diphenyl oxide
 
Notes:
Present in muscat grapes, green tea, vanilla, lemon balm, buckwheat, potato chips and grilled beef. Flavouring ingredient Diphenyl ether is a starting material in the production of phenoxathiin via the Ferrario reaction. Phenoxathiin is used in polyamide and polyimide production.; Involving similar reactions, diphenyl ether is a significant side product in the high-pressure hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the production of phenol.; Several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are useful flame retardants. Of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, the three most common PBDEs, only decaBDE is still in widespread use since its ban in the European Union in 2003. DecaBDE, also known as decabromodiphenyl oxide, is a high-volume industrial chemical with over 450,000 kilograms produced annually in the United States. Decabromodiphenyl oxide is sold under the trade name Saytex 102 as a flame retardant in the manufacture of paints and reinforced plastics.
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Fragrance Demo Formulas    Flavor Demo Formulas
phenoxybenzene (Click)
CAS Number: 101-84-8Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 202-981-2
FDA UNII:3O695R5M1U
Nikkaji Web: J3.598J
Beilstein Number: 1364620
MDL: MFCD00003034
FEMA Number: 3667
CoE Number: 2201
XlogP3: 4.20 (est)
Molecular Weight: 170.21090000
Formula: C12 H10 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1255  diphenyl ether
Flavis Number: 04.035 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 04.035  diphenyl ether
FEMA Number: 3667  diphenyl ether
FDA Mainterm: DIPHENYL ETHER
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless solid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.06500 to 1.07300 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.862 to  8.928
Refractive Index: 1.58000 to 1.58100 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 26.80 to  30.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 258.00 to  259.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.022000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 5.9 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 240.00 °F. TCC ( 115.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): 4.210
Shelf Life: 36.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 kerosene
 paraffin oil
 water, 18 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Stability:
 non-discoloring
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: green
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
geranium leaf green phenolic
Substantivity: 156 Hour(s)
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
  R 38 - Irritating to skin.
R 51/53 - Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24 - Avoid contact with skin.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
Human Experience: 4 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  oral-rat LD50  2450 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS BEHAVIORAL: FOOD INTAKE (ANIMAL) GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
National Technical Information Service. Vol. 0TS0518143

Dermal Toxicity:
  skin-rabbit LD50 > 7940 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
National Technical Information Service. Vol. 0TS0518143

Inhalation Toxicity:
  Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for diphenyl oxide usage levels up to:
  1.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 12.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 5.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 13
Click here to view publication 13
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: -7.50000
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 59 (FGE.59): Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic ethers evaluated by JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.23 (2006) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 59, Revision 1 (FGE.59Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic ethers evaluated by JECFA (61st meeting and 63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.23 Rev2 (2010)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives (chemical group 26) when used as feed additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 101-84-8
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7583
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 3077
WGK Germany:2
 phenoxybenzene
Chemidplus: 0000101848
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS: 101-84-8
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References:
 phenoxybenzene
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 101-84-8
Pubchem (cid): 7583
Pubchem (sid): 134971155
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C07733
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34446
FooDB: FDB012853
Export Tariff Code: 2909.30.6000
Haz-Map: View
