skatole
3-methylindole
 
Notes:
A major contributor to boar taint in meat products from uncastrated male pigs. Flavouring ingredient It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, who apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.; Skatole can be found as a white crystalline or fine powder solid, and it browns upon aging. It is nitrogenous and one of the rings is a pyrrole. It is soluble in alcohol and benzene and it gives a violet color in potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system which displays aromaticity. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring are sp² hybridized), planar, and follows the 4n+2 rule because it has 10 ? electrons. It can be synthesized through a Fischer indole synthesis which was developed by Emil Fischer.; Skatole can be found as a white crystalline or fine powder solid, and it browns upon aging. It is nitrogenous and one of the rings is a pyrrole. This is probably the reason it's so foul smelling. It is soluble in alcohol and benzene and it gives violet color in potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6.3H2O) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system which displays aromaticity that comes from the lone pair electrons on the nitrogen. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring are sp2 hybridized), planar, and follows the 4n+2 rule because it has 10 pi electrons. It can be synthesized through a Fischer indole synthesis which was developed by Emil Fischer.In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, skatole was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. It is a flavoring ingredient. Skatole or 3-methylindole is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound with chemical formula C9H9N and CAS number 83-34-1. The compound belongs to the indole family and has a methyl substituent in position 3 of the indole ring. It occurs naturally in feces (it is produced from tryptophan in the mammalian digestive tract), beets, and coal tar, and has a strong fecal odor. In low concentrations it has a flowery smell and is found in several flowers and essential oils, including those of orange blossoms, jasmine, and Ziziphus mauritiana. It is used as a fragrance and fixative in many perfumes and as an aroma compound. Its name is derived from skato, the Greek word for dung.; Skatole or 3-methylindole is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound belonging to the indole family. It occurs naturally in feces (it is produced from tryptophan in the mammalian digestive tract), and coal tar, and has a strong fecal odor. In low concentrations it has a flowery smell and is found in several flowers and essential oils, including those of orange blossoms, jasmine, and Ziziphus mauritiana. It is used as a fragrance and fixative in many perfumes and as an aroma compound. Its name is derived from the Greek root skato- meaning "dung".
  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements. Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients. The strength of the company is built on both its comprehensive knowledge base, and extensive stocks of raw materials for both fragrance and flavour use. To complement its range of conventional and Organic Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals, Augustus also offers a steadily increasing range of its own, UK manufactured Natural Extracts, Absolutes, Resinoids and Natural Chemicals. These again are fully tested and certificated, and very tightly quality controlled. Augustus is committed to promoting the use of natural ingredients, wherever the potential lies and to provide an environment of support and trust to both our customers and suppliers.
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      Product(s):
      Skatole
       
  • Berjé
    • Berje Inc.
      The solution is clear
      Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals.
      Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades. The company's origins and strength lie in a profound understanding of the supply and the quality of the diverse raw materials consumed by the flavor and fragrance industries. This base was expanded upon more than two decades ago to include fragrance production. The company's unparalleled raw material expertise is focused on the supply of essential oils and aromatic chemicals. This is supported by our long-standing relationships with a worldwide fabric of producers ensuring the greatest prospects for uninterrupted supply in markets that are often volatile and unpredictable.
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      Flavor Ingredients
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      Product(s):
      Skatole
       
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
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      Resources
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      Product(s):
      W1748 skatole
       
  • Fleurchem
    • Fleurchem, Inc.
      Have A Flavorful Day
      A leading global manufacturer and supplier of ingredients for Flavors, Fragrances, AromaTherapy, Foods, Beverages, Personal Care Products, and other uses.
      Operating out of the 200,000 sq. ft., former Hercules/PFW facility in Middletown, NY; Fleurchem produces a full range of natural isolates, synthetic chemicals & specialities, essential oils and flavors. Additionally, the company performs toll manufacturing, as well as custom chemical synthesis for a wide range of clients.
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      US Fax: 845-341-2121
      Product(s):
      skatole
       
