EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

citrus paradisi peel extract
extract obtained from the peel of the grapefruit, citrus paradisi, rutaceae

Supplier Sponsors

Name:citrus paradisi peel extract
CAS Number: 90045-43-5
ECHA EC Number:289-904-6
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 658 Grapefruit extract View-notice PDF
FDA Mainterm: GRAPEFRUIT, EXTRACT
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 ethyl alcohol, 1:1
 propylene glycol, 1:1
 vegetable oil, 1:1
Stability:
 6 months at temps of 7 c with no air or light
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength:medium
fresh grapefruit
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. strong fresh grapefruit
grapefruit aldehydic citrus orange sulfurous
Odor Description:at 2.00 %. Grapefruit, aldehydic, citrus orange, a slight sulfureous topnote and a nootketone dryout
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 24, No. 1, 13, (1999)
Flavor Type: citrus
citrus juicy grapefruit pulpy
Taste Description: at 5.00 ppm. Citrus, juicy grapefruit with a pulpy mouthfeel
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 24, No. 1, 13, (1999)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
GRAPEFRUIT EXTRACT WONF NATURAL
Excellentia International
Grapefruit Extract
Kerry
Grapefruit Extract
Liberty Natural Products
GRAPEFRUIT 4:1 EXT POWDER USA
Lionel Hitchen
Grapefruit Peel Alcoholic Extract
Natural Flavors
Grapefruit Extract Organic
Plant Extracts
Shaddock Peels Extract
Symrise
Fruitapone® Grapefruit B
Life Essentials - Botanicals
Vege Tech
grapefruit extract
Vege Tech
Organic Grapefruit Extract
Vigon International
FRUITAPONE® GRAPEFRUIT
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Phototoxicity
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Where the bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) content of all relevant oils present in a compound has been determined, it is recommended that for applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, the total level of bergapten in the consumer products should not exceed 0.0015% (15 ppm). This is equivalent to 0.0075% (75 ppm) in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product. Where the level of bergapten has not been determined by appropriate methods, the limits specified in the guidelines on individual oils should apply. In those cases, where such oils are used in combination with other phototoxic ingredients, the additive effect has to be taken into consideration and the use levels have to be reduced accordingly. The sum of the concentrations of all phototoxic fragrance ingredients, expressed in % of their recommended maximum level in the consumer product, shall not exceed 100.
IFRA: View Standard
 
 
Safety References:
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
citrus paradisi peel extract
Chemidplus:0090045435
 
References:
 citrus paradisi peel extract
Pubchem (sid):135286079
 
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:3301.19.0000
Household Products:Search
Wikipedia:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
2-
ethyl-N-methyl-N-(3-methyl phenyl) butyramide
FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
citronellyl oxyacetaldehyde
FL/FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
dodecenal
FL/FR
3-
methyl-4-(1-methyl hexyl oxy) butyraldehyde
FR
3-
methyl-4-heptyl oxybutyraldehyde
FR
tridecanal
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
(Z)-8-
undecenal
FR
anisic
ethyl para-anisate
FL/FR
citronella
4,8-
dimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FR
citrus
benzyl anthranilate
FR
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citrus grandis fruit extract
FL/FR
citrus grandis fruit water
FR
citrus grandis peel
FL/FR
citrus grandis peel extract
FR
citrus grandis peel oil
FL/FR
citrus grandis peel powder
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil expressed
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel oil bergaptene reduced
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel oil washed
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel water
FL/FR
citrus reticulata blanco var. tangerine oil
FL/FR
curacao specialty
FR
4-
decenal
FL/FR
(Z)-7-
decenal
FR
(Z)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
(E)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
dimethyl octenone
FR
2,4-
dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanyl acetate
FR
grapefruit carbonyls
FL/FR
grapefruit essence
FL/FR
grapefruit fragrance
FR
grapefruit indene
FR
grapefruit mercaptan
FL/FR
grapefruit nitrile
FR
grapefruit oil
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. argentina
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. florida
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. israel
FL/FR
grapefruit oil CO2 extract (citrus paradisi macf. var. falvedo)
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded florida
FL/FR
grapefruit oil replacer
FL/FR
grapefruit oil terpeneless
FL/FR
grapefruit oil terpenes
FL/FR
grapefruit pentanol
FR
grapefruit specialty
FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
lemon oil residues
FL/FR
clementine
mandarin fragrance
FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
mandarin specialty
FR
marine decadienal
FR
5-
mercapto-5-methyl-3-hexanone
FL/FR
methyl indole-1-carboxylate
FR
1-
methyl-4-methyl ethenyl cyclohexene sulfurized
FL/FR
myrmac aldehyde
FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
octanal glycol acetal
FR
orange fruit oil
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil folded
FL/FR
wild sweet
orange peel oil west indian
FL/FR
philodendron solimoesense specialty
FR
rhubafuran
FR
beta-
sinensal
FL/FR
alpha-
sinensal
FL/FR
tangerine oil america
FL/FR
tangerine oil california
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
tetrahydrocitral
FL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-
trimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
yuzu specialty
FR
ethereal
ethyl acetate
FL/FR
2-
methyl valeraldehyde
FL/FR
fatty
(E)-2-
nonenal
FL/FR
floral
acetyl tetralin
FR
allyl anthranilate
FL/FR
amyl anthranilate
FL/FR
bigarade oxide
FR
cassis oxime 10%
FR
citronellal
FL/FR
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
decyl anthranilate
FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
2,4-
dimethyl cyclohexyl methyl acetate
FR
ethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl ortho-anisate
FL/FR
gardenia acetal
FR
gardenia amide
FR
gardenia decalone
FR
gardenia pentyl acetate
FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
magnolia indene
FR
beta-
naphthyl anthranilate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
octanal / methyl anthranilate schiff's base
FR
peony acetonitrile
FR
petitgrain grapefruit oil
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil terpeneless
FL/FR
phenethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-3-buten-2-ol
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
apple crotonate
FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
iso
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
ethyl propionate
FL/FR
grape butyrate
FL/FR
grape essence
FL/FR
concord
grape fragrance
FR
grape fragrance
FR
grapefruit acetal
FR
3-
hexanone
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl anthranilate
FL/FR
methyl 2-methyl valerate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
neryl propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
tropical trithiane
FL/FR
grape
muscadine fragrance
FR
green
green carboxylate
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl isovalerate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl oxyacetaldehyde
FR
(2-
methoxy-1-methyl butyl) benzene
FR
[(4E,4Z)-5-
methoxy-3-methyl-4-penten-1-yl] benzene
FR
herbal
6-
acetoxydihydrotheaspirane
FL/FR
cardamom liquid resin
FR
chrysanthemum ketone
FR
(E)-2-
dodecenal
FL/FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
minty
ethyl benzoate
FL/FR
naphthyl
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
pulpy
grapefruit isolate
FL/FR
spicy
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
sulfurous
ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
grapefruit menthane
FL/FR
4-
methoxy-2-methyl butane thiol
FL/FR
3-
thiohexanol
FL/FR
4-
tropical oxathiane
FL/FR
waxy
aldenal C-9
FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
ethyl decanoate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
