EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

(Z)-citral
neral

Supplier Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:(2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienal
CAS Number: 106-26-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-379-2
FDA UNII:8M466BQL1X
Nikkaji Web:J3.242E
MDL:MFCD03424818
CoE Number:109
XlogP3-AA:3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:152.23672000
Formula:C10 H16 O
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
Neral is the cis-isomer of 3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dienal. Neral and geranial can only be distinghished based on GC properties (different Kovats retention index) (EFFA, 2012b).
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
FLAVIS Number:05.170 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:05.170 neral
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:pale yellow to yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 88.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.88100 to 0.89100 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.331 to 7.414
Refractive Index:1.47800 to 1.49000 @ 20.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 228.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.071000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 215.00 °F. TCC ( 101.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.170
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 84.71 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength:medium
sweet citrus lemon lemon peel
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. sweet citral lemon peel
Luebke, William tgsc, (1989)
Odor sample from: CA Aromatics Company Inc.
Flavor Type: citrus
lemon
Taste Description: lemon
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Bedoukian Research
NERAL
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
cis-Citral 95%
Citrus and Allied Essences
Neral Refined 94/95% (natural)
Market Report
Citrus and Allied Essences
Neral Standard 88% (natural)
Penta International
NERAL NATURAL REFINED
Penta International
NERAL
Reincke & Fichtner
Neral natural
Reincke & Fichtner
Neral
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA: View Standard
Fragrance usage is IFRA RESTRICTED. View Standard for complete information.
Please review all IFRA documents for complete information.
IFRA categories: limits in the finished product: (For a description of the categories, refer to the IFRA QRA Information Booklet.)
Category 1:  0.04 % (1)
Category 2:  0.05 %
Category 3:  0.20 %
Category 4:  0.60 %
Category 5:  0.30 %
Category 6:  1.00 % (1)
Category 7:  0.10 %
Category 8:  1.40 %
Category 9:  5.00 %
Category 10:  2.50 %
Category 11: See Note (2)
 Notes:
 

(1) IFRA would recommend that any material used to impart perfume or flavour in products intended for human ingestion should consist of ingredients that are in compliance with appropriate regulations for foods and food flavourings in the countries of planned distribution and, where these are lacking, with the recommendations laid down in the Code of Practice of IOFI (International Organisation of the Flavor Industry). Further information about IOFI can be found on its website (www.iofi.org).

 

(2) Category 11 includes all non-skin contact or incidental skin contact products. Due to the negligible skin contact from these types of products there is no justification for a restriction of the concentration of this fragrance ingredient in the finished product.

 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 950.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 69000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 22.2900033.55000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 173.78000209.70000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 950.000001000.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): 132.82000177.55000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 1.000002.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 10.0000010.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 17.3300027.72000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 3.000006.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 202: 3-Alkylated aliphatic acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and precursors with or without additional double bonds from chemical subgroup 1.1.3 of FGE.19[1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 4 (FGE.06Rev4): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and esters from chemical groups 1, 3 and 4
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):106-26-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :643779
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienal
Chemidplus:0000106263
 
References:
 (2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienal
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:106-26-3
Pubchem (cid):643779
Pubchem (sid):135025253
Flavornet:106-26-3
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C09847
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FooDB:FDB013575
Export Tariff Code:2912.19.1000
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•citral has a strong, lemon-like, odor and a characteristic bittersweet taste. commercially, the product is a mixture of two geometric isomers - alpha-citral and beta-citral, each exhibiting cis- and trans-isomers because of the position of the double bond. geranial (trans-) and neral (cis-). •citral from natural sources is a 2:1 mixture of two geometric isomers geranial and neral •commercial material is a mixture of alpha and beta isomers. •grade: technical; pure; fcc
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit oil
FL/FR
litsea cubeba fruit extract
FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
2-
methyl undecanal dimethyl acetal
FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
citronella
4,8-
dimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FR
citrus
