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds.
PubMed: [Identification of volatile compounds of hawthorn by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)].
PubMed: Biotransformation of all-trans-retinal, 13-cis-retinal, and 9-cis-retinal catalyzed by conceptal cytosol and microsomes.
PubMed: Disruption of local retinoid-mediated gene expression accompanies abnormal development in the mammalian olfactory pathway.
PubMed: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils.
PubMed: A review of the interactions between milk proteins and dairy flavor compounds.
PubMed: Retinoic acid alters photoreceptor development in vivo.
PubMed: Early olfactory experience, novelty, and choice of sexual partner by male rats.
PubMed: Beta-oxidation in rabbit liver in vitro and in the perfused ferret liver contributes to retinoic acid biosynthesis from beta-apocarotenoic acids.
PubMed: Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity in human melanoma cells by alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives. Effects of acrolein, cinnamaldehyde, citral, crotonaldehyde, curcumin, ethacrynic acid, and trans-2-hexenal.
PubMed: Harvest management studies on jor lab 1-2 an improved strain of lemongrass.
PubMed: Insight into how skin changes perfume.
PubMed: Citral and testosterone interactions in inducing benign and atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats.
PubMed: COMPACT and molecular structure in toxicity assessment: a prospective evaluation of 30 chemicals currently being tested for rodent carcinogenicity by the NCI/NTP.
PubMed: Olfactory information processing during the course of the menstrual cycle.
PubMed: Characteristic properties of a retinoic acid synthetic cytochrome P-450 purified from liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rats.
PubMed: Cloning of a cDNA encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase and its expression in Escherichia coli. Recognition of retinal as substrate.
PubMed: The nature of the late positive complex within the olfactory event-related potential (OERP).
PubMed: Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.
PubMed: Decomposition of Terpenes by Ozone during Sampling on Tenax.
PubMed: Citral, an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis, modifies chick limb development.
PubMed: [Results of patch tests with mite components in atopic dermatitis patients].
PubMed: In vivo biosynthesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene involves and excentric cleavage pathway in ferret intestine.
PubMed: Metabolism of all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis isomers of retinal by purified isozymes of microsomal cytochrome P450 and mechanism-based inhibition of retinoid oxidation by citral.
PubMed: Potential antidepressant effects of lemon odor in rats.
PubMed: Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes.
PubMed: Biotransformation of all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid in rat conceptal homogenates.
PubMed: Odorant-specific spatial patterns in mucosal activity predict perceptual differences among odorants.
PubMed: Genetic analysis of essential oil variants in Perilla frutescens.
PubMed: Blockade of the initiation of murine odontogenesis in vitro by citral, an inhibitor of endogenous retinoic acid synthesis.
PubMed: Study on the embryofeto-toxicity of citral in the rat.
PubMed: Enhancement of odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns in rats trained on an odorant identification task.
PubMed: Mucosal inherent activity patterns in the rat: evidence from voltage-sensitive dyes.
PubMed: Biological activity of all-trans retinol requires metabolic conversion to all-trans retinoic acid and is mediated through activation of nuclear retinoid receptors in human keratinocytes.
PubMed: Norepinephrine and posttraining memory consolidation in neonatal rats.
PubMed: Antifungal properties of essential oils and their main components upon Cryptococcus neoformans.
PubMed: Safety evaluations of food chemicals by "COMPACT". 1. A study of some acyclic terpenes.
PubMed: Insecticidal properties of several monoterpenoids to the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae), red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and southern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
PubMed: Comparative repellent properties of certain chemicals against mosquitoes, house flies and cockroaches using modified techniques.
PubMed: Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents.
PubMed: Retinoic acid is necessary for development of the ventral retina in zebrafish.
PubMed: Immediate vasoactive effect of citral on the adolescent rat ventral prostate.
PubMed: Comparative study of experimentally induced benign and atypical hyperplasia in the ventral prostate of different rat strains.
PubMed: Photoinduced electric currents in carotenoid-deficient Chlamydomonas mutants reconstituted with retinal and its analogs.
PubMed: Retinoids control surfactant phospholipid biosynthesis in fetal rat lung.
PubMed: Genetic control of geranial formation in Perilla frutescens.
PubMed: Attraction of reproductive honey bee swarms to artificial nests by Nasonov pheromone.
PubMed: An immunotoxicity assessment of food flavouring ingredients.
PubMed: Bilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the locus coeruleus impair associative olfactory learning in newborn rats.
PubMed: Role of olfaction in starch and oil preference.
PubMed: v-erbA and citral reduce the teratogenic effects of all-trans retinoic acid and retinol, respectively, in Xenopus embryogenesis.
PubMed: Food deprivation reduces rats' oil preference.
PubMed: Comparison of the toxicity of citral in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice when administrated by microencapsulation in feed or by corn-oil gavage.
PubMed: Retinoic acid regulates retinol metabolism via feedback inhibition of retinol oxidation and stimulation of retinol esterification in ferret liver.
PubMed: Changing chemosusceptibility in the second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis by long-term incubation.
PubMed: Geraniol dehydrogenase: a determinant of essential oil quality in lemongrass1.
PubMed: An arm immersion model of compromised skin (I). Influence on irritation reactions.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green algaChlorella pyrenoidosa.
PubMed: Mechanisms of citral phototoxicity.
PubMed: Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.
PubMed: Benzaldehyde, citral, and d-limonene flavor perception in the presence of casein and whey proteins.
PubMed: Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled citral in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed: Embryonic olfactory learning in frogs.
PubMed: Retinoic acid can be produced from excentric cleavage of beta-carotene in human intestinal mucosa.
PubMed: Estrogenic action of commonly used fragrant agent citral induces prostatic hyperplasia.
PubMed: [Campaign against allergenic moulds in dwellings. Inhibitor properties of essential oil of Geranium 'Bourbon', citronellol, geraniol and citral].
PubMed: Application of microencapsulation technology to improve the stability of citral in rodent diets.
PubMed: Studies of the quenching phenomenon in delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions.
PubMed: [Progress of Litsea cubeba emulsion in the pharmacological and therapeutic research].
PubMed: Immunocytochemistry of epithelial markers in citral-induced prostate hyperplasia in rats.
PubMed: Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment.
PubMed: Conversion of retinol to retinal by rat liver microsomes.
PubMed: Liposomes having high sensitivity to odorants.
PubMed: Modulation of tumor promotion in mouse skin by the food additive citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal).
PubMed: Synthetic retinoids affect differently the epidermal synthesis of 3,4-didehydroretinol.
PubMed: Differential ion dependence of frog olfactory responses to various odorants.
PubMed: The metabolism of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) in rat hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. Interactions with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases.
PubMed: Metabolism of citral, an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, in male F344 rats.
PubMed: Membrane fluidity changes of liposomes in response to various odorants. Complexity of membrane composition and variety of adsorption sites for odorants.
PubMed: Hepatic peroxisomal and microsomal enzyme induction by citral and linalool in rats.
PubMed: Rat fetuses respond to chemical stimuli in gas phase.
PubMed: Odor volatiles associated with mite-infested bin-stored wheat.
PubMed: Robber bees (Lestrimelitta limao) and their host chemical and visual cues in nest defense byTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae: Meliponinae).
PubMed: Chemistry of mandibular and Dufour's gland secretions of ants in genusMyrmecocystus.
PubMed: Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals. V. Metabolism of (+)-citronellal, (+-)-7-hydroxycitronellal, citral, (-)-perillaldehyde, (-)-myrtenal, cuminaldehyde, thujone, and (+-)-carvone in rabbits.
PubMed: Impact of lemongrass oil, an essential oil, on serum cholesterol.
PubMed: Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from sensitivity to citrus peel, geraniol, and citral.
PubMed: Oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid as a requirement for biological activity in mouse epidermis.
PubMed: The mortician's mystery solved?
PubMed: Sebaceous gland hyperplasia following topical application of citral. An ultrastructural study.
PubMed: Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats.
PubMed: Effect of agar on the inhibitory activity of antifungal compounds citral and menthol.
PubMed: Mode of antifungal action of essential oil components citral and camphor.
PubMed: Liposomes as a model for olfactory cells: changes in membrane potential in response to various odorants.
PubMed: Comparison of the short-term hepatic effects of orally administered citral in Long Evans hooded and Wistar albino rats.
PubMed: Terminal-group oxidation of retinol by mouse epidermis. Inhibition in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed: Heritability estimates of citral content in East Indian lemongrass.
