EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

skatole
3-methylindole

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Name:3-methyl-1H-indole
CAS Number: 83-34-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-471-7
FDA UNII:9W945B5H7R
Nikkaji Web:J3.211E
Beilstein Number:0111296
MDL:MFCD00005627
CoE Number:493
XlogP3:2.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:131.17773000
Formula:C9 H9 N
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1304 skatole
FLAVIS Number:14.004 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:14.004 3-methylindole
FEMA Number:3019 skatole
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: SKATOLE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to tan powder (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 95.00 to 97.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 265.00 to 266.00 °C. @ 755.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.015000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 269.00 °F. TCC ( 131.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): 2.600
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 498 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Stability:
 hair spray
 powder
 soap
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: animal
Odor Strength:very high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
Substantivity:400 hour(s) at 1.00 % in dipropylene glycol
animal fecal naphthyl civet
Odor Description:at 0.10 % in dipropylene glycol. very strong animal fecal indole civet
Luebke, William tgsc, (1983)
Odor sample from: Berje Inc.
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Pell Wall Perfumes
Skatole 1%
Odor Description:Animalic, warm, sweet, over-ripe fruit
Arctander describes some of the uses of this material: “Skatole is used in perfume compositions and in artificial Civet bases. Minute traces of this material may introduce just that natural note of ‘overmature flower’ or ‘forest-floor’ or other natural decomposition matter, which can be not only tolerable to a fragrance, but sometimes make it much more attractive.” He goes on to say that, at the time of his writing in the late 1960s, “Many perfumers have never used Skatole, and others have had poor results with it. It takes considerable patience to study the full and final effect of a certain amount of Skatole in a fragrance. The material seems to ‘grow’ after some time of ageing, and it produces more obnoxious odors with certain materials than with others. Skatole gives interesting effects with Sandalwood materials.”
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Augustus Oils
Skatole
Services
Berjé
Skatole
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Skatole 95%
CG Herbals
Skatole
Odor: Powerful civet
Ernesto Ventós
SKATOLE
Odor: CIVET, POTENT, ANIMALIC, TENACIOUS
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Skatole
Fleurchem
skatole
Indukern F&F
SCATOL
Lluch Essence
SKATOLE
M&U International
SKATOLE
Pell Wall Perfumes
Skatole 1%
Odor: Animalic, warm, sweet, over-ripe fruit
Use: Arctander describes some of the uses of this material: “Skatole is used in perfume compositions and in artificial Civet bases. Minute traces of this material may introduce just that natural note of ‘overmature flower’ or ‘forest-floor’ or other natural decomposition matter, which can be not only tolerable to a fragrance, but sometimes make it much more attractive.” He goes on to say that, at the time of his writing in the late 1960s, “Many perfumers have never used Skatole, and others have had poor results with it. It takes considerable patience to study the full and final effect of a certain amount of Skatole in a fragrance. The material seems to ‘grow’ after some time of ageing, and it produces more obnoxious odors with certain materials than with others. Skatole gives interesting effects with Sandalwood materials.”
Penta International
SKATOLE 1% IN ETOH, Kosher
Penta International
SKATOLE, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
Skatole 1% in DPG
Perfumery Laboratory
SKATOL 1% in the DPG (Skatole 1%)
Odor: A realistic, very strong indole aroma with a floral note of jasmine and a shade of civetin
Prodasynth
SKATOLE > 99
Odor: CIVET, POTENT, ANIMALIC, TENACIOUS
Sigma-Aldrich
Skatole, ≥98%
Certified Food Grade Products
Synerzine
Skatole
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
3-Methylindole >98.0%(GC)
Treatt
Skatole
Zanos
Skatole
Odor: Powerful civet
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Human Experience:
1 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3450 mg/kg
(McGee Laboratories Inc., 1974)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 175 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES LIVER: OTHER CHANGES BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

intravenous-cattle LDLo 60 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

oral-cattle LDLo 200 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

parenteral-frog LDLo 435 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 19, Pg. 307, 1922.