abronia fragrance
FR
acetaldehyde citronellyl methyl acetal
FR
aldehydic nitrile
FR
backhousia citriodora leaf oil
FR
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
(E)-
citral
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral / methyl anthranilate schiff's base
FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral ethylene glycol acetal
FR
citral propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
citronellyl nitrile
FR
citrus limon extract
FL/FR
citrus limon flower/leaf/stem extract
FR
citrus limon fruit extract
FL/FR
citrus limon fruit oil
FL/FR
citrus limon fruit water
FL/FR
citrus limon juice extract
FL/FR
citrus limon juice powder
FL/FR
citrus limon peel extract
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil c.p. florida
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil expressed
FL/FR
citrus limon peel tincture
FL/FR
(E)-
citrus nitrile
FR
crithmum maritimum oil
FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetate
FL/FR
citrus
floral fragrance
FR
homo
geranyl nitrile
FR
geranyl nitrile
CS
lemon absolute replacer
FR
lemon balm fragrance
FR
lemon essence (oil phase)
FL/FR
lemon essence (water phase)
FL/FR
lemon fragrance
FR
lemon hexadiene
FL/FR
lemon oil
FL/FR
citral-less
lemon oil
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. africa
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. argentina
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
meyer
lemon oil cold pressed
FL/FR
lemon oil decolorized
FL/FR
lemon oil folded
FL/FR
lemon oil folded argentina
FL/FR
lemon oil folded brazil
FL/FR
lemon oil folded california
FL/FR
lemon oil folded italy
FL/FR
lemon oil italy
FL/FR
lemon oil replacer
FR
lemon oil residues
FL/FR
lemon oil terpeneless
FL/FR
lemon oil terpenes
FL/FR
lemon oil washed
FL/FR
lemon specialty
FL/FR
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
lemongrass oil guatemala
FL/FR
lime oil fractions
FR
lime pyran
FR
litsea cubeba fruit oil
FL/FR
litsea cubeba oil terpeneless
FL/FR
mandarin lemon fagrance
FR
(Z+E)-2-
methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl) cyclopropane carbaldehyde
FL/FR
alpha-
methylene citronellal
FR
ocimenol
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
petitgrain combava oil
FR
lemon scented
tea tree oil
FR
tetrahydrocitral
FL/FR
trimethyl cyclohexene
FR
verbena absolute france
FL/FR
verbena oil replacer
FR
verbena oil spain
FL/FR
verbena oil terpeneless
FL/FR
verbena specialty
FR
fatty
decanol
FL/FR
floral
acetophenone
FL/FR
aeolanthus graveolens oil
FR
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
iso
amyl geranate
FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
lemon oil distilled
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
petitgrain lemon oil
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenyl amyl alcohol
FL/FR
fruity
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
eucalyptus staigeriana oil
FR
green
citral / diisotridecyl acetal
FR
iso
decanal
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
green dioxolane
FR
neogall
FR
herbal
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
alpha-
dihydroterpineol
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
medicinal
kunzea ericoides leaf oil
FR
spicy
cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenol
FL/FR
piper longum fruit oil
FL/FR
piper longum fruit oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
terpenic
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
alpha-
phellandrene
FL/FR
gamma-
terpinene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
woody
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinene
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
balm leaf powder
FL
citral propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
citrus limon juice powder
FL/FR
iso
decanal
FL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetate
FL/FR
lemon oil residues
FL/FR
lemon specialty
FL/FR
melissa oil
FL
4-
mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol
FL
(Z+E)-2-
methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl) cyclopropane carbaldehyde
FL/FR
ocimenol
FL/FR
phenyl amyl alcohol
FL/FR
piper longum fruit oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
tetrahydrocitral
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
butter lemon orange flavor
FL
cherry lemon lime flavor
FL
citral
FL/FR
(E)-
citral
FL/FR
citral diethyl acetal
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citronella oil ceylon
FL/FR
citrus enhancer
FL
citrus limon extract
FL/FR
citrus limon fruit extract
FL/FR
citrus limon fruit oil
FL/FR
citrus limon fruit water
FL/FR
citrus limon juice
FL
citrus limon juice extract
FL/FR
citrus limon peel extract
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil c.p. florida
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil expressed
FL/FR
citrus limon peel tincture
FL/FR
curacao flavor
FL
kiwi lemon lime flavor
FL
lemon carbonyls
FL
lemon essence (oil phase)
FL/FR
lemon essence (water phase)
FL/FR
pink
lemon flavor
FL
bitter
lemon flavor
FL
lemon flavor
FL
italian
lemon flavor
FL
meyer
lemon flavor
FL
lemon fractions
FL
lemon hexadiene
FL/FR
lemon juice concentrate
FL
lemon juice flavor
FL
lemon lime flavor
FL
citral-less
lemon oil
FL/FR
lemon oil
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. africa
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. argentina
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
meyer
lemon oil cold pressed
FL/FR
lemon oil decolorized
FL/FR
lemon oil distilled
FL/FR
lemon oil folded
FL/FR
lemon oil folded argentina
FL/FR
lemon oil folded brazil
FL/FR
lemon oil folded california
FL/FR
lemon oil folded italy
FL/FR
lemon oil italy
FL/FR
lemon oil sesquiterpeneless
FL
lemon oil terpeneless
FL/FR
lemon oil terpenes
FL/FR
lemon oil washed
FL/FR
lemon peel flavor
FL
lemon verbena distillates
FL
lemon zest flavor
FL
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
lemongrass oil guatemala
FL/FR
lemonless lemon key
FL
limoncello flavor
FL
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
litsea cubeba fruit oil
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
orange lemon lime flavor
FL
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
petitgrain lemon oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
verbena absolute france
FL/FR
verbena oil france
FL
verbena oil morocco
FL
verbena oil spain
FL/FR
verbena oil terpeneless
FL/FR
zanthoxylum acanthopodium fruit oil
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
fruity
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
lilikoi float flavor
FL
green
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
herbal
lemon
balm essence
FL
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
lavender absolute bulgaria
FL/FR
lemon honey mint flavor
FL
lemon mint cream flavor
FL
lemon
litsea cubeba oil terpeneless
FL/FR
powdery
acetophenone
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
spicy
benzylidene acetone
FL
cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
clove bud oil
FL/FR
iso
eugenol
FL/FR
piper longum fruit oil
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
phellandrene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinene
FL/FR
gamma-
terpinene
FL/FR
waxy
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
decanol
FL/FR
woody
alpha-
dihydroterpineol
FL/FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
terpinolene
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRacacia
FRapple
FRapple green apple
FRapricot
FRbasil oil replacer
FRbayberry
FRbergamot
FRblackberry
FRblueberry
FRbutterscotch
FRcedrat
FRcherry
FRcitronella
FRcitrus
FRcoconut tropical coconut
FRcoffee
FRcologne
FReucalyptus oil replacer
FRfern
FRfir needle oil replacer
FRfloral
FRfresh and clean
FRgeranium
FRginger
FRgrapefruit
FRlemon
FRlemongrass
FRlime
FRmace
FRmagnolia
FRmandarin
FRmelon
 my sin
FRneroli
FRorange
FRorange blossom
FRpassion fruit
FRpeach
FL/FRpetitgrain lemon petitgrain
FRpineapple
FRplum
FRraspberry
FRrose
FRrose red rose
FRrose white rose
FRsassafras
FRstrawberry
 topnotes
FRvanilla
FRverbena
FRzibeline
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 acerola - up to 0.01 mg/kg
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 backhousia citriodora f. muell. leaf oil @ 42.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 basil leaf oil
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 basil plant
Search Trop Picture
 basil shoot oil
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 bay laurel leaf
Search Trop Picture
 bay leaf oil clove @ 0.1%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 bay leaf oil lemon @ 31.7%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 bergamot oil @ 0.105-0.344%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 bergamot oil turkey @ 0.36%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 blackberry fruit - less than 0.005 mg/kg
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 blood orange oil (citrus sinensis l. var. sanguinello) italy @ 0.050%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 blood orange oil (citrus sinensis l. var. tarocco) italy @ 0.048%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 blood orange oil italy @ 0.055%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 boysenberry fruit - less than 0.005 mg/kg
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 carrot seed oil @ 0.53%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 celery leaf
Search Trop Picture
 celery shoot
Search Trop Picture
 champaca absolute (michelia alba dc.) @ 0.04%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 champaca concrete @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 citronella oil zimbabwe @ 0.29%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 clary sage oil greece @ 1.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 couroupita guianensis aubl. flower oil brazil @ 0.40%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf. oil cuba @ 38.20%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus bicostata oil @ 1.62%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil @ 0.30%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 eucalyptus globulus oil zambia @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 ferula cupularis leaf oil @ 0.14%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 geranium oil bourbon @ 1.09%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 geranium oil rwanda @ 0.87%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 ginger
Search Trop Picture
 ginger rhizome
Search Trop Picture
 ginger rhizome oil
Search Trop Picture
 ginger root oil brazil @ 5.40%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 ginger root oil china @ 1.34%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 ginger root oil CO2 extract australia @ 2.87%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grape - 0.002 mg/kg
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 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.05%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.05%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. italy @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.03%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil c.p. russia @ 0.07%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil california @ 0.08%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 grapefruit oil CO2 extract @ 0.15%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 hyptis spicigera lam. oil mali @ 3.00-3.40%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit. oil mali @ 0.20-1.00%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemon balm shoot
Search Trop Picture
 lemon leaf oil
Search Trop Picture
 lemon oil
Search Trop Picture
 lemon oil california @ 0.74%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemon pericarp oil
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 lemon petiole
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 lemon verbena oil morocco @ 6.9%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemon verbena oil turkey @ 5.99%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass leaf
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 lemongrass oil @ 18.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil @ 34.93%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil @ 35.25%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil cameroon @ 33.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil egypt @ 31.96%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil guatemala @ 30.50%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil morocco @ 32.00%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil rwanda @ 32.17%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemongrass oil yunnan @ 35.24%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lime fruit
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 lime oil distilled mexico @ 0.02%
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 lime oil distilled peru @ 0.03%
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 lime oil expressed florida @ 1.2%
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 litsea cubeba oil china @ 25.50%
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 macadamia nut - 0.03 mg/kg
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 mandarin fruit
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 mandarin oil @ 0.33%
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 mandarin oil avana @ trace%
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 mandarin oil avana @ trace%
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 mandarin oil italy @ 0.01%
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 mandarin oil japan @ trace%
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 mandarin oil uruguay @ 0.01-0.03%
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 manuka var. rotundifolium oil australia @ 0.10%
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 melissa oil @ 19.75%
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 melissa oil slovak republic @ 22.18%
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 myrtle lemon scented leaf oil australia @ 0.30%
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 neroli bigarde oil france @ 0.50%
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 orange fruit
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 orange oil c.p. brazil @ 0.06-0.07%
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 orange oil terpeneless @ 4.50%
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 orange peel oil bitter brazil @ 0.05%
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 orange peel oil bitter italy @ 0.03%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.050%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.080%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.083%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.088%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. blond italy @ 0.089%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. egypt @ 1.26%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. florida @ 0.05%
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 orange peel oil sweet c.p. valencia @ 0.07%
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 palmarosa oil @ 0.10%
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 parsley leaf
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 peppermint leaf
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 petitgrain bergamot oil @ 0.07%
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 petitgrain combava oil @ trace%
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 petitgrain grapefruit oil @ 1.20%
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 petitgrain lemon oil @ 24.95%
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 petitgrain lime oil @ 23.80%
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 petitgrain oil @ trace%
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 petitgrain sweet oil @ 1.01%
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 pimenta racemosa leaf oil lemon @ 31.70%
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 plectranthus glandulosus hook f. leaf oil cameroon @ 0.80%
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit - less than 0.005 mg/kg
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 sage oil reunion @ trace%
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 satureja viminea l. oil costa rica @ 0.10%
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 sugandha kokila berry oil @ 0.30%
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 tangerine oil america @ trace%
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 tea - up to 4 mg/kg
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 tea leaf
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 thyme oil wild or creeping france @ 0.50%
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 thyme oil wild or creeping pakistan @ 0.10%
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 tomato - up to 6 mg/kg
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 turmeric root oil hydrodistilled @ 1.54%
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 verbena oil france @ 14.40%
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 watermelon fruit juice
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 zingiber officinale root oil china @ 0.71%
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Synonyms:
(Z)-citral
cis-citral
(Z)-3,7-dimethyl octa-2,6-dienal
(Z)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal
cis-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal
(2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienal
(Z)-neral
 neral refined 94/95% (natural)
 neral standard 88% (natural)
 neral, refined 60 - 63%
 

Articles:

PubMed:Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils.
PubMed:HPLC-DAD for the determination of three different classes of antifungals: method characterization, statistical approach, and application to a permeation study.
PubMed:Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
PubMed:Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.
PubMed:Comparative chemical study and cytotoxic activity of Uvariodendron angustifolium essential oils from Benin.
PubMed:Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.
PubMed:Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Essential Oil as Herbal Preservatives Based on Antifungal, Antiaflatoxin, and Antiochratoxin Activities and In Vivo Efficacy during Storage.
PubMed:[Compartmentalization of neral non-synaptic plasticity at subcellular level].
PubMed:The use of bone cement in difficult distal radius fractures.
PubMed:Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles).
PubMed:Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.
PubMed:Engineering Escherichia coli for selective geraniol production with minimized endogenous dehydrogenation.
PubMed:Silicone arthroplasty for nonrheumatic metacarpophalangeal joint arthritis.
PubMed:Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
PubMed:Antispasmodic effects and composition of the essential oils from two South American chemotypes of Lippia alba.
PubMed:Bioefficacy of acyclic monoterpenes and their saturated derivatives against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.
PubMed:Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.
PubMed:Cytosolic monoterpene biosynthesis is supported by plastid-generated geranyl diphosphate substrate in transgenic tomato fruits.
PubMed:Behavioural and electroantennogram responses of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) to plant essential oils and their mixtures with attractants.
PubMed:Chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of the essential oil of Vepris macrophylla (BAKER) I.VERD. endemic to Madagascar.
PubMed:Vasodilator activity of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and its main constituent citral in rat aorta.
PubMed:Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.
PubMed:Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.
PubMed:Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.
PubMed:[Genetic counselling in male carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations].
PubMed:Fumigant antifungal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against three Aspergillus species.
PubMed:Evaluation of bioefficacy of three Citrus essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in correlation to their components enantiomeric distribution.
PubMed:Functional characterization of SlscADH1, a fruit-ripening-associated short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase of tomato.
PubMed:Chemical composition of essential oils of Litsea cubeba harvested from its distribution areas in China.
PubMed:Contact allergy to air-exposed geraniol: clinical observations and report of 14 cases.
PubMed:Timing of male sex pheromone biosynthesis in a butterfly - different dynamics under direct or diapause development.
PubMed:Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.
PubMed:Development of microemulsion of a potent anti-tyrosinase essential oil of an edible plant.
PubMed:Antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of essential oils of edible Thai plants.
PubMed:Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:A dual catalyst system provides the shortest pathway for L-menthol synthesis.
PubMed:Determining the disinfection of textiles in compressed carbon dioxide using various indicator microbes.
PubMed:Encapsulation of citral isomers in extracted lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins: molecular modeling and physicochemical characterizations.
PubMed:Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery.
PubMed:Multidimensional enantio gas chromtography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-combustion-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry for the authenticity assessment of lime essential oils (C. aurantifolia Swingle and C. latifolia Tanaka).
PubMed:Chemical constituents and their bioactivities of "Tongling White Ginger" (Zingiber officinale).
PubMed:Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.
PubMed:Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils.
PubMed:Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils alone and in combination.
PubMed:Composition of a monoterpenoid-rich essential oil from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale from north western Himalayas.
PubMed:Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida).
PubMed:Microparticles containing lemongrass volatile oil: preparation, characterization and thermal stability.
PubMed:Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile oils of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae) grown in Brazil.
PubMed:Synergistic antimicrobial activity of galangal (Alpinia galanga), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) extracts.
PubMed:Essential oil polymorphism of wild growing Hungarian thyme (Thymus pannonicus) populations in the Carpathian Basin.
PubMed:Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of Cymbopogon citratus.