  • Indukern F&F
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
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      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
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      Product(s):
      SKATOLE
       
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
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      A0485 SKATOLE
       
  • Pell Wall Perfumes
    • Pell Wall Perfumes
      Hand-made fragrances
      Pell Wall maintains a broad palette of ingredients & in order to keep stocks fresh & the options wide we also sell from our own stock.
      Pell Wall was founded by perfumer Chris Bartlett to provide exclusive hand-made fragrances to a select few people who love them. All our products are created using fine quality ingredients, many of which we also offer for sale to other perfumers and enthusiasts. Pell Wall make fragrances for men, for women and for the home. If you’re looking for something even more exclusive our bespoke fragrance design service could be what you’re looking for: we design custom fragrances for individuals, other perfume brands, hotels, corporations and organisations.
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      Skatole 1%
      Arctander describes some of the uses of this material: “Skatole is used in perfume compositions and in artificial Civet bases. Minute traces of this material may introduce just that natural note of ‘overmature flower’ or ‘forest-floor’ or other natural decomposition matter, which can be not only tolerable to a fragrance, but sometimes make it much more attractive.” He goes on to say that, at the time of his writing in the late 1960s, “Many perfumers have never used Skatole, and others have had poor results with it. It takes considerable patience to study the full and final effect of a certain amount of Skatole in a fragrance. The material seems to ‘grow’ after some time of ageing, and it produces more obnoxious odors with certain materials than with others. Skatole gives interesting effects with Sandalwood materials.”
       
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      19-19000 SKATOLE, Kosher
      19-19002 SKATOLE 1% IN ETOH, Kosher
       
  • PerfumersWorld
    • PerfumersWorld Ltd.
      feeeel... the smell!
      The one-stop resource for the creative perfumer.
      No minimum orders. Aroma chemicals, essential oils, isolates, pheremones, absolutes, resinoids, FleuressenceTM key bases, PWx FactorTM, solubilizers, kits, creation systems, workshops, training, distance learning, The PerfumersWorld Perfumer's Studio, The Perfumer’s Formulation Bulletin, perfumery software, bespoke creation, analysis, consultancy, project counselling, trouble-shooting, unperfumed product bases, bottles, smelling strips, scales, distillation, equipment and inspiration!
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      Product(s):
      5UN08964 Skatole 1% in DPG
       
  • Prodasynth
    • Prodasynth
      Made in Grasse
      Chemical specialist in manufacturing, distributing and sourcing of tailor-made ingredients for the Flavour & Fragrance industry.
      Today we are also proud to say, we have created an important range of Natural Molecules which can be found in our Raw Material Compendium. The versatility of our small but efficient structure is one of our main strengths when trying to fulfill our clients' requirements.
      Email: Info:
      Email: Karine Cohen
      Voice: (33) 4 93 09 00 11
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      Product(s):
      SKATOLE > 99
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W301912 Skatole, ≥98%
      SDS
       
  • Treatt
    • Treatt PLC
      Innovative ingredient solutions
      World-leading innovative ingredient solutions provider for the flavour, fragrance and FMCG industries.
      We offer innovative and trend-setting product concepts for our customers, collaborating with them to create true value for their products.
      Email: Enquiries
      US Email: Enquiries
      Voice: +44 (0) 1284 702500
      Fax: +44 (0) 1284 703809
      US Voice: +1 863 668 9500
      US Fax: +1 863 668 3388
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      Skatole
       