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•grades: technical; perfume; industrial •technical and refined grades •usual concns in final products: soap, 0.05%; detergent, 0.005%; creams, lotions, 0.05%; perfume, 0.15% •eutectic heat-transfer mixture composed of 73.5% diphenyl oxide and 26.5% biphenyl...marketed under product names dowtherm a (dow chemical), therminol vp-1 (monsanto), thermex (imperial chem), therm s-300 (nippon steel chemical), diphyl (bayer), and gilotherm (progil)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
aldehydic
 citrus carbaldehydeFR
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
animal
isobutyl quinolineFR
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
balsamic
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 benzophenoneFL/FR
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir balsam absoluteFR
 fir needle oil siberiaFL/FR
citrus
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 citralFL/FR
(E)-4-decenalFL/FR
floral
 acetophenoneFL/FR
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl alcoholFL/FR
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl butyrateFL/FR
 citronellyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
 cyclohexyl propanolFR
 dihydrorose oxideFR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 dimethyl octanolFL/FR
 floral pyranolFR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 geranium pyranFR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
 geranyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 geranyl propionateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 hyacinth etherFR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 methyl nerate 
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 orris pyridine 25% IPMFR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dicitronellyl acetalFR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rhodinyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinyl butyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl formateFL/FR
 rhodinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia)FL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia) moroccoFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa centifolia) egyptFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa damascena) iranFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa damascena) turkeyFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
 verdyl acetateFR
 violet methyl carbonateFR
fried
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
fruity
 allyl amyl glycolateFR
 green acetateFR
 neryl propionateFL/FR
 phenoxyethyl propionateFL/FR
green
 acetaldehyde ethyl phenethyl acetalFL/FR
 biphenyl 
 cortex pyridineFL/FR
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoic acidFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
 methyl heptine carbonateFL/FR
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
 narcissus flower absoluteFR
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehydeFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
hay
 hay absoluteFR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
 geranium cyclohexaneFR
curled parsley leaf oilFL/FR
honey
 butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
marine
green algae absoluteFL/FR
mossy
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 veramoss (IFF)FR
powdery
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 dibenzyl ketoneFL/FR
spicy
alpha-amyl cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
terpenic
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
tonka
 tonka bean absoluteFR
vanilla
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
waxy
1-dodecanolFL/FR
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
woody
 patchouli ethanoneFR
 santallFR
(Z)-woody amyleneFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
green algae absoluteFL/FR
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
 methyl nerate 
1,5-octadien-3-olFL
animal
para-cresyl caprylateFL/FR
apple
(E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-olFL/FR
balsamic
 benzyl salicylateFL/FR
 ethyl cinnamateFL/FR
 fir needle oil siberiaFL/FR
bitter
 dibenzyl ketoneFL/FR
citrus
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 citralFL/FR
laevo-linaloolFL/FR
 nerolFL/FR
alpha-terpineolFL/FR
cooling
isobutyl salicylateFL/FR
fatty
 dimethyl octanolFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl benzoateFL/FR
floral
 biphenyl 
 bois de rose oil brazilFL/FR
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
 citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoic acidFL/FR
 geraniolFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 geranyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 methyl dihydrojasmonateFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
 neryl acetateFL/FR
 ocean propanalFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 rhodinolFL/FR
 rhodinyl acetateFL/FR
 rhodinyl butyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia)FL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa centifolia) moroccoFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa centifolia) egyptFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa damascena) iranFL/FR
 rose oil (rosa damascena) turkeyFL/FR
 tetrahydrolinaloolFL/FR
fruity
isoamyl benzoateFL/FR
para-anisyl alcoholFL/FR
 benzyl acetateFL/FR
 benzyl alcoholFL/FR
