EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

indole
1-benzo(b)pyrrole

Supplier Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:1H-indole
CAS Number: 120-72-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:204-420-7
FDA UNII:8724FJW4M5
Nikkaji Web:J2.920C
Beilstein Number:0107693
MDL:MFCD00005607
CoE Number:560
XlogP3:2.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:117.15079000
Formula:C8 H7 N
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1301 indole
FLAVIS Number:14.007 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:14.007 indole
FEMA Number:2593 indole
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):120-72-9 ; INDOLE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to amber yellow crystalline solid powder (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 51.00 to 54.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 253.00 to 254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Congealing Point:51.10 °C.
Vapor Pressure:0.012200 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 2.140
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 3560 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 glycerin
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: animal
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Substantivity:400 hour(s) at 50.00 % in dipropylene glycol
animal floral naphthyl fecal
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol. animal floral moth ball fecal naphthelene
Luebke, William tgsc, (1982)
Odor sample from: Berje Inc.
pungent floral naphthyl fecal animal musty
Odor Description:at 1.00 %. Pungent, floral, slightly naphtha and mothball like with a fecal and animalic musty character
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 26, No. 3, 80, (2001)
Flavor Type: animal
animal fecal naphthyl earthy phenolic chemical
Taste Description: at 0.30 - 2.00 ppm. Animal, fecal, naphthyl, with earthy, perfumey, phenolic and chemical nuances
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 26, No. 3, 80, (2001)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor Description:Floral on high dilution
Moellhausen
INDOLE
Odor Description:penetrating, animal, faecal
Taste Description:musky, faecal, cheese
PerfumersWorld
Indole
Odor Description:strong moth ball naphthelene erogenic-floral animal narcotic-floral jasmine slightly musk fecal
Blends-well-with - +Phenyl Acetic Acid +Mimosa
Pell Wall Perfumes
Indole
Odor Description:Animalic, floral-heady, faecal, naphthelene / moth-balls
Arctander writes extensively about this material; here are a couple of extracts: “Extremely diffusive and powerful odor, almost tarry-repulsive and choking when concentrated, but in concentrations lower than 0.1%. or in compositions, it shows powerful floral notes and pleasant radiation. Good tenacity, in spite of the volatility at room temperature.”
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
A.C.S. International
Indole 99,0 %
Operational Capabilities
A.C.S. International
Indole
Odor: animal fecal earthy musty
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 0.6% IN ETOH NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 1% IN ETOH NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE 1% IN PG NATURAL
Advanced Biotech
INDOLE NATURAL
97% min.
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Alfrebro
INDOLE (EU NAT)
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Alfrebro
INDOLE NATURAL 1% IN ETHANOL
Odor: Floral on high dilution
Anhui Haibei
Indole
Augustus Oils
Indole
Services
Axxence Aromatic
INDOLE Natural
Kosher
Sustainability
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Indole
Berjé
Indole Crystals
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Indole 95%
BST Tianjin Co.
Indole
Creatingperfume.com
Indole
Diffusions Aromatiques
INDOLE
ECSA Chemicals
Indole
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Indole
Ernesto Ventós
INDOLE
Odor: FECAL IF CONC., FLORAL IF DILUTED
Excellentia International
Indole Natural
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Indole
Global Essence
Indole
Hermitage Oils
Indole 1% Natural Isolate
Odor: characteristic
Use: Eleonora Scalseggi has this to say “Often called “magic” indole is indeed a very fascinating material whose importance in perfumery cannot be overstated. Depending on its concentration it can be terribly repulsive or immensely seductive, featuring in the aroma profile of some of the most bewitching floral scents on earth like jasmines and orange blossoms as well as in excrements. Indole is the seductive weapon devised by the most intoxicating night flowers to attract pollinators – usually moths. Funnily enough traces of indole in the aroma profile of a flower make it irresistible for humans too, capable of transforming a delicate, clean yet insignificant floral scent into a narcotic elixir.
The Vault
Indenta Group
Indole
Indukern F&F
INDOL CRYST.
Odor: ANIMAL, FLORAL
Kunshan Sainty
Indole, Kosher
Lluch Essence
INDOLE CRYST.
Lluch Essence
INDOLE NATURAL
M&U International
INDOLE
Moellhausen
INDOLE
Odor: penetrating, animal, faecal
Flavor: musky, faecal, cheese
Natural Advantage
Indole Nat, 10% in OH
Flavor: creamy, floral, sweet
Riverside Aromatics LTD.is the exclusive distributor for Europe in UK for any non-US based inquiries
Pell Wall Perfumes
Indole
Odor: Animalic, floral-heady, faecal, naphthelene / moth-balls
Use: Arctander writes extensively about this material; here are a couple of extracts: “Extremely diffusive and powerful odor, almost tarry-repulsive and choking when concentrated, but in concentrations lower than 0.1%. or in compositions, it shows powerful floral notes and pleasant radiation. Good tenacity, in spite of the volatility at room temperature.”
Penta International
INDOLE FCC GRADE
Penta International
INDOLE NATURAL (NEAT)
Penta International
INDOLE NATURAL IN ETHYL ALCOHOL
Penta International
INDOLE
PerfumersWorld
Indole 10% in DPG
PerfumersWorld
Indole
Odor: strong moth ball naphthelene erogenic-floral animal narcotic-floral jasmine slightly musk fecal
Use: Blends-well-with - +Phenyl Acetic Acid +Mimosa
Prodasynth
INDOLE
(> 99%)
Odor: FECAL IF CONC., FLORAL IF DILUTED
Reincke & Fichtner
Indole
Sigma-Aldrich
Indole, ≥99%, FG
Odor: butter; cheese; chocolate; grape; honey; jasmine; musty; floral; fatty; vanilla; animal; earthy; vegetable; wine-like; fishy
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Indole, natural, ≥97%, FG
Odor: floral; pungent; animalic
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Indole >99.0%(GC)
The John D. Walsh Company
Indole
The Lermond Company
INDOLE
Vigon International
Indole
Odor: UNPLEASANT ODOR IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS, BUT FLORAL IN HIGHER DILUTIONS
Zanos
Indole
Odor: Powerful and harsh odour, with a-jasmine character on dilution
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn N - Harmful, Dangerous for the environment.
R 21/22 - Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute toxicity, Oral (Category 4), H302
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Serious eye damage (Category 1), H318
Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (Category 3), Respiratory system, H335
Acute aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H400
Chronic aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H410
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramcorrosion.jpgskull.jpgenvironment.jpg
 