oral-mouse LDLo 470 mg/kg
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 111, 1985.

oral-rat LD50 3450 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-frog LDLo 1000 mg/kg
"Merck Index; an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals", 11th ed., Rahway, NJ 07065, Merck & Co., Inc. 1989Vol. 11, Pg. 1354, 1989.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for skatole usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2.40 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.07 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.80000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.75000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -0.10000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -1.00000
fruit ices: -1.00000
gelatins / puddings: -0.01000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.78000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 24 (FGE.24): Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 1 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 77 (FGE77) [1] - Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 77, Revision 2 (FGE.77Rev2): Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2 (2013)
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of pyridine and pyrrole derivatives belonging to chemical group 28 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on flavouring group evaluation 77, revision 3 (FGE.77Rev3): consideration of pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):83-34-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6736
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 3335
WGK Germany:2
3-methyl-1H-indole
Chemidplus:0000083341
RTECS:NM0350000 for cas# 83-34-1
 
References:
 3-methyl-1H-indole
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:83-34-1
Pubchem (cid):6736
Pubchem (sid):134971417
Flavornet:83-34-1
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C08313
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00466
FooDB:FDB010993
Export Tariff Code:2933.99.8290
Haz-Map:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
amber
ambroxan
FL/FR
angelica root oil
FL/FR
cistus ladaniferus resinoid
FR
labdanum gum extract ethyl ester
FR
animal
animal carbolactone
FR
animal fragrance
FR
iso
butyl quinoline
FR
civet (natural)
FL/FR
civet absolute replacer
FR
civet resinoid
FR
para-
cresyl caprylate
FL/FR
para-
cresyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
indole
FL/FR
indoletal
FR
anisic
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzophenone
FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
clover nitrile
FR
fir balsam absolute
FR
myrrh oil
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
fatty
decanol
FL/FR
floral
iso
butyl salicylate
FL/FR
citronellol
FL/FR
para-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
heliotropyl diethyl acetal
FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hyacinth ether
FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
orris pyridine 25% IPM
FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl propionate
FL/FR
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
green
para-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl tiglate
FL/FR
narcissus flower absolute
FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
hay
hay absolute
FR
honey
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
mossy
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
veramoss (IFF)
FR
naphthyl
para-
methyl anisole
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
phenolic
ortho-
guaiacol
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
smoky
cade oil
FR
spicy
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
4-
ethyl guaiacol
FL/FR
terpenic
frankincense oil
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
tonka
coumarin
FR
tonka bean absolute
FR
waxy
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
woody
amber carbinol
FR
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
gurjun balsam oil
FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
patchouli ethanone
FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
santall
FR
tobacarol (IFF)
FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
woody propanol
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
cistus twig/leaf oil
FL/FR
animal
animal
civet (natural)
FL/FR
para-
cresyl caprylate
FL/FR
indole
FL/FR
aromatic
para-
cresyl acetate
FL/FR
balsamic
siam
benzoin resinoid
FL/FR
benzyl benzoate
FL/FR
benzyl salicylate
FL/FR
laevo-
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
myrrh oil
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
citrus
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
cooling
iso
butyl salicylate
FL/FR
creamy
para-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
para-
methyl acetophenone
FL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl benzoate
FL/FR
floral
citronellol
FL/FR
geranium oil bourbon
FL/FR
methyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl alcohol
FL/FR
phenethyl propionate
FL/FR
phenyl acetic acid
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
para-
anisyl alcohol
FL/FR
green
angelica root oil
FL/FR
cinnamyl alcohol
FL/FR
para-
dimethyl hydroquinone
FL/FR
diphenyl oxide
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl salicylate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl tiglate
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
oakmoss absolute
FL/FR
phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
honey
ethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
phenethyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
medicinal
dimethyl benzyl carbinol
FL/FR
phenethyl salicylate
FL/FR
naphthyl
para-
methyl anisole
FL/FR
phenolic
para-
cresyl phenyl acetate
FL/FR
powdery
beta-
naphthyl ethyl ether
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
spicy
cassia bark oil china
FL/FR
3-
phenyl propyl alcohol
FL/FR
waxy
decanol
FL/FR
ethyl laurate
FL/FR
alpha-
hexyl cinnamaldehyde
FL/FR
hydroxycitronellal
FL/FR
woody
ambroxan
FL/FR
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
iso
bornyl acetate
FL/FR
4-
ethyl guaiacol
FL/FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
ortho-
guaiacol
FL/FR
guaiacwood oil
FL/FR
methyl cedryl ketone
FL/FR
patchouli oil
FL/FR
vetiver oil haiti
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRamber
FRanimal
FL/FRbeech
 burnt
FRcastoreum
 chanel #5
FRchypre
 cigar box
FL/FRcistus
FRcivet
FRdaffodil
 fecal
FRfern
 fixer
FRfloral
FRflower shop
FRjonquil
FRleather
FRleather russian leather
FRmusk
FRnarcissus
 ocean sea
FRtobacco
FL/FRvalerian
FRwallflower
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 beet
Search Trop Picture
 beet root
Search Trop Picture
 bonito dried bonito
Search PMC Picture
 butter
Search PMC Picture
 cheese @ 34.00 ± 6 µg%
Data GC Search PMC Picture
 cheese mozzarella cheese
Search PMC Picture
 cheese swiss cheese
Search PMC Picture
 civet
Search PMC Picture
 coffee
Search PMC Picture
 feces
 milk
Search PMC Picture
 nectandra wood
Search Trop Picture
 pork
Search PMC Picture
 rice bran
Search Trop Picture
 squid
Search Picture
 tea green tea
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
3-methyl indole
beta-methyl indole
3-methyl-1H-indole
3-methyl-4,5-benzopyrrole
3-methylindole
beta-methylindole
 scatol (Indukern)
 skatole 1% in ETOH
 