PubMed:Multiple neural tube defects in the same patient with no neurological deficit.
PubMed:The effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on the flavor and color of grated ginger.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.
PubMed:Essential-oil composition, antileishmanial, and toxicity study of Artemisia abyssinica and Satureja punctata ssp. punctata from Ethiopia.
PubMed:Sexual abuse prevention: a training program for developmental disabilities service providers.
PubMed:Volatile organic components of fresh leaves as indicators of indigenous and cultivated citrus species in Taiwan.
PubMed:Chemotaxonomic investigations of peel and petitgrain essential oils from 17 citron cultivars.
PubMed:Bioactivity against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils grown in Colombia.
PubMed:Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Litsea cubeba.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of some volatile suspected allergens in cosmetic creams spread on skin by direct contact sorptive tape extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis.
PubMed:Composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of the endemic Cape Verdean Satureja forbesii.
PubMed:Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.
PubMed:Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.
PubMed:Essential oil of Lindera neesiana fruit: chemical analysis and its potential use in topical applications.
PubMed:Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.
PubMed:Non-cognitive variables and residency choice.
PubMed:Site-saturation mutagenesis of tryptophan 116 of Saccharomyces pastorianus old yellow enzyme uncovers stereocomplementary variants.
PubMed:Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components.
PubMed:Male-produced aggregation pheromone blend in Platypus koryoensis.
PubMed:Menthol and geraniol biotransformation and glycosylation capacity of Levisticum officinale hairy roots.
PubMed:Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.
PubMed:Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens.
PubMed:Evaluation of the chemical composition of Brazilian commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) stapf samples.
PubMed:Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.
PubMed:Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes.
PubMed:Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
PubMed:Solid-phase microextraction for determining twelve orange flavour compounds in a model beverage emulsion.
PubMed:Geraniol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in biosynthesis of the alarm pheromone, from the astigmatid mite Carpoglyphus lactis (Acari: Carpoglyphidae).
PubMed:A male-produced aggregation pheromone blend consisting of alkanediols, terpenoids, and an aromatic alcohol from the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.
PubMed:Expression of two old yellow enzyme homologues from Gluconobacter oxydans and identification of their citral hydrogenation abilities.
PubMed:Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.
PubMed:Identification of the genotype from the content and composition of the essential oil of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau).
PubMed:Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).
PubMed:Nematicidal and larvicidal activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis oligocephala and Pectis apodocephala Baker.
PubMed:Fragrance compound geraniol forms contact allergens on air exposure. Identification and quantification of oxidation products and effect on skin sensitization.
PubMed:Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of three species of Artemisia on some soil-borne phytopathogens.
PubMed:The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Dracocephalum foetidum against pathogenic microorganisms.
PubMed:Male sex pheromone release and female mate choice in a butterfly.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against microorganisms deteriorating fruit juices.
PubMed:Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.
PubMed:Chemical alarm and defence in the oribatid mite Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida).
PubMed:Extended surgical resection for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking advanced gallbladder carcinoma: A case report and review of literature.
PubMed:Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.
PubMed:Analysis of the enzymatic formation of citral in the glands of sweet basil.
PubMed:[Allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratu volatile and its chemical components].
PubMed:Commercially processed dry ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-stimulated PGE2 production.
PubMed:Volatile exudates from the oribatid mite, Platynothrus peltifer.
PubMed:Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.
PubMed:Bioactive constituents from Dracocephalum subcapitatum (O. Kuntze) Lipsky.
PubMed:Ontogenetic changes in the chemistry and morphology of oil glands in Hermannia convexa (Acari: Oribatida).
PubMed:Metabolism of geraniol in grape berry mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Scheurebe: demonstration of stereoselective reduction, E/Z-isomerization, oxidation and glycosylation.
PubMed:In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.
PubMed:The effect of solvent interactions on alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin/flavor molecular inclusion complexes.
PubMed:Identification and biosynthesis of an aggregation pheromone of the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus.
PubMed:Two new monoterpene glycosides and trypanocidal terpenoids from Dracocephalum kotschyi.
PubMed:Determination of flavour and off-flavour compounds in orange juice by on-line coupling of a pervaporation unit to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil.
PubMed:Analysis of anal secretions from phlaeothripine thrips.
PubMed:Characterization of geraniol synthase from the peltate glands of sweet basil.
PubMed:Chemical ecology of oribatid mites III. Chemical composition of oil gland exudates from two oribatid mites, Trhypochthoniellus sp. and Trhypochthonius japonicus (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae).
PubMed:Semiochemicals from the predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff): components of metathoracic gland, dorsal abdominal gland, and sternal gland secretions.
PubMed:Toxicity of Australian essential oil Backhousia citriodora (lemon myrtle). Part 2. Absorption and histopathology following application to human skin.
PubMed:Analysis of some Italian lemon liquors (limoncello).
PubMed:Inhibition of citrus postharvest pathogens by vapor of citral and related compounds in culture.
PubMed:Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts.
PubMed:A phase II detoxification enzyme inducer from lemongrass: identification of citral and involvement of electrophilic reaction in the enzyme induction.
PubMed:[A study on the effect and mechanism of acupuncture suppression of neuronal apoptosis following cerebral ischemia].
PubMed:Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents.
PubMed:Chemistry of the oil gland secretion of Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida).
PubMed:Comparison of extraction methods for marker compounds in the essential oil of lemon grass by GC.
PubMed:Volatile components of peel and leaf oils of lemon and lime species.
PubMed:Composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil from leaves and peel of a Cretan lemon variety.
PubMed:Degradation of monoterpenes in orange juice by gamma radiation.
PubMed:Characterization of the odor-active volatiles in citrus Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka).
PubMed:Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).
PubMed:Biotransformation of constituents of essential oils by germinating wheat seed.
PubMed:Amino acid-catalyzed conversion of citral: cis-trans isomerization and its conversion into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetaldehyde.
PubMed:Encapsulation of lemon oil by paste method using beta-cyclodextrin: encapsulation efficiency and profile of oil volatiles.
PubMed:The main citral-geraniol and carvacrol chemotypes of the essential oil of thymus pulegioides L. growing wild in vilnius district (Lithuania).
PubMed:Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.
PubMed:Mechanism of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase by citral, a retinoid antagonist.
PubMed:Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum.
PubMed:Genetic analysis of essential oil variants in Perilla frutescens.
PubMed:Prediction of medical student achievement by the utilization of personality characteristics and personal values.
PubMed:Stress, coping, and well-being among third-year medical students.
PubMed:Variation with caste of the mandibular gland secretion in the leaf-cutting antAtta sexdens rubropilosa.
PubMed:The effects of malpractice on Mississippi physicians.
PubMed:Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols.
PubMed:The metabolism of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) in rat hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. Interactions with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases.
PubMed:Metabolism of citral, an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, in male F344 rats.
PubMed:Robber bees (Lestrimelitta limao) and their host chemical and visual cues in nest defense byTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae: Meliponinae).
PubMed:Chemistry of mandibular and Dufour's gland secretions of ants in genusMyrmecocystus.
PubMed:Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.
PubMed:The Role of 9- and/or 10-oxygenated Derivatives of Geraniol, Geranial, Nerol, and Neral in the Biosynthesis of Loganin and Ajmalicine.
PubMed:Exocrine secretions of bees V. Terpenoid esters in the Dufour's secretions ofPanurginus bees (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae).
PubMed:A comparative study of the exocrine products of cleptoparasitic bees (Holcopasites) and their hosts (Calliopsis) (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae, Andrenidae).
PubMed:[Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].
PubMed:Biogenesis of monoterpenes : Bioconversion of citral by a cell suspension culture of muscat grapes.
PubMed:Mandibular glands of maleCentris adani, (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) : Their morphology, chemical constituents, and function in scent marking and territorial behavior.
PubMed:The Nasonov pheromone of the honeybeeApis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Part II. Bioassay of the components using foragers.
PubMed:An electrophysiological study of the sacral parasympathetic pathway to the colon of the cat.
PubMed:[Positive experience with paracervical block in minor gynecological surgery].
PubMed:Skimania.
 
Notes:
Blends well with acetals, aldehydes and alcohols to give fresh top notes.
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