6-
acetoxydihydrotheaspirane
FL/FR
allyl anthranilate
FL/FR
amyl anthranilate
FL/FR
(E)-
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
3-
decanone
FL/FR
4-
decenal
FL/FR
dihydronootkatone
FL
(Z)-4-
dodecenal
FL/FR
ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
ethyl ortho-anisate
FL/FR
lemon oil residues
FL/FR
4-
mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol
FL
5-
mercapto-5-methyl-3-hexanone
FL/FR
3-
mercaptooctanal
FL
beta-
sinensal
FL/FR
alpha-
sinensal
FL/FR
tetrahydrocitral
FL/FR
anise
anise
ethyl para-anisate
FL/FR
citrus
beta-
bisabolol
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citral dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
citronellyl oxyacetaldehyde
FL/FR
citrus grandis fruit extract
FL/FR
citrus grandis peel
FL/FR
citrus grandis peel oil
FL/FR
citrus grandis peel powder
FL/FR
citrus limon peel oil expressed
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel oil bergaptene reduced
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel oil washed
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel water
FL/FR
citrus reticulata blanco var. tangerine oil
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
dehydronootkatone
FL
grapefruit carbonyls
FL/FR
grapefruit essence
FL/FR
grapefruit flavor
FL
pink
grapefruit flavor
FL
grapefruit green flavor
FL
grapefruit juice
FL
grapefruit key
FL
grapefruit mercaptan
FL/FR
grapefruit oil
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. argentina
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. florida
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. israel
FL/FR
grapefruit oil CO2 extract (citrus paradisi macf. var. falvedo)
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded florida
FL/FR
grapefruit oil replacer
FL/FR
grapefruit oil sesquiterpeneless
FL
grapefruit oil terpeneless
FL/FR
grapefruit oil terpenes
FL/FR
lemon carbonyls
FL
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. furocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
3-
mercaptoheptyl acetate
FL
1-
methyl-4-methyl ethenyl cyclohexene sulfurized
FL/FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
orange fruit oil
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil folded
FL/FR
wild sweet
orange peel oil west indian
FL/FR
petitgrain grapefruit oil
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil
FL/FR
pomelo essence oil
FL
pomelo flavor
FL
tangerine oil america
FL/FR
tangerine oil california
FL/FR
(±)-2,4,8-
trimethyl-7-nonen-2-ol
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
earthy
(±)-2-
mercapto-5-methylheptan-4-one
FL
ethereal
ethyl acetate
FL/FR
fatty
2,4-
decadienal
FL
(E,E)-2,4-
dodecadienal
FL
floral
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
citronellal
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl anthranilate
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
phenethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
fruity
acetoin acetate
FL/FR
iso
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
butyl anthranilate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl anthranilate
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
FL/FR
ethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
ethyl propionate
FL/FR
furfuryl butyrate
FL
furfuryl isovalerate
FL
grape concentrate
FL
grape enhancer
FL
grape essence
FL/FR
concord
grape flavor
FL
red
grape flavor
FL
muscatine
grape flavor
FL
grape flavor
FL
white
grape flavor
FL
green
grape flavor
FL
grape juice concentrate
FL
3-
hexanone
FL/FR
mango papaya grapefruit flavor
FL
methyl 2-methyl valerate
FL/FR
methyl anthranilate
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl anthranilate
FL/FR
neryl isovalerate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
octen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
petitgrain mandarin oil terpeneless
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
4-
tropical oxathiane
FL/FR
tropical trithiane
FL/FR
green
grape butyrate
FL/FR
(E,E)-2,4-
hexadienal
FL
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl isovalerate
FL/FR
neryl propionate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
nonenal
FL/FR
3-
octyl acetate
FL/FR
medicinal
ethyl benzoate
FL/FR
musty
propionaldehyde
FL
powdery
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
pulpy
grapefruit isolate
FL/FR
ripe
(E)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
sulfurous
grapefruit menthane
FL/FR
4-
methoxy-2-methyl butane thiol
FL/FR
3-
thiohexanol
FL/FR
tropical
anacardium occidentale fruit puree
FL
vegetable
2-
methyl valeraldehyde
FL/FR
waxy
(E)-2-
dodecenal
FL/FR
ethyl decanoate
FL/FR
ethyl nonanoate
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-3-buten-2-ol
FL/FR
propyl heptanoate
FL/FR
tridecanal
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
woody
beta-
damascenone
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl methyl ether
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLbeverage
FRcitrus
 confectionary
FRgrapefruit
FRlemon
FRlime
FRmandarin
FRorange
FLsavory
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 grapefruit
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 extract obtained from the peel of the grapefruit, citrus paradisi, rutaceae
fruitapone grapefruit (Symrise)
fruitapone grapefruit B (Symrise)
 grapefruit extract
 grapefruit extract natural
 grapefruit extract of whole
 grapefruit extract organic
 grapefruit extract WONF natural
 grapefruit peel alcoholic extract
 grapefruit peel extract
 

Articles:

PubMed:The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.
PubMed:Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.
PubMed:Ethylene degreening modulates health promoting phytochemicals in Rio Red grapefruit.
PubMed:Ultrasound-assisted heating extraction of pectin from grapefruit peel: optimization and comparison with the conventional method.
PubMed:Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.
PubMed:Effects of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MACF) (Rutaceae) peel oil against developmental stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
PubMed:Hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides by β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus and its application to the production of flavanone aglycones from citrus extracts.
PubMed:Adsorption of neutral red and malachite green onto grapefruit peel in single and binary systems.
PubMed:De-novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of Metschnikowia fructicola reveals differences in gene expression following interaction with Penicillium digitatum and grapefruit peel.
PubMed:Assessing the biosynthetic capabilities of secretory glands in Citrus peel.
PubMed:Global changes in gene expression of grapefruit peel tissue in response to the yeast biocontrol agent Metschnikowia fructicola.
PubMed:[Furanocoumarins contents and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products: outflow of 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin during processing treatment of peel].
PubMed:Albedo hydrolysis modelling and digestion with reused effluents in the enzymatic peeling process of grapefruits.
PubMed:Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption.
PubMed:Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.
PubMed:Minor furanocoumarins and coumarins in grapefruit peel oil as inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 3A4.
PubMed:Application of time-of-flight near-infrared spectroscopy to fruits: analysis of absorption and scattering conditions of near-infrared radiation using cross-correlation of the time-resolved profile.
PubMed:Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?
PubMed:Induction of Resistance to Penicillium digitatum in Grapefruit by the Yeast Biocontrol Agent Candida oleophila.
PubMed:Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
PubMed:A New coumarin from Citrus paradisi Macf.
PubMed:Effect of adding extracted hesperetin, naringenin and pectin on egg cholesterol, serum traits and antioxidant activity in laying hens.
PubMed:Antagonistic effects of the endophytic fungus Meira geulakonigii on the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora.
PubMed:Organic vs conventionally grown Rio Red whole grapefruit and juice: comparison of production inputs, market quality, consumer acceptance, and human health-bioactive compounds.
PubMed:Radical scavenging and cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity of bergaptol and geranylcoumarin from grapefruit.
PubMed:Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract.
PubMed:Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes.
PubMed:Nonvolatiles of commercial lime and grapefruit oils separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.
PubMed:[Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].
PubMed:Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of naringin from the peel of Citrus paradisi.
PubMed:Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel.
PubMed:Identification of a grapefruit cDNA belonging to a unique class of citrus dehydrins and characterization of its expression patterns under temperature stress conditions.
PubMed:Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients.
PubMed:Ultraviolet C irradiation at 0.5 kJ.m(-)(2) reduces decay without causing damage or affecting postharvest quality of star ruby grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.).
PubMed:Insecticidal properties of citrus oils against Culex pipiens and Musca domestica.
PubMed:The expression of a grapefruit gene encoding an isoflavone reductase-like protein is induced in response to UV irradiation.
PubMed:Influence of CaCl(2) on Penicillium digitatum, Grapefruit Peel Tissue, and Biocontrol Activity of Pichia guilliermondii.
PubMed:Sucrose synthase and invertase in isolated vascular bundles.
PubMed:Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in transport tissues and adjacent sink structures in developing citrus fruit.
PubMed:[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].
PubMed:Autoinhibition of Ethylene Production in Citrus Peel Discs : SUPPRESSION OF 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHESIS.
PubMed:Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin- and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).
PubMed:Effect of gamma radiation on the synthesis of scopoletin and scopolin in grapefruit peel in relation to radiation damage.
PubMed:Ethylene-controlled Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase in Citrus Fruit Peel.
PubMed:Studies on phytosterol biosynthesis. The presence of 4-alpha,14-alpha-dimethyl-delta-8,24(28)-ergostadien-3-beta-ol in grapefruit peel and its co-occurrece with cycloeucalenol in higher plant tissues.
PubMed:A new coumarin from grapefruit peel oil.
PubMed:The preparation and evaluation of grapefruit peel tincture and grapefruit syrup.
 
Notes:
Do not use on any part of the body because of phototoxic effects.
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