  • Ernesto Ventós
  • Zanos
    • Zanos
      Extensive Network
      Consulting, sourcing and distribution of aroma chemicals, perfume ingredients, fragrance ingredients and speciality chemicals.
      Following a corporate career spanning almost 20 years with Bush Boake Allen, Henkel, Bunzl and Amersham International, Zanos was formed by Julian Sarkar in 2000 to bring together best knowledge, contact networks and experience of the flavour and fragrance and speciality chemicals markets.
      Email: Info
      Email: Deborah Lever
      Voice: +44 (0) 1565 755899
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      Product(s):
      Skatole
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas
3-methyl-1H-indole (Click)
CAS Number: 83-34-1Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 201-471-7
FDA UNII: 9W945B5H7R
Nikkaji Web: J3.211E
Beilstein Number: 0111296
MDL: MFCD00005627
CoE Number: 493
XlogP3: 2.60 (est)
Molecular Weight: 131.17773000
Formula: C9 H9 N
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1304  skatole
Flavis Number: 14.004 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 14.004  3-methylindole
FEMA Number: 3019  skatole
FDA Mainterm: SKATOLE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to tan powder (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 95.00 to  97.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 265.00 to  266.00 °C. @ 755.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.015000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 269.00 °F. TCC ( 131.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): 2.600
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 498 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
Stability:
 hair spray
 powder
 soap
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: animal
Odor Strength: very high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
 animal  fecal  naphthyl  civet  
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in dipropylene glycol. 
very strong animal fecal indole civet
Luebke, William tgsc, (1983)
Substantivity: 400 Hour(s)
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Augustus Oils
Skatole
Services
Berjé
Skatole
Happening at Berje
CG Herbals
Skatole
Odor: Powerful civet
CTC Organics
skatole
Ernesto Ventós
SKATOLE
Odor: CIVET, POTENT, ANIMALIC, TENACIOUS
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Skatole
Fleurchem
skatole
Indukern F&F
SCATOL
CROP CALENDAR
Lluch Essence
SKATOLE
M&U International
SKATOLE
Pell Wall Perfumes
Skatole 1%
Odor: Animalic, warm, sweet, over-ripe fruit
Use: Arctander describes some of the uses of this material: “Skatole is used in perfume compositions and in artificial Civet bases. Minute traces of this material may introduce just that natural note of ‘overmature flower’ or ‘forest-floor’ or other natural decomposition matter, which can be not only tolerable to a fragrance, but sometimes make it much more attractive.” He goes on to say that, at the time of his writing in the late 1960s, “Many perfumers have never used Skatole, and others have had poor results with it. It takes considerable patience to study the full and final effect of a certain amount of Skatole in a fragrance. The material seems to ‘grow’ after some time of ageing, and it produces more obnoxious odors with certain materials than with others. Skatole gives interesting effects with Sandalwood materials.”
Penta International
SKATOLE 1% IN ETOH, Kosher
Penta International
SKATOLE, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
Skatole 1% in DPG
Perfumery Laboratory
SKATOL 1% in the DPG (Skatole 1%)
Odor: A realistic, very strong indole aroma with a floral note of jasmine and a shade of civetin
Prodasynth
SKATOLE > 99
Odor: CIVET, POTENT, ANIMALIC, TENACIOUS
Sigma-Aldrich
Skatole, ≥98%
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
3-Methylindole >98.0%(GC)
Treatt
Skatole
Zanos
Skatole
Odor: Powerful civet
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Human Experience:
1 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  3450 mg/kg
(McGee Laboratories Inc., 1974)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  175 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES LIVER: OTHER CHANGES BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

intravenous-cattle LDLo  60 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

oral-cattle LDLo  200 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

parenteral-frog LDLo  435 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 19, Pg. 307, 1922.

oral-mouse LDLo  470 mg/kg
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 111, 1985.

oral-rat LD50  3450 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 863, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-frog LDLo 1000 mg/kg
"Merck Index; an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals", 11th ed., Rahway, NJ 07065, Merck & Co., Inc. 1989Vol. 11, Pg. 1354, 1989.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for skatole usage levels up to:
  0.1000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2.40 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.07 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.80000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.75000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -0.10000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -1.00000
fruit ices: -1.00000
gelatins / puddings: -0.01000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.78000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 24 (FGE.24): Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Pyridine, pyrrole, indole and quinoline derivatives from chemical group 28 Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 1 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 77 (FGE77) [1] - Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 77, Revision 2 (FGE.77Rev2): Consideration of Pyridine, Pyrrole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to Pyridine, Pyrrole, Indole and Quinoline Derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.24Rev2 (2013)
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of pyridine and pyrrole derivatives belonging to chemical group 28 when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 83-34-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 6736
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 3335
WGK Germany: 2
 3-methyl-1H-indole
Chemidplus: 0000083341
RTECS: NM0350000 for cas# 83-34-1
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 3-methyl-1H-indole
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 83-34-1
Pubchem (cid): 6736
Pubchem (sid): 134971417
Flavornet: 83-34-1
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C08313
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00466
FooDB: FDB010993
Export Tariff Code: 2933.99.8290
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
aldehydic
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
amber
 ambroxanFL/FR
 angelica root oilFL/FR
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
animal
 animal carbolactoneFR
isobutyl quinolineFR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 indoleFL/FR
anisic
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
balsamic
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzophenoneFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 clover nitrileFR
 fir balsam absoluteFR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
fatty
 decanolFL/FR
floral
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
para-cresyl acetateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 heliotropyl diethyl acetalFR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hyacinth etherFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
green
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl tiglateFL/FR
 narcissus flower absoluteFR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
hay
 hay absoluteFR
honey
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
mossy
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
naphthyl
para-methyl anisoleFL/FR
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
phenolic
ortho-guaiacolFL/FR
powdery
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
smoky
 cade oilFR
spicy
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
4-ethyl guaiacolFL/FR
terpenic
 frankincense oilFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 coumarinFR
 tonka bean absoluteFR
waxy
1-dodecanolFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
woody
 amber carbinolFR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 santallFR
 tobacarol (IFF)FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 woody acetateFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 woody propanolFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
laevo-bornyl acetateFL/FR
 cistus twig/leaf oilFL/FR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
aldehydic
 decanolFL/FR
animal
 indoleFL/FR
aromatic
para-cresyl acetateFL/FR
para-cresyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
balsamic
siam benzoin resinoidFL/FR
 benzyl benzoateFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
citrus
 benzophenoneFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
cooling
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
creamy
para-anisaldehydeFL/FR
para-methyl acetophenoneFL/FR
fatty
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
floral
 citronellolFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 methyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenyl acetic acidFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 heliotropinFL/FR
 phenethyl propionateFL/FR
green
 angelica root oilFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl tiglateFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
honey
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
naphthyl
para-methyl anisoleFL/FR
powdery
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
1-dodecanolFL/FR
spicy
 cassia bark oil chinaFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
waxy
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
woody
 ambroxanFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
isobornyl acetateFL/FR
4-ethyl guaiacolFL/FR
 frankincense oilFL/FR
ortho-guaiacolFL/FR
 guaiacwood oilFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 amberFR
 animalFR
 beech wood tarFL/FR
 burnt 
 castoreumFR
 chanel #5 
 chypreFR
 cigar box 
 cistusFL/FR
 civetFR
 daffodil narcissusFR
 fecal 
 fern fougereFR
 fixer 
 floralFR
 flower shopFR
 jonquil narcissus jonquillaFR
 leatherFR
 leather russianFR
 muskFR
 narcissus narcisseFR
 ocean sea 
 tobaccoFR
 valerianFL/FR
 wallflowerFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 beet
Search Trop  Picture
 beet root
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 bonito dried bonito
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 butter
Search  Picture
 cheese @ 34.00 ± 6 µg%
Data  GC  Search  Picture
 cheese mozzarella cheese
Search  Picture
 cheese swiss cheese
Search  Picture
 civet
Search  Picture
 coffee
Search  Picture
 feces
 milk
Search  Picture
 nectandra wood
Search Trop  Picture
 pork
Search  Picture
 rice bran
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 squid
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 tea green tea
Search  Picture
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Synonyms:
3-methyl indole
beta-methyl indole
3-methyl-1H-indole
3-methyl-4,5-benzopyrrole
3-methylindole
beta-methylindole
 scatol (Indukern)
 skatole 1% in ETOH
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
Info: Skatole
PubMed: Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds - An exploratory study.
PubMed: Effects of nuclear receptor transactivation on boar taint metabolism and gene expression in porcine hepatocytes.
PubMed: In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of non-nutritive sorbent materials as binding agents for boar taint compounds.
PubMed: Large scale genome-wide association and LDLA mapping study identifies QTLs for boar taint and related sex steroids.
PubMed: Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed: Identification of odorous compounds in reclaimed water using FPA combined with sensory GC-MS.
PubMed: Examination of testicular gene expression patterns in Yorkshire pigs with high and low levels of boar taint.
PubMed: Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed: [Identification of volatile organic compounds in the manures of cow, hog and chicken by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Flavor improvement in pork from barrows and gilts via inhibition of intestinal skatole formation with resistant potato starch.
PubMed: Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed: The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed: "Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed: Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms.
PubMed: Palatability of prerigor cooked boar meat.
PubMed: Measurement of boar taint in porcine fat using a high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol.
PubMed: Fast and solvent-free quantitation of boar taint odorants in pig fat by stable isotope dilution analysis-dynamic headspace-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Skatole metabolism in the pigs with reduced testicular oestrogen synthesis.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of skatole (3-methylindole) on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894 biofilm formation mediated by elevated endogenous oxidative stress.
PubMed: Regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).
PubMed: Consumer acceptance of fermented sausages made from boars is not distracted by respective information.
PubMed: Evaluation of different heating methods for the detection of boar taint by means of the human nose.
PubMed: Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.
PubMed: Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a tool to predict pork quality.
PubMed: Quantitative determination of the boar taint compounds androstenone, skatole, indole, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol in wild boars (Sus scrofa) reveals extremely low levels of the tryptophan-related degradation products.
PubMed: Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.
PubMed: A single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2E1 gene promoter affects skatole content in backfat of boars of two commercial Duroc-sired crossbred populations.
PubMed: Consumer studies on sensory acceptability of boar taint: a review.
PubMed: Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles on odor and gas production in cattle manure.
PubMed: Predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint: early physical indicators in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Effects of statins on the recovery of olfactory function in a 3-methylindole-induced anosmia mouse model.
PubMed: The effect of cereal type and enzyme supplementation on carcass characteristics, volatile fatty acids and intestinal microflora and boar taint in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Determination of the boar taint compound skatole in meat juice by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-direct immersion-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Feeding dried chicory root to pigs decrease androstenone accumulation in fat by increasing hepatic 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression.
PubMed: [Contemporary views on etiology and pathogenesis of halitosis].
PubMed: Early immunocastration of male pigs with Improvac(®) - effect on boar taint, hormones and reproductive organs.
PubMed: Acceptability of entire male pork with various levels of androstenone and skatole by consumers according to their sensitivity to androstenone.
PubMed: Review of analytical methods to measure boar taint compounds in porcine adipose tissue: the need for harmonised methods.
PubMed: Development of a candidate reference method for the simultaneous quantitation of the boar taint compounds androstenone, 3α-androstenol, 3β-androstenol, skatole, and indole in pig fat by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors.
PubMed: Effect of a hay-based diet or different upland grazing systems on milk volatile compounds.
PubMed: The sensitivity of Flemish citizens to androstenone: influence of gender, age, location and smoking habits.
PubMed: Comparison of heating methods and the use of different tissues for sensory assessment of abnormal odours (boar taint) in pig meat.
PubMed: Prevalence and relationships of sensory taint, 5α-androstenone and skatole in fat and lean tissue from the loin (Longissimus dorsi) of barrows, gilts, sows, and boars from selected abattoirs in the United States.
PubMed: Relationship between olfactory function and olfactory neuronal population in C57BL6 mice injected intraperitoneally with 3-methylindole.
PubMed: Gender-related differences in cytochrome P450 in porcine liver--implication for activity, expression and inhibition by testicular steroids.
PubMed: Influence of soiling on boar taint in boars.
PubMed: In vivo effect of dried chicory root (Cichorium intybus L.) on xenobiotica metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver.
PubMed: Characterization of porcine pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X receptor and their splice variants.
PubMed: In vitro cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A activities in the presence of testicular steroids.
PubMed: Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.
PubMed: Marinating as a technology to shift sensory thresholds in ready-to-eat entire male pork meat.
PubMed: Effect of feeding fermentable fibre-rich feedstuffs on meat quality with emphasis on chemical and sensory boar taint in entire male and female pigs.
PubMed: A sensory description of boar taint and the effects of crude and dried chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) and inulin feeding in male and female pork.
PubMed: Effects of hCG stimulation on hepatic activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A in pubertal male pigs.
PubMed: Effect of polymorphism in the porcine cytochrome b5 ( CYB5A) gene on androstenone and skatole concentrations and sexual development in Swedish pig populations.
PubMed: Halitosis among racially diverse populations: an update.
PubMed: Effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (Improvac) on steroid hormones, boar taint compounds and performance in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Regulation of CYP2A6 protein expression by skatole, indole, and testicular steroids in primary cultured pig hepatocytes.
PubMed: Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behaviour of male pigs.
PubMed: Effect of testicular steroids on catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver microsomes.
PubMed: Flavor improvement in pork from barrows and gilts via inhibition of intestinal skatole formation with resistant potato starch.
PubMed: Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers.
PubMed: Production of indolic compounds by rumen bacteria isolated from grazing ruminants.
PubMed: Effect of hCG administration on the relationship between testicular steroids and indolic compounds in fat and plasma in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Effects of sex, weight, diet and hCG administration on levels of skatole and indole in the liver and hepatic activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A6 in pigs.
PubMed: Boar taint is related to endocrine and anatomical changes at puberty but not to aggressive behaviour in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Influence of volatile compounds on the development of off-flavours in pig back fat samples classified with boar taint by a test panel.
PubMed: Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.
PubMed: Free oestrone in adipose tissue and its relation to androstenone and skatole in entire male pigs.
PubMed: Effects of resistant potato starch on odor emission from feces in Swine production units.
PubMed: The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.
PubMed: The effects of castration on the eating quality of dry-cured ham.
PubMed: "Untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.
PubMed: Factors affecting the level of boar taint in entire male pigs as assessed by consumer sensory panel.
PubMed: Reaction to boar odour by different South African consumer groups.
PubMed: Role of 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one in boar taint: identification of new compounds related to sensorial descriptors in pig fat.
PubMed: Temporal aspects related to the perception of skatole and androstenone, the major boar odour compounds.
PubMed: Characterization of acute interstitial pneumonia in cattle in southern Alberta feedyards.
PubMed: Role of aldehyde oxidase in the hepatic in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole in pigs.
PubMed: Boar taint in pigs selected for components of efficient lean growth rate.
PubMed: Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs.
PubMed: Effect of melengestrol acetate on development of 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary edema and emphysema in sheep.
PubMed: The measurement of the responses to different odour intensities of `boar taint' using a sensory panel and an electronic nose.
PubMed: Relationship between oxidation and conjugation metabolism of skatole in pig liver and concentrations of skatole in fat.
PubMed: Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms.
PubMed: The problem of taint in pork-III. Odour profile of pork fat and the interrelationships between androstenone, skatole and indole concentrations.
PubMed: The problem of taint in pork-II. The influence of skatole, androstenone and indole, Presented individually and in combination in a model lipid base, on odour perception.
PubMed: The problem of taint in pork: 1. Detection thresholds and odour profiles of androstenone and skatole in a model system.
PubMed: Breed differences in boar taint: relationship between tissue levels boar taint compounds and sensory analysis of taint.
PubMed: Palatability of prerigor cooked boar meat.
PubMed: Zinc suppression of free radicals induced in cultures of rat hepatocytes by iron, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and 3-methylindole.
PubMed: Reduction of 3-methylindole production and prevention of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema with lasalocid.
PubMed: Duration of inhibition of 3-methylindole production by monensin.
PubMed: Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis.
PubMed: Attractants for synanthropic flies. Identification of attractants and coattractants for Hippelates eye gnats (Diptera: Chloropidae).
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