biphenyl
diphenyl

Sponsors

Name: 1,1'-biphenyl
CAS Number: 92-52-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other: 56481-93-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 202-163-5
FDA UNII: 2L9GJK6MGN
Nikkaji Web: J3.929B
Beilstein Number: 1634058
MDL: MFCD00003054
CoE Number: 10978
XlogP3: 4.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 154.21170000
Formula: C12 H10
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
No longer supported by Industry (DG SANCO, 2012).
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1332 biphenyl
JECFA Food Additive: Diphenyl
GSFA Codex: Diphenyl (230)
Flavis Number: 01.013 (Old)
FEMA Number: 3129 diphenyl
FDA Mainterm: BIPHENYL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart C--Antioxidants and Stabilizers
Sec. 178.2010 Antioxidants and/or stabilizers for polymers.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to pale amber yellow crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.99200 25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.47500 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 69.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 256.10 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 160.00 to 161.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.008930 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density: 5.31 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: > 212.00 °F. TCC ( > 100.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.980
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 benzene
 carbon disulfide
 carbon tetrachloride
 ether
 methanol
 water, 6.94 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: green
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
 pungent rose green geranium
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in propylene glycol.
pungent rose green geranium
Flavor Type: floral
 neroli bergamot cinnamon natural
Taste Description:
neroli bergamot cinnamon natural
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Eastman Chemical
Biphenyl
Odor: characteristic
Use: Applications for biphenyl process fluid include process media or solvents in many industries, including chemicals and petrochemicals
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Penta International
BIPHENYL, Kosher
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Sigma-Aldrich
Biphenyl, ≥99%
Odor: geranium; green
Certified Food Grade Products
Synerzine
Biphenyl
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl >99.5%(GC)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 2140 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: ALTERATION IN GASTRIC SECRETION BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0546109

oral-rabbit LD50 2400 mg/kg
Nagoya Shiritsu Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of the Nagoya City University Medical Association. Vol. 28, Pg. 983, 1977.

oral-mouse LD50 1900 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Food Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24, Pg. 268, 1983.

intravenous-mouse LD50 56 mg/kg
U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00198

oral-cat LD50 > 2600 mg/kg
"Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc of Chemistry, 1983-86Vol. A166, Pg. 1983

unreported-rat LD50 4500 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(5), Pg. 6, 1988.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5010 mg/kg
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 > 200 mg/m3
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

inhalation-human TCLo 4400 ug/m3
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)
Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 26, Pg. 70, 1973.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
Recommendation for biphenyl usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.00085 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.70 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -2.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -2.00000
fruit ices: -2.00000
gelatins / puddings: -2.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -2.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev3
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 92-52-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7095
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 3077
WGK Germany: 2
 1,1'-biphenyl
Chemidplus: 0000092524
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 92-52-4
 
References:
 1,1'-biphenyl
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 92-52-4
Pubchem (cid): 7095
Pubchem (sid): 134972195
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C06588
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34437
FooDB: FDB012838
Export Tariff Code: 2902.90.6000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•phph •xenene •lemonene •phenador-x •carolid al •bulk molten or flaked, technical grades (99.9% purity). monsanto co •95% and 99% molten or flake grades. sybron chemicals, inc •technical grade of 93-97% purity. high purity is greater than or equal to 99.9% purity.
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
floral
cyclohexyl propanol
FR
gamma-
damascone
FR
dihydrorose oxide
FR
floral pyran
FR
geranium dihydropyran
FR
geranium nitrile
FR
geranium pyran
FR
geranyl nonanoate
CS
musk acetate
FR
peony acetonitrile
FR
phenyl acetaldehyde digeranyl acetal
FR
phenyl propyl phenyl acetate
FR
rose pyran
FR
green
phenethyl isopropyl ether
FR
phenethyl oxyacetaldehyde
FR
herbal
geranium cyclohexane
FR
leathery
leather cyclohexanol
FR
woody
(E)-
ethyl geranate
FR
For Flavor
 
Potential Uses:
 geraniumFR
 green 
 rose 
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 carrot root
Search Trop Picture
 coal tar
Search PMC Picture
 corn silk
Search Trop Picture
 lovage root
Search Trop Picture
 potato
Search Trop Picture
 tomato
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 bibenzene
 bifenyl
1,1'-biphenyl
 blinin
 carolid AL
 diphenyl
1,1'-diphenyl
 dowtherm
 fenbufen Imp. C (EP)
 lemonene
 phenador-x
 phenyl benzene
 phenylbenzene
 tetrosin LY
 xenene
 

Articles:

US Patents: 3,931,166 - Certain 2,5-dimethyl-3-thiopyrazines
PubMed: Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of milk supplemented with red ginseng extract.
PubMed: Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.
PubMed: Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.
PubMed: Antioxidant activities of Korean rice wine concentrates.
 
Notes:
Fungistat, esp. for citrus fruits. Used as food preservative and flavouring agent. Detected in bilberry, wine grape, carrot, peas, rum, potato, bell pepper, tomato, butter, milk, smoked fatty fish, cocoa, coffee, roast peanuts, olive, buckwheat and tamarind. Generally, the fruit packaging is impregnated with biphenyl, which evaporates into the air space surrounding the fruit. Some biphenyl is absorbed by the fruit skins
 
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