Articles:

Info:Skatole
PubMed:Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds - An exploratory study.
PubMed:Effects of nuclear receptor transactivation on boar taint metabolism and gene expression in porcine hepatocytes.
PubMed:In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of non-nutritive sorbent materials as binding agents for boar taint compounds.
PubMed:Large scale genome-wide association and LDLA mapping study identifies QTLs for boar taint and related sex steroids.
PubMed:Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed:Identification of odorous compounds in reclaimed water using FPA combined with sensory GC-MS.
PubMed:Examination of testicular gene expression patterns in Yorkshire pigs with high and low levels of boar taint.
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed:[Identification of volatile organic compounds in the manures of cow, hog and chicken by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Flavor improvement in pork from barrows and gilts via inhibition of intestinal skatole formation with resistant potato starch.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed:"Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms.
PubMed:Palatability of prerigor cooked boar meat.
PubMed:Measurement of boar taint in porcine fat using a high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol.
PubMed:Fast and solvent-free quantitation of boar taint odorants in pig fat by stable isotope dilution analysis-dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Skatole metabolism in the pigs with reduced testicular oestrogen synthesis.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of skatole (3-methylindole) on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894 biofilm formation mediated by elevated endogenous oxidative stress.
PubMed:Regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).
PubMed:Consumer acceptance of fermented sausages made from boars is not distracted by respective information.
PubMed:Evaluation of different heating methods for the detection of boar taint by means of the human nose.
PubMed:Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.
PubMed:Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a tool to predict pork quality.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of the boar taint compounds androstenone, skatole, indole, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol in wild boars (Sus scrofa) reveals extremely low levels of the tryptophan-related degradation products.
PubMed:Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.
PubMed:A single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2E1 gene promoter affects skatole content in backfat of boars of two commercial Duroc-sired crossbred populations.
PubMed:Consumer studies on sensory acceptability of boar taint: a review.
PubMed:Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles on odor and gas production in cattle manure.
PubMed:Predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint: early physical indicators in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Effects of statins on the recovery of olfactory function in a 3-methylindole-induced anosmia mouse model.
PubMed:The effect of cereal type and enzyme supplementation on carcass characteristics, volatile fatty acids and intestinal microflora and boar taint in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Determination of the boar taint compound skatole in meat juice by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-direct immersion-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Feeding dried chicory root to pigs decrease androstenone accumulation in fat by increasing hepatic 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression.
PubMed:[Contemporary views on etiology and pathogenesis of halitosis].
PubMed:Early immunocastration of male pigs with Improvac(®) - effect on boar taint, hormones and reproductive organs.
PubMed:Acceptability of entire male pork with various levels of androstenone and skatole by consumers according to their sensitivity to androstenone.
PubMed:Review of analytical methods to measure boar taint compounds in porcine adipose tissue: the need for harmonised methods.
PubMed:Development of a candidate reference method for the simultaneous quantitation of the boar taint compounds androstenone, 3α-androstenol, 3β-androstenol, skatole, and indole in pig fat by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed:Effect of a hay-based diet or different upland grazing systems on milk volatile compounds.
PubMed:The sensitivity of Flemish citizens to androstenone: influence of gender, age, location and smoking habits.
PubMed:Comparison of heating methods and the use of different tissues for sensory assessment of abnormal odours (boar taint) in pig meat.
PubMed:Prevalence and relationships of sensory taint, 5α-androstenone and skatole in fat and lean tissue from the loin (Longissimus dorsi) of barrows, gilts, sows, and boars from selected abattoirs in the United States.
PubMed:Relationship between olfactory function and olfactory neuronal population in C57BL6 mice injected intraperitoneally with 3-methylindole.
PubMed:Gender-related differences in cytochrome P450 in porcine liver--implication for activity, expression and inhibition by testicular steroids.
PubMed:Influence of soiling on boar taint in boars.
PubMed:In vivo effect of dried chicory root (Cichorium intybus L.) on xenobiotica metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver.
PubMed:Characterization of porcine pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X receptor and their splice variants.
PubMed:In vitro cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A activities in the presence of testicular steroids.
PubMed:Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed:Marinating as a technology to shift sensory thresholds in ready-to-eat entire male pork meat.
PubMed:Effect of feeding fermentable fibre-rich feedstuffs on meat quality with emphasis on chemical and sensory boar taint in entire male and female pigs.
PubMed:A sensory description of boar taint and the effects of crude and dried chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) and inulin feeding in male and female pork.
PubMed:Effects of hCG stimulation on hepatic activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A in pubertal male pigs.
PubMed:Effect of polymorphism in the porcine cytochrome b5 ( CYB5A) gene on androstenone and skatole concentrations and sexual development in Swedish pig populations.
PubMed:Halitosis among racially diverse populations: an update.
PubMed:Effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (Improvac) on steroid hormones, boar taint compounds and performance in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Regulation of CYP2A6 protein expression by skatole, indole, and testicular steroids in primary cultured pig hepatocytes.
PubMed:Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behaviour of male pigs.
PubMed:Effect of testicular steroids on catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver microsomes.
PubMed:Flavor improvement in pork from barrows and gilts via inhibition of intestinal skatole formation with resistant potato starch.
PubMed:Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers.
PubMed:Production of indolic compounds by rumen bacteria isolated from grazing ruminants.
PubMed:Effect of hCG administration on the relationship between testicular steroids and indolic compounds in fat and plasma in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Effects of sex, weight, diet and hCG administration on levels of skatole and indole in the liver and hepatic activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A6 in pigs.
PubMed:Boar taint is related to endocrine and anatomical changes at puberty but not to aggressive behaviour in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Influence of volatile compounds on the development of off-flavours in pig back fat samples classified with boar taint by a test panel.
PubMed:Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed:Free oestrone in adipose tissue and its relation to androstenone and skatole in entire male pigs.
PubMed:Effects of resistant potato starch on odor emission from feces in Swine production units.
PubMed:The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed:The effects of castration on the eating quality of dry-cured ham.
PubMed:"Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed:Factors affecting the level of boar taint in entire male pigs as assessed by consumer sensory panel.
PubMed:Reaction to boar odour by different South African consumer groups.
PubMed:Role of 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one in boar taint: identification of new compounds related to sensorial descriptors in pig fat.
PubMed:Temporal aspects related to the perception of skatole and androstenone, the major boar odour compounds.
PubMed:Characterization of acute interstitial pneumonia in cattle in southern Alberta feedyards.
PubMed:Role of aldehyde oxidase in the hepatic in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole in pigs.
PubMed:Boar taint in pigs selected for components of efficient lean growth rate.
PubMed:Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs.
PubMed:Effect of melengestrol acetate on development of 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary edema and emphysema in sheep.
PubMed:The measurement of the responses to different odour intensities of `boar taint' using a sensory panel and an electronic nose.
PubMed:Relationship between oxidation and conjugation metabolism of skatole in pig liver and concentrations of skatole in fat.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms.
PubMed:The problem of taint in pork-III. Odour profile of pork fat and the interrelationships between androstenone, skatole and indole concentrations.
PubMed:The problem of taint in pork-II. The influence of skatole, androstenone and indole, Presented individually and in combination in a model lipid base, on odour perception.
PubMed:The problem of taint in pork: 1. Detection thresholds and odour profiles of androstenone and skatole in a model system.
PubMed:Breed differences in boar taint: relationship between tissue levels boar taint compounds and sensory analysis of taint.
PubMed:Palatability of prerigor cooked boar meat.
PubMed:Zinc suppression of free radicals induced in cultures of rat hepatocytes by iron, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and 3-methylindole.
PubMed:Reduction of 3-methylindole production and prevention of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema with lasalocid.
PubMed:Duration of inhibition of 3-methylindole production by monensin.
PubMed:Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis.
PubMed:Attractants for synanthropic flies. Identification of attractants and coattractants for Hippelates eye gnats (Diptera: Chloropidae).
 
Notes:
A major contributor to boar taint in meat products from uncastrated male pigs. Flavouring ingredient It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, who apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.; Skatole can be found as a white crystalline or fine powder solid, and it browns upon aging. It is nitrogenous and one of the rings is a pyrrole. It is soluble in alcohol and benzene and it gives a violet color in potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system which displays aromaticity. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring are sp² hybridized), planar, and follows the 4n+2 rule because it has 10 ? electrons. It can be synthesized through a Fischer indole synthesis which was developed by Emil Fischer.; Skatole can be found as a white crystalline or fine powder solid, and it browns upon aging. It is nitrogenous and one of the rings is a pyrrole. This is probably the reason it's so foul smelling. It is soluble in alcohol and benzene and it gives violet color in potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6.3H2O) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system which displays aromaticity that comes from the lone pair electrons on the nitrogen. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring are sp2 hybridized), planar, and follows the 4n+2 rule because it has 10 pi electrons. It can be synthesized through a Fischer indole synthesis which was developed by Emil Fischer.In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, skatole was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. It is a flavoring ingredient. Skatole or 3-methylindole is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound with chemical formula C9H9N and CAS number 83-34-1. The compound belongs to the indole family and has a methyl substituent in position 3 of the indole ring. It occurs naturally in feces (it is produced from tryptophan in the mammalian digestive tract), beets, and coal tar, and has a strong fecal odor. In low concentrations it has a flowery smell and is found in several flowers and essential oils, including those of orange blossoms, jasmine, and Ziziphus mauritiana. It is used as a fragrance and fixative in many perfumes and as an aroma compound. Its name is derived from skato, the Greek word for dung.; Skatole or 3-methylindole is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound belonging to the indole family. It occurs naturally in feces (it is produced from tryptophan in the mammalian digestive tract), and coal tar, and has a strong fecal odor. In low concentrations it has a flowery smell and is found in several flowers and essential oils, including those of orange blossoms, jasmine, and Ziziphus mauritiana. It is used as a fragrance and fixative in many perfumes and as an aroma compound. Its name is derived from the Greek root skato- meaning "dung".
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2018 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy