EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

picea abies leaf oil
volatile oil expressed from the needles of the norway spruce, picea abies (l.), pinaceae

Supplier Sponsors

Name:picea abies leaf oil
CAS Number: 91770-69-3
ECHA EC Number:294-855-9
Category:fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 
Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: green
Odor Strength:medium
green fruity earthy pine lemon
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. green fruity earthy fern pine lemon
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Hermitage Oils
Spruce ABIES Essential Oil
Odor: characteristic
Use: Mark Evans has this to say “This oil is extracted from the needles and twigs of Picea abies which is also known as the Norway spruce. Smelling the deeply green and fruity, slightly earthy, fern, pine and lemon-like scent of this oil transports you deep into a Scandinavian forest with fresh, crisp air and a carpet of dry needles under foot.
The Vault
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 400 mg/kg
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 9, Pg. 91, 1971.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: fragrance agents
Recommendation for picea abies leaf oil usage levels up to:
  8.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Recommendation for picea abies leaf oil flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
picea abies leaf oil
Chemidplus:0091770693
 
References:
 picea abies leaf oil
Pubchem (sid):135351825
 
Other Information:
Export Tariff Code:3301.29.6000
Wikipedia:View
FAO:BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STEAM DISTILLATION
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
ethyl (R)-2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
amber
amber
(Z)-
abienol
FL/FR
animal
methyl (E)-2-octenoate
FL/FR
balsamic
abies alba cone oil
FR
iso
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
fir carboxylate
FR
hexyl cinnamate
FR
spruce needle absolute
FL/FR
red
spruce oil
FR
berry
mulberry fragrance
FR
citrus
backhousia citriodora leaf oil
FR
(R)-
citronellyl nitrile
FR
citrus specialty
FR
2-
heptanol
FL/FR
earthy
methyl 3-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethereal
cyclohexyl formate
FL/FR
fatty
3-
decen-2-one
FL/FR
hexyl pivalate
FR
methyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
methyl 2-hexenoate
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde diethyl acetal
FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
boronia absolute replacer
FL/FR
boronia fragrance
FR
cassie specialty (acacia farnesiana)
FR
cassis cyclohexene
FR
dihydrocarvyl acetate
FL/FR
(±)-2,3-
dihydrofarnesol
FL/FR
6,8-
dimethyl-2-nonanol
FR
(E)-
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl lactate
FL/FR
hexyl nonanoate
FL/FR
jasmin cyclopentanol
FR
jasminum sambac flower oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
(2-
methoxy-1-methyl propyl) benzene
FR
para-
methyl benzyl acetate
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
tilia cordata flower oil CO2 extract
FR
fruity
allyl amyl glycolate
FR
allyl butyrate
FL/FR
3-
allyl oxy-1,4-dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)octane
FR
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
green
apple fragrance
FR
3-
butyl bicyclo[3.2.1]-6-octen-2-one
FR
iso
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
butyl propionate
FL/FR
iso
butyl propionate
FL/FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
cinnamyl hexanoate
FL/FR
2-
cyclopentyl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
1,4-
dibutyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octane
FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-3-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-cyclohexyl propionate
FR
ethyl 2-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-octenoate
FL/FR
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
endo-
ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylate
FR
ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylate
FL/FR
ethyl levulinate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
(E,E)-
ethyl sorbate
FL/FR
fig crotonate
FR
fruity butanate
FR
geranyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
geranyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
heptyl butyrate
FL/FR
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
heptyl valerate
FR
2-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl anthranilate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl (E)-tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
hexyl propionate
FL/FR
hexyl valerate
FL/FR
kiwi fragrance
FR
kiwi specialty
FR
malus sylvestris fruit oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
mango fragrance
FR
mango specialty
FR
methyl 3-nonenoate
FL/FR
methyl heptanoate
FL/FR
methyl octadienoate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
3-
methyl-2-butenal
FL/FR
nerolidyl isobutyrate
FR
(Z)-6-
nonen-1-al dimethyl acetal
FR
octen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
2-
pentyl furan
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl hexanoate
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-2-butyl acetate
FL/FR
pineapple pentenoate
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
rhubarb undecane
FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate
FL/FR
tropical specialty
FR
tropical thiazole
FL/FR
tropical trithiane
FL/FR
green
acetaldehyde benzyl 2-methoxyethyl acetal
FL/FR
actinidia chinensis fruit extract
FL/FR
actinidia chinensis fruit water
FR
allyl phenethyl ether
FR
butyl heptanoate
FL/FR
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-4-decenoate
FL/FR
galbanum specialty
FR
green dioxolane
FR
green note propionate
FL/FR
herbal cyclohexane
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isovalerate
FL/FR
hexen-1-yl oxypropane nitrile
FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
3-
hexenyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexenyl methyl ether
FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl octanoate
FL/FR
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
neogall
FR
(E)-2-
pentenal
FL/FR
picea mariana leaf oil
FR
propylene acetal
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
sorbyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
1-[(3aS,7aR)-3a,4,7,7a-
tetrahydro-1H-inden-6-yl]ethanone
FR
thiogeraniol
FL/FR
2,4,8-
trimethyl-5-oxatricyclo(6.2.1.0*2,6*)undecane
FR
herbal
blue grass fragrance
FR
6-
methoxy-2,6-dimethyl octanal
FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
tagete oil india
FL/FR
tricyclodecyl acetate
FR
viridiflorol
FL/FR
minty
carvyl acetate
FL/FR
mushroom
(R)-1-
octen-3-ol
FL/FR
nutty
2-
methyl-3-ethoxypyrazine
FL/FR
spicy
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
2,5-
dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)-2-octen-3-yl acetate + 1,4-dimethyl bicyclo(3.2.1)-2-octen-3-yl acetate
FR
sulfurous
4-
methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solution
FL/FR
waxy
(E)-
methyl geranate
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
winey
methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoate
FL/FR
woody
abies alba cone extract
FL/FR
abies lasiocarpa oil canada
FR
callitris intratropica wood oil australia
FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
spruce fragrance
FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
verdoxan
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
abies alba cone extract
FL/FR
acetaldehyde benzyl 2-methoxyethyl acetal
FL/FR
balsam fir oleoresin
FL/FR
boronia absolute replacer
FL/FR
iso
butyl octanoate
FL/FR
cinnamyl hexanoate
FL/FR
2-
cyclopentyl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
(±)-2,3-
dihydrofarnesol
FL/FR
(E+Z)-4,8-
dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol
FL/FR
ethyl (R)-2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylate
FL/FR
geranyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
2-
heptyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexenal propylene glycol acetal
FL/FR
3-
hexenyl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl nonanoate
FL/FR
hexyl propionate
FL/FR
hexyl valerate
FL/FR
malus sylvestris fruit oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
methyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
methyl 2-hexenoate
FL/FR
methyl 3-acetoxyoctanoate
FL/FR
4-
methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solution
FL/FR
(E)-
methyl geranate
FL/FR
methyl octadienoate
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-ethoxypyrazine
FL/FR
4-
phenyl-2-butyl acetate
FL/FR
prenyl hexanoate
FL/FR
propylene acetal
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
(E,E)-
sorbyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
viridiflorol
FL/FR
sorbyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
alliaceous
alliaceous
tropical thiazole
FL/FR
balsamic
spruce needle absolute
FL/FR
berry
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
cooling
manzanate (Givaudan)
FL/FR
estery
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
fatty
ethyl (E)-4-decenoate
FL/FR
floral
cinnamyl propionate
FL/FR
dihydrocarvyl acetate
FL/FR
(E)-
geranyl acetone
FL/FR
geranyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl anthranilate
FL/FR
jasminum sambac flower oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
fruity
iso
amyl benzoate
FL/FR
boronia absolute
FL/FR
butyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
butyl propionate
FL/FR
butyl propionate
FL/FR
cherry pentenoate
FL/FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
dimethyl succinate
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl (E)-3-hexenoate
FL/FR
ethyl 2-octenoate
FL/FR
ethyl levulinate
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
(E,E)-
ethyl sorbate
FL/FR
2-
heptanol
FL/FR
2-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(E)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl lactate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-2-octenoate
FL/FR
methyl 3-hexenoate
FL/FR
methyl 3-nonenoate
FL/FR
para-
methyl benzyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl heptanoate
FL/FR
methyl valerate
FL/FR
3-
methyl-2-butenal
FL/FR
octen-1-yl cyclopentanone
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl hexanoate
FL/FR
pineapple pentenoate
FL/FR
sorbyl butyrate
FL/FR
tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate
FL/FR
tropical trithiane
FL/FR
fusel
green
cognac oil
FL/FR
green
actinidia chinensis fruit extract
FL/FR
allyl butyrate
FL/FR
cyclohexyl formate
FL/FR
3-
decen-2-one
FL/FR
geranyl formate
FL/FR
geranyl isovalerate
FL/FR
green note propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl butyrate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl hexanoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl isovalerate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl propionate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
hexen-1-yl valerate
FL/FR
hexyl (E)-tiglate
FL/FR
hexyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
hexyl octanoate
FL/FR
papaya isobutyrate
FL/FR
(E)-2-
pentenal
FL/FR
2-
pentyl furan
FL/FR
herbal
tagete oil india
FL/FR
minty
carvyl acetate
FL/FR
thiogeraniol
FL/FR
mushroom
(R)-1-
octen-3-ol
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
octyl 2-methyl butyrate
FL/FR
octyl butyrate
FL/FR
woody
(Z)-
abienol
FL/FR
(Z)-
jasmone
FL/FR
(1S,5R)-
myrtenyl acetate
FL/FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 picea abies
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 picea abies needle oil
 picea abies subsp. acuminata leaf oil
 picea abies subsp. europaea leaf oil
 picea excelsa leaf oil
 picea excelsa var. acuminata leaf oil
 picea montana leaf oil
 picea vulgaris var. europaea leaf oil
norway spruce leaf oil
norway spruce needle oil
norway spruce oil
 volatile oil expressed from the needles of the norway spruce, picea abies (l.), pinaceae
 