Signal word Danger
Hazard statement(s)
H302 - Harmful if swallowed
H311 - Toxic in contact with skin
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H318 - Causes serious eye damage
H335 - May cause respiratory irritation
H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life
H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
P261 - Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 - Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P312 - IF SWALLOWED: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician IF you feel unwell.
P302 + P352 - IF ON SKIN: wash with plenty of soap and water.
P304 + P340 - IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338 - IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310 - Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P330 - Rinse mouth.
P332 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P361 - Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
P391 - Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P403 + P233 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Human Experience:
1 % solution: non-sensitising.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: M] 1000 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1962)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 117 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 94, Pg. 1620, 1974.

oral-mouse LDLo 1070 mg/kg
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 111, 1985.

oral-rat LD50 1000 mg/kg
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 95, 1962.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 790 mg/kg
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 95, 1962.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 225 mg/kg
Klinische Wochenscrift. Vol. 35, Pg. 504, 1957.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for indole usage levels up to:
  2.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 26.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 10.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.58000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.26000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -0.28000
fruit ices: -0.28000
gelatins / puddings: 0.020000.40000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.50000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 24 (FGE.24): Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 1 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 77 (FGE77) [1] - Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 77, Revision 2 (FGE.77Rev2): Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2 (2013)
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of pyridine and pyrrole derivatives belonging to chemical group 28 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on flavouring group evaluation 77, revision 3 (FGE.77Rev3): consideration of pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):120-72-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :798
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2811
WGK Germany:1
1H-indole
Chemidplus:0000120729
RTECS:NL2450000 for cas# 120-72-9
 
References:
 1H-indole
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:120-72-9
Pubchem (cid):798
Pubchem (sid):134975207
Flavornet:120-72-9
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00463
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00738
FooDB:FDB012008
Export Tariff Code:2933.90.0500
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•found in neroli oil in trace quantities approx 0.1% •constitutes 2.5% of jasmine oil •technical, cp, fcc
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
amber
ambroxan
FL/FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FL/FR
animal
animal carbolactone
FR
iso
butyl quinoline
FR
civet (natural)
FL/FR
civet absolute
FL/FR
para-
cresyl caprylate
FL/FR
para-
cresyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
para-
cresyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
ethyl 4-methyl salicylate
FL/FR
indocolore (Firmenich)
FR
indolall
FR
skatole
FL/FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
clover nitrile
FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
fir balsam absolute
FR
methyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
myrrh oil
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
ethereal
propylene glycol dibenzoate
CS
fatty
coconut absolute
FL/FR
decanol
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
benzyl alcohol
FL/FR
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
para-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
9-
decen-1-ol
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hyacinth ether
FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
jasmin absolute (from chassis)
FL/FR
leerall
FR
linalool
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
orris pyridine 25% IPM
FR
peony alcohol
FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
rhodinol
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fresh
10-
undecen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
fruity
(E)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
green
para-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
herbal
carum carvi fruit oil
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
honey
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
marine
marine pyridine
FR
mossy
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
veramoss (IFF)
FR
musk
(Z)-
civet decenone
FL/FR
musk nonane
FR
naphthyl
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl methyl ether
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
powdery animal fragrance
FR
spicy
benzyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
carnation absolute
FR
methyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
coumarin
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
vanilla
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
waxy
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
woody
amber carbinol
FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
gurjun balsam oil
FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
santall
FR
tobacarol (IFF)
FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody propanol
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FL/FR
ortho-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
ethyl 4-methyl salicylate
FL/FR
methyl (E)-cinnamate
FL/FR
skatole
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
animal
civet (natural)
FL/FR
civet absolute
FL/FR
para-
cresyl caprylate
FL/FR
aromatic
para-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
para-
cresyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
iso
butyl cinnamate
FL/FR
ethyl cinnamate
FL/FR
myrrh oil
FL/FR
berry
raspberry ketone
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
creamy
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
gamma-
undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))
FL/FR
fatty
coconut absolute
FL/FR
10-
undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)
FL/FR
floral
bois de rose oil brazil
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
jasmin absolute (from chassis)
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
bitter
orangeflower absolute morocco
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
rhodinol
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
benzyl alcohol
FL/FR
(E)-beta-
damascone
FL/FR
dimethyl anthranilate
FL/FR
rose butanoate
FL/FR
greasy
10-
undecen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl salicylate
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
cyclamen aldehyde
FL/FR
cyclohexyl ethyl alcohol
FL/FR
para-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
nerolidol
FL/FR
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propionaldehyde
FL/FR
herbal
carum carvi fruit oil
FL/FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
honey
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
medicinal
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
musk
(Z)-
civet decenone
FL/FR
naphthyl
beta-
naphthyl methyl ether
FL/FR
orris
costus root oil
FL
phenolic
para-
cresyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
powdery
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
spicy
benzyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
methyl isoeugenol
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
tropical
alpha-
amyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
waxy
decanol
FL/FR
9-
decen-1-ol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
woody
ambroxan
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRacacia
FRcarnation
FLchocolate cocoa
 cinq fleurs forvil
FRcitrus
FRcivet
FRcoffee
FRcrabapple blossom
FLegg
FRfloral
FRgardenia
FRgrape concord grape
FRhoney
FRhoneysuckle
FRjasmin
FRjonquil
FRlilac
FRlily of the valley
FRlotus
 lumiere
 lux beauty shower soap
FRmimosa
FRnarcissus
FRneroli
FLolive
FL/FRorange bitter orange peel
FRorange blossom
FRorchid
FRoriental
FRrose
FRtobacco
FRtuberose
FRvanilla
FRviolet
 vol de nuit
FRwallflower
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 bergamot oil @ 0.000-0.009%
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 bergamot oil @ trace%
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 bonito dried bonito
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 butter
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 champaca absolute @ 2.90%
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 champaca concrete @ 4.00%
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 coffee roasted coffee
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 corn shoot
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 couroupita guianensis aubl. flower oil brazil @ 0.20%
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 egg
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 elder black elder leaf oil
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 fig fruit
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 fish
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 hyacinthus orientalis absolute @ 0.05-0.08%
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 jasmin
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 jasmin absolute concrete egypt @ 3.84%
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 jasmin absolute concrete india @ 1.07-1.85%
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 jasmin absolute concrete italy @ 1.39%
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 jasmin oil italy @ 4.21%
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 jonquil
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 kohlrabi stem
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 lecythis usitata miers. var. paraensis (ducke) r. kunth. flower oil brazil @ 0.40%
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 lemon
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 lime
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 malt
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 mandarin
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 michelia alba flower absolute @ 0.02%
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 michelia champaca flower absolute @ 7.20%
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 mikan peel oil @ trace%
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 mustard white mustard
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 narcissus absolute @ 1.51%
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 narcissus absolute @ 6.30%
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 neroli
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 neroli oil CO2 extract @ 0.45%
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 olive oil
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 orangeflower absolute morocco @ 2.6-9.9%
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 orangeflower water absolute @ 0.0-3.2%
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 petitgrain combava oil @ trace%
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 rice black rice cooked
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 robinia pseudacacia
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 rum
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 tea leaf
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 thyme oil wild or creeping france @ 0.09%
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 tobacco burley tobacco
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 wallflower
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 wine
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 ylang ylang oil CO2 extract @ 0.13%
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Synonyms:
 azaindole
 benzazole
1-benzazole
1-benzo(b)pyrrole
 benzo[b]pyrrole
1-benzol(b)pyrrol
 benzopyrrole
2,3-benzopyrrole
1-azaindene
 indol cryst.
1H-indole
 indole 0.6% in ETOH natural
 indole 1% in ETOH natural
 indole 1% in PG natural
 indole crystals
 indole FCC
 indole natural
 ketole
 

Articles:

PubMed:Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.
PubMed:In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of non-nutritive sorbent materials as binding agents for boar taint compounds.
PubMed:Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed:Characteristic volatile components of Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka).
PubMed:Identification of odorous compounds in reclaimed water using FPA combined with sensory GC-MS.
PubMed:Ewe's diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb.
PubMed:Volatile compounds with characteristic odour in moso-bamboo stems (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz. De ehaie).
PubMed:Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed:Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in cooked black rice.
PubMed:Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh healthy and diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using solvent free solid injection coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and confirmation with mass spectrometry.
PubMed:[Identification of volatile organic compounds in the manures of cow, hog and chicken by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Production and engineering of terpenoids in plant cell culture.
PubMed:New insight into the biosynthesis and regulation of indole compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Identification, cloning, and characterization of a Lactococcus lactis branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase involved in flavor formation.
PubMed:Sensory evaluation of the synergism among odorants present in concentrations below their odor threshold in a Chinese jasmine green tea infusion.
PubMed:Analysis of alpha- and beta-carbolines in mainstream smoke of reference cigarettes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed:Acetyltransfer in natural product biosynthesis--functional cloning and molecular analysis of vinorine synthase.
PubMed:Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein.
PubMed:"Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed:Determination of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan, and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.
PubMed:Cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime, a precursor of indole glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid.
PubMed:Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.
PubMed:Off-flavor compounds in wine and other food products formed by enzymatical, physical, and chemical degradation of tryptophan and its metabolites.
PubMed:Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).
PubMed:Applications of High-Temperature Aqueous Media for Synthetic Organic Reactions.
PubMed:Interspecific hybrid between Allium cepa and Allium sativum.
PubMed:[Fundamental and clinical studies on cefadroxil dry syrup in children (author's transl)].
 
Notes:
Constit. of several flower oils, esp. of Jasminum and Citrus spp. (Oleaceae) prod. of bacterial dec. of proteins. Flavouring ingredient. Also present in crispbread, Swiss cheese, Camembert cheese, wine, cocoa, black and green tea, rum, roasted filbert, rice bran, clary sage, raw shrimp and other foodstuffs Indole is a major constituent of coal-tar, and the 220-260 °C distillation fraction is the main industrial source of the material. Indole and its derivatives can also be synthesized by a variety of methods. The main industrial routes start from aniline.; Indole is a solid at room temperature. Indole can be produced by bacteria as a degradation product of the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs naturally in human feces and has an intense fecal odor. At very low concentrations, however, it has a flowery smell, and is a constituent of many flower scents (such as orange blossoms) and perfumes. It also occurs in coal tar.; Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring. Indole is a popular component of fragrances and the precursor to many pharmaceuticals. Compounds that contain an indole ring are called indoles. The most famous derivative is the amino acid tryptophan.; Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring. It can be produced by bacteria as a degradation product of the amino acid tryptophan. It occurs naturally in human feces and has an intense fecal smell. At very low concentrations, however, it has a flowery smell, and is a constituent of many flower scents (such as orange blossoms) and perfumes. Natural jasmine oil, used in the perfume industry, contains around 2.5% of indole. Indole also occurs in coal tar. The participation of the nitrogen lone electron pair in the aromatic ring means that indole is not a base, and it does not behave like a simple amine.; The Leimgruber-Batcho indole synthesis is an efficient method of sythesizing indole and substituted indoles. Originally disclosed in a patent in 1976, this method is high-yielding and can generate substituted indoles. This method is especially popular in the pharmaceutical industry, where many pharmaceutical drugs are made up of specifically substituted indoles.; The name indole is a portmanteau of the words indigo and oleum, since indole was first isolated by treatment of the indigo dye with oleum.
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