 citronellyl butyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl formateFL/FR
geranium
 benzophenoneFL/FR
green
 acetaldehyde ethyl phenethyl acetalFL/FR
isoamyl salicylateFL/FR
 cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
 cortex pyridineFL/FR
 cyclamen aldehydeFL/FR
para-dimethyl hydroquinoneFL/FR
 galbanum oilFL/FR
 geranyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl salicylateFL/FR
(Z)-leaf acetalFL/FR
 linalool oxideFL/FR
 melon nonenoateFL/FR
 methyl heptine carbonateFL/FR
 methyl octine carbonateFL/FR
 neryl propionateFL/FR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFL/FR
3-phenyl propionaldehydeFL/FR
herbal
 carum carvi fruit oilFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 daucus carota fruit oilFL/FR
curled parsley leaf oilFL/FR
honey
 butyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehydeFL/FR
medicinal
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 phenethyl salicylateFL/FR
powdery
 acetophenoneFL/FR
ripe
(E)-4-decenalFL/FR
soapy
 dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)FL/FR
1-dodecanolFL/FR
spicy
alpha-amyl cinnamyl alcoholFL/FR
 benzylidene acetoneFL
 cuminaldehydeFL/FR
tropical
alpha-amyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
vanilla
 vanilla bean absolute (vanilla planifolia)FL/FR
waxy
 ethyl laurateFL/FR
 geranyl propionateFL/FR
alpha-hexyl cinnamaldehydeFL/FR
 mimosa absolute franceFL/FR
 nonanolFL/FR
 phenoxyethyl propionateFL/FR
 rhodinyl phenyl acetateFL/FR
woody
 amyris wood oilFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 agrumen 
 algae 
 amaryllis 
 amberFR
 ambrosia 
 ash mountain ash 
 bark 
 bayberryFR
 blackberryFR
 bluebell 
 boroniaFR
 bouquetFR
 boxwood 
 boxwood blossom 
 boxwoodberry 
 calyx 
 carrot seedFL/FR
 cassis black currant budFL/FR
 celeryFL/FR
 chamomileFR
 champaca champakFR
 chervil 
 chrysanthemum chrysanthemeFR
 cilantroFL/FR
 citronellaFL/FR
 citrusFR
 clematisFR
 clover trefle le'trefle incarnatFR
 cortex 
 cranberryFR
 cypressFR
 daffodil narcissusFR
 davanaFL/FR
 earth humusFR
 erica 
 evergreenFR
 fern fougereFR
 figFR
 fir balsamFR
 fixer 
 floralFR
 flouve blossom 
 foliage 
 forest pine forestFR
 fresh & cleanFR
 fungus mushroomFR
 geraniumFR
 ginger whiteFR
 gooseberryFR
 greenFR
 hay new mown hay foin coupeFR
 herbalFR
 hollyberryFR
 hyacinth jacintheFR
 hydrangeaFR
 ivyFR
 jonquil narcissus jonquillaFR
 kewda 
 leaf 
 lemonFR
 lilyFR
 lotusFR
 marjoramFL/FR
 mimosaFR
 mintFR
 muguet lily of the valleyFR
 narcissus narcisseFR
 oakmoss mousse de chene mossFR
 ocean sea 
 orchidFR
 palmarosaFL/FR
 pansyFR
 parsleyFL/FR
 peachFR
 pear prickly pear 
 pennyroyalFL/FR
 peppermintFR
 privet 
 privet blossom 
 reseda mignonetteFR
 roseFR
 rose geraniumFR
 rose tea roseFR
 sassafrasFR
 seaweedFL/FR
 stem 
 stephanotisFR
 sweet peaFR
 tea 
 valerianFL/FR
 vine 
 weedy 
 wintergreenFR
 yewFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
1,1'-oxybisbenzene
oxybisbenzene
 benzene, 1,1'-oxybis-
 benzene, phenoxy-
1,1'-oxybis(benzene)
 biphenyl oxide
 di phenyl oxide
oxydiphenyl
 diphenyl ether
 diphenyl oxide
 diphenylether
 ether, diphenyl
 geranium crystals
 phenoxybenzene
 phenyl ether
 phenyl oxide
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Assessment of neurotoxic effects and brain region distribution in rat offspring prenatally co-exposed to low doses of BDE-99 and methylmercury.
PubMed: Bioaccumulation, distribution and metabolism of BDE-153 in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus after dietary exposure.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in plasma of pregnant women from Western Australia.
PubMed: Assimilation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from microplastics by the marine amphipod, allorchestes compressa.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in children: possible associations with cardiovascular and psychological functions.
PubMed: Distribution and Uptake of Key Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Congeners in Benthic Infauna Relative to Sediment Organic Enrichment.
PubMed: Machine learning approaches to investigate the impact of PCBs on the transcriptome of the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).
PubMed: Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada.
PubMed: Persistent organic pollutants exposure during pregnancy, maternal gestational weight gain, and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (RHEA study).
PubMed: Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.
PubMed: Correlation of gene expression and contaminant concentrations in wild largescale suckers: a field-based study.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for iodotyrosine deiodinase-inhibitory activity.
PubMed: Detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in culture media and protein sources used for human in vitro fertilization.
PubMed: Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.
PubMed: Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of an endo-β-1,4-glucanase from Thermobifida fusca.
PubMed: Lactation exposure to BDE-153 damages learning and memory, disrupts spontaneous behavior and induces hippocampus neuron death in adult rats.
PubMed: UV-induced formation of bromophenols from polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
PubMed: The flame-retardant BDE-99 dose-dependently affects viral replication in CVB3-infected mice.
PubMed: Tissue accumulation and species-specific metabolism of technical pentabrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) in two predator fish.
PubMed: Dietary assessment of human exposure to PBDEs in South Korea.
PubMed: Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China.
PubMed: Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the southern Baltic Sea.
PubMed: Microbial degradation of fomesafen by a newly isolated strain Pseudomonas zeshuii BY-1 and the biochemical degradation pathway.
PubMed: Detection of Dechlorane Plus and brominated flame retardants in marketed fish in Japan.
PubMed: Food web accumulation of cyclic siloxanes in Lake Mjøsa, Norway.
PubMed: Heating of BDE-209 and BDE-47 in plant oil in presence of o,p'-DDT or iron(III) chloride can produce monochloro-polybromo diphenyl ethers.
PubMed: Assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in serum from the Korean general population.
PubMed: Early exposure to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) affects mating behavior of zebra finches.
PubMed: Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in blood of children in Baden-Württemberg between 2002/03 and 2008/09.
PubMed: House crickets can accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly from polyurethane foam common in consumer products.
PubMed: Synthesis and herbicidal activity of diphenyl ether derivatives containing unsaturated carboxylates.
PubMed: Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.
PubMed: Trophic level determines levels of brominated flame-retardants in coastal herring gulls.
PubMed: Exposure of the Irish population to PBDEs in food: consideration of parameter uncertainty and variability for risk assessment.
PubMed: Effects of river flooding on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in cows' milk, soil, and grass.
PubMed: Accumulation and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) induces thyroid disruption and liver alterations.
PubMed: Toxicologic and immunologic effects of perinatal exposure to the brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) mixture DE-71 in the Sprague-Dawley rat.
PubMed: Bottlenose dolphins as indicators of persistent organic pollutants in the western North Atlantic Ocean and northern Gulf of Mexico.
PubMed: Neurobehavioral and physiological effects of low doses of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-99 in male adult rats.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. Meat and poultry from two statistically designed surveys showing trends and levels from 2002 to 2008.
PubMed: Bioaccumulation kinetics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from estuarine sediments to the marine polychaete, Nereis virens.
PubMed: A dynamic multimedia environmental and bioaccumulation model for brominated flame retardants in Lake Huron and Lake Erie, USA.
PubMed: [Occurrence and relevance to health of persistent organic substances and phthalates in breast milk].
PubMed: Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears.
PubMed: Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.
PubMed: Changes in plasma retinol of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in response to dietary or in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.
PubMed: Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites.
PubMed: Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54.
PubMed: Chronic, dietary polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure affects survival, growth, and development of Rana pipiens tadpoles.
PubMed: Biotransformation of the diphenyl ether herbicide lactofen and purification of a lactofen esterase from Brevundimonas sp. LY-2.
PubMed: Trophodynamics of hexabromocyclododecanes and several other non-PBDE brominated flame retardants in a freshwater food web.
PubMed: A global review of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant contamination in birds.
PubMed: Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) levels in liver, adipose, and milk from adult and juvenile rats exposed by gavage to the DE-71 technical mixture.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from California correlate with diet and human population density.
PubMed: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Orally Administration to Mice Were Tansferred to Offspring during Gestation and Lactation with Disruptions on the Immune System.
PubMed: Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities.
PubMed: Effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis and biochemical parameters in adult male rats.
PubMed: Chronic exposure of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) alters locomotion behavior in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio).
PubMed: Photolytical transformation rates of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers in technical octabromo diphenyl ether (DE-79).
PubMed: Mini-review: polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants as potential autism risk factors.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in selected fish species from the southern Baltic Sea.
PubMed: Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in foodstuffs collected from three locations from the United States.
PubMed: Technical pentabromodiphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane as activators of the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR).
PubMed: Persistent organic pollutant residues in human fetal liver and placenta from Greater Montreal, Quebec: a longitudinal study from 1998 through 2006.
PubMed: Bioconcentration and biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through lower-trophic-level coastal marine food web.
PubMed: An assessment of sources and pathways of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the United States.
PubMed: A newly recognized occupational hazard for US electronic recycling facility workers: polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.
PubMed: Biochemical tracers reveal intra-specific differences in the food webs utilized by individual seabirds.
PubMed: Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China.
PubMed: Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in Lake Ontario, Canada, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) between 1979 and 2004 and possible influences of food-web changes.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure suppresses cytokines important in the defence to coxsackievirus B3 infection in mice.
PubMed: Higher accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in infants than in adults.
PubMed: Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector: a baseline study.
PubMed: Assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and health risks associated with consumption of southern Mississippi catfish.
PubMed: Metabolism of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides by dioxin-degrading bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1.
PubMed: Exploratory assessment of sportfish consumption and polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure in New York State anglers.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.
PubMed: Determination of polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in milk cream by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Enantioselective bioaccumulation of hexabromocyclododecane and congener-specific accumulation of brominated diphenyl ethers in an eastern Canadian Arctic marine food web.
PubMed: Development of a magnetic particle immunoassay for polybrominated diphenyl ethers and application to environmental and food matrices.
PubMed: Brominated flame retardants as possible endocrine disrupters.
PubMed: [Tissue distribution of PBDEs in Mandarin fish].
PubMed: Determination of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in fish collected from three regions of Japan.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers as endocrine disruptors of adipocyte metabolism.
PubMed: Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004.
PubMed: Consumption of fish from a contaminated lake strongly affects the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in serum.
PubMed: Probabilistic intake assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and omega-3 fatty acids through fish consumption.
PubMed: Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates.
PubMed: Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.
PubMed: Dietary intake and risk evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in The Netherlands.
PubMed: Brominated flame retardants in US food.
PubMed: Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in avian species: utilization of stored samples in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank).
PubMed: Viral infection and PBDE exposure interact on CYP gene expression and enzyme activities in the mouse liver.
PubMed: Coxsackievirus B3 infection and PBDE exposure causes organ-specific effects on CYP-gene expression in the mouse.
PubMed: Plasma concentrations of selected organobromine compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in postmenopausal women of Québec, Canada.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in seafood products of south China.
PubMed: Accumulation and transfer of contaminants in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Norway: indications for contaminant metabolism.
PubMed: Current-use flame retardants in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Laurentian Great Lakes.
PubMed: Evolution of toxicity upon hydrolysis of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl.
PubMed: Immunotoxicity of the commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 in ranch mink (Mustela vison).
PubMed: Developmental delays and locomotor activity in the C57BL6/J mouse following neonatal exposure to the fully-brominated PBDE, decabromodiphenyl ether.
PubMed: Stable carbon isotope ratios of POPs--a tracer that can lead to the origins of pollution.
PubMed: Improved quality control in gas chromatography interfaced to stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry by application of derivative chromatography.
PubMed: Plasma PBDE and thyroxine levels in rats exposed to Bromkal or BDE-47.
PubMed: Survey of polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in Spanish commercial foodstuffs.
PubMed: Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PBDEs and PCBs in Lake Michigan.
PubMed: Quantification of flavor-related compounds in the unburned contents of bidi and clove cigarettes.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex.
PubMed: Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane flame retardants in the polar bear food chain in Svalbard, Norway.
PubMed: Dietary PBDE intake: a market-basket study in Belgium.
PubMed: Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: relationships with feeding ecology and body condition.
PubMed: Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of some brominated flame retardants in a Lake Winnipeg (Canada) food web.
PubMed: Natural and man-made organobromine compounds in marine biota from Central Norway.
PubMed: Changes in the growth, but not the survival, of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in commercially wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the United States.
PubMed: Are organohalogen contaminants a cofactor in the development of renal lesions in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?
PubMed: Anaerobic transformation of a technical brominated diphenyl ether mixture by super-reduced vitamin B12 and dicyanocobinamide.
PubMed: Inhibition of metamorphosis in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
PubMed: HPLC isolation and NMR structure elucidation of the most prominent octabromo isomer in technical octabromo diphenyl ether.
PubMed: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland.
PubMed: Use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic food webs.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether trends in eggs of marine and freshwater birds from British Columbia, Canada, 1979-2002.
PubMed: Effects of fomesafen, alone and in combination with an adjuvant, on plankton communities in freshwater outdoor pond mesocosms.
PubMed: Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs.
PubMed: Assessment of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid-1990s.
PubMed: Secular trends and geographical variations in the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid 1990s in Japan.
PubMed: Tissue localisation of tetra- and pentabromodiphenyl ether congeners (BDE-47, -85 and -99) in perinatal and adult C57BL mice.
PubMed: Hapten syntheses and antibody generation for the development of a polybrominated flame retardant ELISA.
PubMed: Common viral infection affects pentabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) distribution and metabolic and hormonal activities in mice.
PubMed: Bioavailability of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in biosolids and spiked sediment to the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus.
PubMed: Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in typical seafoods consumed in Singapore.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail fish and shellfish samples purchased from Canadian markets.
PubMed: [Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in foodstuffs and human milk].
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.
PubMed: Brominated organic contaminants in the liver and egg of the common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in biota from the marine environment of East Greenland.
PubMed: Levels of organohalogenated persistent pollutants in human milk from Kahramanmaraş region, Turkey.
PubMed: Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE 99 and BDE 183 in the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
PubMed: Higher brominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane found in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.
PubMed: Comparing polybrominated diphenyl ether and polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation in a food web in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan.
PubMed: Time-trend (1973-2000) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japanese mother's milk.
PubMed: Evaluation of brominated diphenyl ether-99 toxicity with Raphidocelis subcapitata and Daphnia magna.
PubMed: Rapidly increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in the Columbia River system from 1992 to 2000.
PubMed: Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife.
PubMed: A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants--particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
PubMed: Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment.
PubMed: Levels and trends of polybrominated diphenylethers and other brominated flame retardants in wildlife.
PubMed: Lessons from the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): precautionary principle, primary prevention, and the value of community-based body-burden monitoring using breast milk.
PubMed: Geographical distribution (2000) and temporal trends (1981-2000) of brominated diphenyl ethers in Great Lakes hewing gull eggs.
PubMed: Evaluation of the dermal subchronic toxicity of diphenyl ether in the rat.
PubMed: Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food Web.
PubMed: Potential role of fire retardant-treated polyurethane foam as a source of brominated diphenyl ethers to the US environment.
PubMed: Photochemical degradation of acifluorfen in aqueous solution.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of the hemi- and monoterpene moieties of isoprenyl phenyl ethers from the liverwort Trichocolea tomentella.
PubMed: Tissue distribution of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo[14C]diphenyl ether ([14C]-PBDE 47) in pike (Esox lucius) after dietary exposure--a time series study using whole body autoradiography.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic detection of Dowtherm A contamination in oleochemicals and edible oils.
PubMed: Applications of High-Temperature Aqueous Media for Synthetic Organic Reactions.
PubMed: Lack of effects of some individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on human lymphocyte functions in vitro.
PubMed: Prenatal risks deriving from environmental chemicals.
PubMed: Diphenyl ether cleavage of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by chicken kidney microsomal preparations.
PubMed: Mechanistic studies: their role in the toxicological evaluation of pesticides.
PubMed: Survey of diphenyl ether herbicides in dietary foods by the total diet study in Osaka, Japan.
PubMed: Chlorinated compounds in tissues of chickens raised on pentachlorophenol-contaminated litter.
PubMed: Disposition of chlorinated diphenyl ethers isolated from technical pentachlorophenol in the rat.
PubMed: Diphenyl ether herbicides and related compounds: structure--activity relationships as bacterial mutagens.
PubMed: Diphenyl ether herbicides: mutagenic metabolites and photoproducts of nitrofen.
PubMed: Diphenyl ether herbicides remarkably elevate the content in Spinacia oleracea of (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2 propenamide.
PubMed: New potent diphenyl ether herbicides.
PubMed: [Studies on antiseptics for foodstuff. LXXII. Studies on diphenyl ether derivatives, biphenyl derivatives and dibenzofuran derivatives as a preservative for sake].
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