Articles:

PubMed:Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.
PubMed:Interactions and competition processes among tree species in young experimental mixed forests, assessed with chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf morphology.
PubMed:Weak vertical canopy gradients of photosynthetic capacities and stomatal responses in a fertile Norway spruce stand.
PubMed:New insights into carbon allocation by trees from the hypothesis that annual wood production is maximized.
PubMed:Response of green reflectance continuum removal index to the xanthophyll de-epoxidation cycle in Norway spruce needles.
PubMed:Mineral nutrition and elevated [CO(2)] interact to modify δ(13)C, an index of gas exchange, in Norway spruce.
PubMed:Leaf area and light use efficiency patterns of Norway spruce under different thinning regimes and age classes.
PubMed:Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.
PubMed:Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).
PubMed:Interactions of thinning and stem height on the drought response of radial stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce (Picea abies).
PubMed:Needle metabolome, freezing tolerance and gas exchange in Norway spruce seedlings exposed to elevated temperature and ozone concentration.
PubMed:Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies.
PubMed:Why does leaf nitrogen decline within tree canopies less rapidly than light? An explanation from optimization subject to a lower bound on leaf mass per area.
PubMed:Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest.
PubMed:Leaf litter leachates have the potential to increase lifespan, body size, and offspring numbers in a clone of Moina macrocopa.
PubMed:The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).
PubMed:Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures.
PubMed:The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
PubMed:Simulating stand climate, phenology, and photosynthesis of a forest stand with a process-based growth model.
PubMed:Physiological responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to drought stress.
PubMed:Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate tree species.
PubMed:Microwave-assisted rapid plant sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy.
PubMed:Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.
PubMed:Fertilization effects on mean stomatal conductance are mediated through changes in the hydraulic attributes of mature Norway spruce trees.
PubMed:Fungal diversity of Norway spruce litter: effects of site conditions and premature leaf fall caused by bark beetle outbreak.
PubMed:Combining delta 13 C and delta 18 O analyses to unravel competition, CO2 and O3 effects on the physiological performance of different-aged trees.
PubMed:Acclimation of leaves to contrasting irradiance in juvenile trees differing in shade tolerance.
PubMed:Induction of photosynthesis and importance of limitations during the induction phase in sun and shade leaves of five ecologically contrasting tree species from the temperate zone.
PubMed:Element contents in leaves of four plant species (birch, mountain ash, fern and spruce) along anthropogenic and geogenic concentration gradients.
PubMed:Significance of ozone exposure for inter-annual differences in primary metabolites of old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees in a mixed forest stand.
PubMed:Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.
PubMed:Testing the unifying theory of ozone sensitivity with mature trees of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.
PubMed:Efficient extraction of proteins from woody plant samples for two-dimensional electrophoresis.
PubMed:Effects of metal-contaminated soil on the performance of young trees growing in model ecosystems under field conditions.
PubMed:Spectral multichannel monitoring of radiation within a mature mixed forest.
PubMed:Above-ground space sequestration determines competitive success in juvenile beech and spruce trees.
PubMed:Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors.
PubMed:Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.
PubMed:Role of climate, crown position, tree age and altitude in calculated ozone flux into needles of Picea abies and Pinus cembra: a synthesis.
PubMed:Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone flux of Norway spruce: comparison with field data.
PubMed:Acclimation to low irradiance in Picea abies: influences of past and present light climate on foliage structure and function.