PubMed: Experimental induction of atypical hyperplasia in rat ventral prostate.
PubMed: Odor mimetism? : Key substances inOphrys lutea-Andrena pollination relationship (Orchidaceae: Andrenidae).
PubMed: Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). I. Effects of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals.
PubMed: Infantile experience with suckling odors determines adult sexual behavior in male rats.
PubMed: Pheromonal release of suckling in rabbits does not depend on the vomeronasal organ.
PubMed: [Miscellaneous contributions to the essential oils of plants from various territories. XLVII. On the components of essential oils of Cinnamomum sieboldii Meisn].
PubMed: Early stages of the pathogenesis of rat ventral prostate hyperplasia induced by citral.
PubMed: Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum canum grown in Rwanda.
PubMed: The hemolytic activity of citral--II. Glutathione depletion in citral treated erythrocytes.
PubMed: [The active principles of Litsea cubeba in the treatment of coronary heart disease].
PubMed: Exocrine secretions of bees : VI. Unsaturated ketones and aliphatic esters in the Dufour's gland secretion ofDufourea novaeangliae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).
PubMed: Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.
PubMed: Interference of sonic communication and mating in leafhopperAmrasca devastans (distant) by certain volatiles.
PubMed: The hemolytic activity of citral: evidence for free radical participation.
PubMed: [Antifungal activity of volatile oils in Litsea cubeba and its main constituent citral].
PubMed: Propheromones that release pheromonal carbonyl compounds in light.
PubMed: [Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].
PubMed: [Antifungal and antimicrobial activity of beta-ionone and vitamin A derivatives].
PubMed: The Role of 9- and/or 10-oxygenated Derivatives of Geraniol, Geranial, Nerol, and Neral in the Biosynthesis of Loganin and Ajmalicine.
PubMed: Sebaceous glands changes following topical application of citral.
PubMed: The influence of limonene on induced delayed hypersensitivity to citral in guinea pigs. I. Histological study.
PubMed: The influence of limonene on induced delayed hypersensitivity to citral in guinea pigs. II. Label distribution in the skin of 14C-labelled citral.
PubMed: Defensive secretions of three oxytelinae rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).
PubMed: A comparative study of the exocrine products of cleptoparasitic bees (Holcopasites) and their hosts (Calliopsis) (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae, Andrenidae).
PubMed: Inhibition of rat liver sterol formation by isoprenoid and conjugated ene compounds.
PubMed: Activation and odor conditioning of suckling behavior in 3-day-old albino rats.
PubMed: Prenatal and postnatal determinants of the 1st suckling episode in albino rats.
PubMed: Sociochemical alteration of honeybee hoarding behavior.
PubMed: Biogenesis of monoterpenes : Bioconversion of citral by a cell suspension culture of muscat grapes.
PubMed: Nasonov pheromone of the honeybee.Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) : IV. Comparative electroantennogram responses.
PubMed: Inhibition of oviposition by volatiles of certain plants and chemicals in the leafhopperAmrasca devastons (distant).
PubMed: [Evaluation of emotional reactions of the rat elicited by biologicaly meaningful odorants during an operant behavior (author's transl)].
PubMed: Nasonov pheromone of the honey bee,Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). part III. : Regulation of pheromone composition and production.
PubMed: The Nasonov pheromone of the honeybeeApis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Part II. Bioassay of the components using foragers.
PubMed: Surgical manipulation of the uterine environment of rat fetuses.
PubMed: Citral: A survey of consumer patch-test sensitization.
PubMed: Experimental limb dysmorphogenesis as a model of chemical injury response in undifferentiated embryonic tissues: a light and electron microscopical study.
PubMed: Selective oocyte degeneration and impaired fertility in rats treated with the aliphatic monoterpene, Citral.
PubMed: Citral--not a juvenile hormone mimic against insects.
PubMed: Incipient histopathological lesions in citral-induced microphthalmos in chick embryos.
PubMed: Lability of odor pleasantness: influence of mere exposure.
PubMed: Vitamin A receptors. II. Characteristics of retinol binding in chick retina and pigment epithelium.
PubMed: Metabolism of monoterpene alcohol, linalool, by a soil pseudomonad.
PubMed: Temperature dependent primary irritant dermatitis from lemon perfume.
PubMed: Studies on the absorption, distribution and excretion of citral in the rat and mouse.
PubMed: In vitro differentiation of a homogeneous cell population--the epidermis of Xenopus laevis.
PubMed: Antifungal properties of the insect alarm pheromones, citral, 2-heptanone, and 4-methyl-3-heptanone.
PubMed: Reaction of glutathione with conjugated carbonyls.
PubMed: Effect of vitamin A and Citral on peritoneal adhesion formation.
PubMed: The ultrastructure of striated muscle in malformed chick limb induced by citral.
PubMed: The antimicrobial activity of citral.
PubMed: The effect of inhalation of citral and geraniol on the output and composition of respiratory tract fluid.
PubMed: Citral in stingless bees: isolation and functions in trail-laying and robbing.
PubMed: [Effect of citral on the formation of carotenoids in Rhodotorula gracilis].
PubMed: Influence of vitamin A and 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) on the effect of benzo(a)pyrene on hamster trachea in organ culture.
PubMed: Microbial transformation of terpenoids. I. Identification of metabolites produced by a pseudomonad from citronellal and citral.
PubMed: [Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the female genitalia with citral electrophoresis].
PubMed: Hashish II: reaction of substituted resorcinols with citral in the presence of pyridine--a proposed mechanism.
PubMed: Vitamin A and the biosynthesis of sulphated mucopolysaccharides. Experiments with rats and cultured neoplastic mast cells.
PubMed: Constituents of hashish. A novel reaction of olivetol with citral in the presence of pyridine. Total synthesis of dl-cannabicyclol and dl-cannabichromene.
PubMed: [Treatment of trichomoniasis with citral].
PubMed: Semimicro method for the determination of linalol in coriander oil.
PubMed: [The effect of citral on experimental atherosclerosis].
PubMed: Chemotherapy of human carcinoma with citronellal and citral and their action on carcinoma tissue in its histological aspects up to healing.
PubMed: The effect of vitamin A and citral on epithelial differentiation in vitro. I. The chick tracheal epithelium.
PubMed: [Citral therapy of trichomonal colpitis].
PubMed: Incorporation of citral-C14 and geraniol-C14 into beta-carotene in carrot root slices; interconversion of citral and geraniol in carrot root slices and by alcohol dehydrogenase.
PubMed: Experiments on the chemotherapeutic treatment of carcinoma with citral and citronellal and those combined with PCMB.
PubMed: [Effect of citral on the content of glycoproteins and lipoproteins in conditions of experimental development of atherosclerosis].
PubMed: The effect of citral and vitamin A on the intraocular dynamics of rabbits.
PubMed: [Fungicidal activity of citral and chinosol in relation to Candida].
PubMed: Chemotherapy of carcinoma of the bladder: preliminary report of forty-four cases treated with citral.
PubMed: The effect of citral on intraocular dynamics in monkeys.
PubMed: [Experience in the treatment of cracked nipples with citral].
PubMed: A study of the effect of citral and vitamin A on glaucoma.
PubMed: [Studies on the effect of anihistaminic citral in iso-sensitization in pregnancy].
PubMed: [Colorimetric determination of citral with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid].
PubMed: Lack of effect of citral on ocular tension.
PubMed: [Distribution of ethereal oils and citral in Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora Balbis, and the influence of various drying methods on their content in the drug].
PubMed: [Fluctuation in the yield of volatile oils and citral from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora balbis, Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Perilla ocymoides L. in the course of vegetation].
PubMed: [Anti-allergic action of cichol (a combination of citral with sodium cholate)].
PubMed: [Polarographic citral determination in citral plants].
PubMed: Olfactory perception thresholds for citral utilizing a new type olfactorium.
PubMed: [Citral therapy of ascariasis].
PubMed: [Direct action of citral and citronellal on cancer cells].
PubMed: Experimental chemotherapy of cancer in rat with citral-combinations.
PubMed: [Studies on the relationship between citral and serum proteins].
PubMed: On the inhibiting effect of citral and some other aldehydes on Yoshida rat sarcoma.
PubMed: Pharmacological studies of citral and some other aldehydes.
PubMed: [Therapeutic use of citral in hypertension].
PubMed: [Catalysis with amino-acid condensation of citral with acetone].
PubMed: [Application of citral in glaucoma].
PubMed: [Citral in treatment of herpetic keratitis].
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