alpha-ionone
3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-
 
Notes:
None found
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4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one (Click)
CAS Number: 6901-97-9Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 230-010-2
XlogP3-AA: 3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 192.30160000
Formula: C13 H20 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 90.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 257.00 to  258.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.014000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 233.00 °F. TCC ( 111.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.660 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 dipropylene glycol
 water, 24.67 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
floral
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
 None found
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA Other Specification: <= 2% Pseudoionone
IFRA: View Standard
Recommendation for alpha-ionone usage levels up to:
  3.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
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Safety References:
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 24680
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
Chemidplus: 0006901979
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References:
Leffingwell: chirality
 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 24680
Pubchem (sid): 135053213
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet): C12286
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
FooDB: FDB014484
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 atractylis absoluteFR
(E)-beta-methyl iononeFL/FR
aldehydic
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
animal
 animal carbolactoneFR
 costus valerolactoneFR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
floral
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 cassie concreteFR
 citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
 dihydro-alpha-iononeFL/FR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dimethyl alpha-iononeFR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetateFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 gardenia oxideFR
 geraniolFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hyacinth etherFR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
alpha-ionyl acetateFR
alpha-ironeFL/FR
 leerallFR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
N-methyl iononeFR
beta-isomethyl iononeFL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (50% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (60% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (70% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (80% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (90% min.)FL/FR
 muguet carboxaldehydeFR
 muguet octadienolFR
 nerolFL/FR
 nerolidolFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris butenoneFR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 orris rhizome concrete butter (iris pallida)FL/FR
 peony alcoholFR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 tetrahydroionolFR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 violet flower absoluteFL/FR
 violet methyl carbonateFR
fruity
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 artemisia pallens herb oilFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
beta-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl isobutyrateFR
 green acetateFR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 raspberry ketone acetateFL/FR
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
green
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
 violet decenolFR
 violet dienyneFR
 violet leaf absoluteFL/FR
 violet leaf concreteFR
 violet nitrileFR
hay
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
melon
 watermelon ketoneFR
mossy
 veramoss (IFF)FR
naphthyl
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
orris
 orris capronateFL/FR
powdery
para-anisyl acetateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 dimethyl iononeFR
alpha-methyl iononeFL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (44-50%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (50-60%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (74-80%)FL/FR
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
sweet
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 tonka bean absoluteFR
waxy
 ethyl myristateFL/FR
 myristyl alcoholFL/FR
woody
 diethyl dimethyl-2-cyclohexenoneFR
 gurjun balsam oilFR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
 myrtenyl isobutyrate 
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 santallFR
 tobacarol (IFF)FR
 violet propanolFR
 woody acetateFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
9-decen-1-olFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 methyl cedryl ketoneFL/FR
(E)-beta-methyl iononeFL/FR
beta-isomethyl iononeFL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (44-50%)FL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (50-60%)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (50% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (60% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (90% min.)FL/FR
 myristyl alcoholFL/FR
 myrtenyl isobutyrate 
 phenethyl anthranilateFL/FR
aldehydic
 nonanal (aldehyde C-9)FL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
aromatic
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetateFL/FR
balsamic
isobutyl cinnamateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
berry
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 raspberry ketone acetateFL/FR
 raspberry ketone methyl etherFL/FR
brown
 beeswax absoluteFL/FR
citrus
 linaloolFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
creamy
gamma-undecalactone (aldehyde C-14 (so-called))FL/FR
cucumber
2-ethyl octine carbonateFL
fatty
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
10-undecenal (aldehyde C-11 undecylenic)FL/FR
floral
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
 dihydro-alpha-iononeFL/FR
 dihydrojasmoneFL/FR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinyl butyrateFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (70% min.)FL/FR
alpha-isomethyl ionone (80% min.)FL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris rhizome concrete butter (iris pallida)FL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 violet flower absoluteFL/FR
fruity
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
para-anisyl acetateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 artemisia pallens herb oilFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl propionateFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
alpha-damasconeFL/FR
gamma-decalactoneFL/FR
 dimethyl anthranilateFL/FR
(E)-alpha-methyl ionone (74-80%)FL/FR
 raspberry ketoneFL/FR
 rose butanoateFL/FR
 strawberry glycidate 1 (aldehyde C-16 (so-called))FL/FR
 styralyl acetateFL/FR
green
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl ethyl alcoholFL/FR
beta-damasconeFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
 methyl 2-undecynoateFL
 nerolidolFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
 violet leaf absoluteFL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 orris capronateFL/FR
honey
 ethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
oily
 tetrahydrofurfuryl propionateFL
powdery
beta-naphthyl ethyl etherFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
spicy
 benzylidene acetoneFL
black currant bud absoluteFL/FR
isoeugenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl cinnamateFL/FR
 methyl isoeugenolFL/FR
3-phenyl propyl alcoholFL/FR
 pimenta acris leaf oilFL/FR
sweet
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
waxy
 ethyl myristateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hydroxycitronellalFL/FR
alpha-methyl iononeFL/FR
woody
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
alpha-ironeFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 carrot root
Search Trop  Picture
 cassie absolute @ 0.68%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 celery plant
Search Trop  Picture
 celery seed oil
Search Trop  Picture
 champaca absolute @ 1.60%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 ginkgo biloba wood
Search Trop  Picture
 osmanthus absolute @ 0.86%
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 tea leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 tea shoot
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-
4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one
4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one
4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl)but-3-en-2-one
4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene-1-yl)-but-3-ene-2-one
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.
PubMed: Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene.
PubMed: Selective oxidation reactions of natural compounds with hydrogen peroxide mediated by methyltrioxorhenium.
PubMed: Evaluation of the volatile composition and sensory properties of five species of microalgae.
PubMed: Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family.
PubMed: NIS-PPh3: a selective reagent for the spiroannulation of o-allyl phenols. Total synthesis of corallidictyal D.
PubMed: Isolation of the four methyl jasmonate stereoisomers and their effects on selected chiral volatile compounds in red raspberries.
PubMed: Highly selective and asymmetric reductive biotransformation of α-ionone by Epicoccum purpurascens.
PubMed: Essential oils from the leaves of six medicinal plants of Nigeria.
PubMed: [Influence of processing methods on the chemical composition of the essential oil from Aucklandia lappa].
PubMed: Essential oil composition of Ficus benjamina (Moraceae) and Irvingia barteri (Irvingiaceae).
PubMed: A practical, enantiospecific synthesis of (S)-trans-gamma-monocyclofarnesol.
PubMed: Profiling and characterization of volatile components from non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with chemical group separation.
PubMed: Antitrypanosomal compounds from the essential oil and extracts of Keetia leucantha leaves with inhibitor activity on Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
PubMed: Quantification by solid phase micro extraction and stable isotope dilution assay of norisoprenoid compounds in red wines obtained from Piedmont rare varieties.
PubMed: Environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry flavour volatiles and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes.
PubMed: Free energy calculations give insight into the stereoselective hydroxylation of α-ionones by engineered cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants.
PubMed: A Practical Chemo-enzymatic Approach to Highly Enantio-Enriched 10-Ethyl-7,8-dihydro-γ-ionone Isomers: A Method for the Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydro-α-Ionone.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of α- and β-ionone, prominent scent compounds, in flowers of Osmanthus fragrans.
PubMed: CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.
PubMed: Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.
PubMed: Structural Analysis of CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444.
PubMed: Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase.
PubMed: Allelopathic control of cyanobacterial blooms by periphyton biofilms.
PubMed: Composition of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) honey solvent extractives determined by GC/MS: norisoprenoids and other volatile organic compounds.
PubMed: Regioselective hydroxylation of norisoprenoids by CYP109D1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.
PubMed: Functional characterization of a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 and its relation to the carotenoid accumulation and volatile emission during the floral development of Osmanthus fragrans Lour.
PubMed: A new sulfated alpha-ionone glycoside from Sonchus erzincanicus Matthews.
PubMed: Characterization of the versatile monooxygenase CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed: Expedient construction of the Ziegler intermediate useful for the synthesis of forskolin via consecutive rearrangements.
PubMed: New attractants for males of the solanaceous fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons.
PubMed: Enantioselective synthesis and olfactory evaluation of 13-alkyl-substituted alpha-ionones.
PubMed: Comparison of sugar, acids, and volatile composition in raspberry bushy dwarf virus-resistant transgenic raspberries and the wild type 'meeker' (rubus idaeus L.).
PubMed: Volatile composition in raspberry cultivars grown in the Pacific Northwest determined by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: New alpha-pyrrolidinonoids and glycosides from Euphorbia humifusa.
PubMed: Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis part-VIII: synthesis and bioevaluation of novel chalcones.
PubMed: Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on allyl alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on dihydro-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on ionone.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on methyl-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Synthesis of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl -2-cyclohexen-1-yl) -3'-buten-2'-ketoxime-N-O-alkyl ethers.
PubMed: Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L.): the role of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway.
PubMed: Flavor authentication studies of alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, and alpha-ionol from various sources.
PubMed: Studies on the aroma of maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) using headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed: Effect of the minor ABA metabolite 7'-hydroxy-ABA on Arabidopsis ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A3.
PubMed: Broad activation of the glomerular layer enhances subsequent olfactory responses.
PubMed: Isolation and identification of antialgal compounds from the leaves of Vallisneria spiralis L. by activity-guided fractionation.
PubMed: Functional characterization of CmCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from melon.
PubMed: Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Theory and use of the pseudophase model in gas-liquid chromatographic enantiomeric separations.
PubMed: Efficient terpene hydroxylation catalysts based upon P450 enzymes derived from actinomycetes.
PubMed: [Analysis and identification of Liriomyza sativae-attractants from cowpea and kidney bean volatiles].
PubMed: Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.
PubMed: Comprehensive authentication of (E)-alpha(beta)-ionone from raspberries, using constant flow MDGC-C/P-IRMS and enantio-MDGC-MS.
PubMed: Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.
PubMed: A simple and efficient highly enantioselective synthesis of alpha-ionone and alpha-damascone.
PubMed: Active ingredients in cade oil that synergize attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).
PubMed: Enantioselective synthesis of alpha-ionone derivatives using an anti S(N)2' substitution of functionalized zinc organometallics.
PubMed: Antifungal compounds from the root and root exudate of Zea mays.
PubMed: Approaches to spirit aroma: contribution of some aromatic compounds to the primary aroma in samples of orujo spirits.
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of miscellaneous secondary metabolites of Deprea subtriflora.
PubMed: Investigation of binding behavior of alpha- and beta-ionones to beta-lactoglobulin at different pH values using a diffusion-based NOE pumping technique.
PubMed: Enantiomer separation of flavour and fragrance compounds by liquid chromatography using novel urea-covalent bonded methylated beta-cyclodextrins on silica.
PubMed: Induction of cytochrome P450 1A and 2B by alpha- and beta-ionone in Sprague Dawley rats.
PubMed: A P450 BM-3 mutant hydroxylates alkanes, cycloalkanes, arenes and heteroarenes.
PubMed: Enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) by addition of a synergist, cade oil.
PubMed: Determination of apparent binding constants for aroma compounds with beta-lactoglobulin by dynamic coupled column liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Development of an attractant for the scarab pest Macrodactylus subspinosus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).
PubMed: Frozen storage effects on anthocyanins and volatile compounds of raspberry fruit.
PubMed: Enantiomer separation of alpha-ionone using gas chromatography with cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.
PubMed: 2-fluoroabscisic acid analogues: their synthesis and biological activities.
PubMed: Stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation of alpha-ionone by Streptomyces strains.
PubMed: Effect of Carotenoids on Aflatoxin B(1) Synthesis by Aspergillus flavus.
PubMed: Biotransformation of alpha- and beta-ionones by immobilized cells of Nicotiana tabacum.
PubMed: Sensory evidence for olfactory receptors with opposite chiral selectivity.
PubMed: Microbial Conversion of alpha-Ionone, alpha-Methylionone, and alpha-Isomethylionone.
PubMed: Models of retinoid metabolism: microbial biotransformation of alpha-ionone and beta-ionone.
PubMed: Incorporation of (14)CO 2 in photosynthetic pigments of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.
PubMed: Chemistry of tobacco constituents. Oxidation of alpha-ionone and the acid-catalyzed rearrangement of 5-keto-alpha-ionone.
PubMed: Comparison of the effects of vitamin A and its analogs upon rabbit ear cartilage in organ culture and upon growth of the vitamin A-deficient rat.
PubMed: The biosynthesis of cyclic carotenes.
PubMed: Geometrical isomers of retinene.
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