PubMed:Nutrient contents and concentrations in relation to growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica along a European transect.
PubMed:Frost resistance and ice nucleation in leaves of five woody timberline species measured in situ during shoot expansion.
PubMed:Chronic effects of vapour phase di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on six plant species.
PubMed:Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.
PubMed:Photosynthesis in Norway spruce seedlings infected by the needle rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri.
PubMed:Comparing light interception with stand basal area for predicting tree growth.
PubMed:Dynamics of change in stomatal response and water status of Picea abies during a persistent drought period: a contribution to the traditional view of plant water relations.
PubMed:MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and PSD fragmentation as means for the analysis of condensed tannins in plant leaves and needles.
PubMed:Winter at the alpine timberline. Why does embolism occur in norway spruce but not in stone pine?
PubMed:Soil temperature, gas exchange and nitrogen status of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.
PubMed:Consequences of elevated CO2, augmented nitrogen-deposition and soil type on the soluble nitrogen and sulphur in the phloem of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) in a competitive situation.
PubMed:Age effects on Norway spruce (Picea abies) susceptibility to ozone uptake: a novel approach relating stress avoidance to defense.
PubMed:Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.
PubMed:Foliar morphological and physiological plasticity in Picea abies and Abies alba saplings along a natural light gradient.
PubMed:Hydraulic and stomatal adjustment of Norway spruce trees to environmental stress.
PubMed:Effects of nutrition and soil water availability on water use in a Norway spruce stand.
PubMed:Mean canopy stomatal conductance responses to water and nutrient availabilities in Picea abies and Pinus taeda.
PubMed:Effects of climatic warming on cold hardiness of some northern woody plants assessed from simulation experiments.
PubMed:Morphological and stomatal responses of Norway spruce foliage to irradiance within a canopy depending on shoot age.
PubMed:Strategies of a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in an olfactory landscape.
PubMed:A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies.
PubMed:Effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) litter on seed germination and early seedling growth of four boreal tree species.
PubMed:Impact of atmospheric deposition on the status of planted Norway spruce stands: A comparative study between sites in southern Sweden and the northeastern Czech Republic.
PubMed:Variation in the ratio of shoot silhouette area to needle area in fertilized and unfertilized Norway spruce trees.
PubMed:Response of magnesium-deficient saplings in a young, open stand of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to elevated soil magnesium, nitrogen and carbon.
PubMed:Canopy dynamics and aboveground production of five tree species with different leaf longevities.
PubMed:A comparative study into the chemical constitution of cutins and suberins from Picea abies (L.) Karst., Quercus robur L., and Fagus sylvatica L.
PubMed:Status of sulphur in the foliage of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in relation to the mode of contamination.
PubMed:Estimation of leaf area index in fourteen southern Wisconsin forest stands using a portable radiometer.
PubMed:Performance of some growth variables.
PubMed:Regional variation in surface properties of Norway spruce and scots pine needles in relation to forest decline.
PubMed:Crown architecture and stemwood production in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).
PubMed:Changes in carbon allocation patterns in spruce and pine trees following irrigation and fertilization.
PubMed:Buffer capacities of leaves, leaf cells, and leaf cell organelles in relation to fluxes of potentially acidic gases.
PubMed:Seasonal Fluctuation of Reserve Materials in the Trunkwood of Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].
PubMed:The enrichment of (18)O in leaf water under natural conditions.
 
Notes:
None found
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2018 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy