biphenyl
diphenyl
 
Notes:
Fungistat, esp. for citrus fruits. Used as food preservative and flavouring agent. Detected in bilberry, wine grape, carrot, peas, rum, potato, bell pepper, tomato, butter, milk, smoked fatty fish, cocoa, coffee, roast peanuts, olive, buckwheat and tamarind. Generally, the fruit packaging is impregnated with biphenyl, which evaporates into the air space surrounding the fruit. Some biphenyl is absorbed by the fruit skins
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      Resources
      History
      Product(s):
      W2216 biphenyl
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      02-31200 BIPHENYL, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W312908 Biphenyl, ≥99%
      SDS
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
1,1'-biphenyl (Click)
CAS Number: 92-52-4Picture of molecule
Other: 56481-93-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 202-163-5
FDA UNII: 2L9GJK6MGN
Nikkaji Web: J3.929B
Beilstein Number: 1634058
MDL: MFCD00003054
CoE Number: 10978
XlogP3: 4.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 154.21170000
Formula: C12 H10
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: No longer supported by Industry (DG SANCO, 2012).
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1332  biphenyl
JECFA Food Additive: Diphenyl
GSFA Codex: Diphenyl (230)
Flavis Number: 01.013 (Old)
FEMA Number: 3129  diphenyl
FDA Mainterm: BIPHENYL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart C--Antioxidants and Stabilizers
Sec. 178.2010 Antioxidants and/or stabilizers for polymers.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to pale amber yellow crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.99200 @  25.00 °C.
Refractive Index: 1.47500 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 69.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 256.10 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 160.00 to  161.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.008930 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density: 5.31 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: > 212.00 °F. TCC ( > 100.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.980
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 benzene
 carbon disulfide
 carbon tetrachloride
 ether
 methanol
 water, 6.94 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: green
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
 pungent  rose  green  geranium  
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. 
pungent rose green geranium
 neroli  bergamot  cinnamon  natural  
Taste Description:
neroli bergamot cinnamon natural
  
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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Suppliers:
CTC Organics
biphenyl
Eastman Chemical
Biphenyl
Odor: characteristic
Use: Applications for biphenyl process fluid include process media or solvents in many industries, including chemicals and petrochemicals
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Penta International
BIPHENYL, Kosher
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl
Sigma-Aldrich
Biphenyl, ≥99%
Odor: geranium; green
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Biphenyl >99.5%(GC)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  2140 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: ALTERATION IN GASTRIC SECRETION BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0546109

oral-rabbit LD50  2400 mg/kg
Nagoya Shiritsu Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of the Nagoya City University Medical Association. Vol. 28, Pg. 983, 1977.

oral-mouse LD50  1900 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Food Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24, Pg. 268, 1983.

intravenous-mouse LD50  56 mg/kg
U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00198

oral-cat LD50  > 2600 mg/kg
"Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc of Chemistry, 1983-86Vol. A166, Pg. 1983

unreported-rat LD50  4500 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(5), Pg. 6, 1988.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5010 mg/kg
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 > 200 mg/m3
Monsanto Co. Toxicity Information.

inhalation-human TCLo 4400 ug/m3
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)
Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 26, Pg. 70, 1973.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: antioxidants and stabilizers
Recommendation for biphenyl usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.00085 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.70 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
Click here to view publication 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -2.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -2.00000
fruit ices: -2.00000
gelatins / puddings: -2.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -2.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev3
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 92-52-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 7095
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WISER: UN 3077
WGK Germany: 2
 1,1'-biphenyl
Chemidplus: 0000092524
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 92-52-4
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References:
 1,1'-biphenyl
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 92-52-4
Pubchem (cid): 7095
Pubchem (sid): 134972195
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C06588
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34437
FooDB: FDB012838
Export Tariff Code: 2902.90.6000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Formulations/Preparations:
•phph •xenene •lemonene •phenador-x •carolid al •bulk molten or flaked, technical grades (99.9% purity). monsanto co •95% and 99% molten or flake grades. sybron chemicals, inc •technical grade of 93-97% purity. high purity is greater than or equal to 99.9% purity.
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
alliaceous
 dibutyl sulfideFL/FR
balsamic
 benzophenoneFL/FR
ethereal
 ethyl formateFL/FR
floral
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
 cyclohexyl propanolFR
gamma-damasconeFR
 dihydrorose oxideFR
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 floral pyranFR
 geranium dihydropyranFR
 geranium nitrileFR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil egyptFL/FR
 geranium pyranFR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
 geranyl hexanoateFL/FR
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
 musk acetateFR
 narcissus acetateFL/FR
 peony acetonitrileFR
 phenethyl formateFL/FR
 phenethyl pivalateFL/FR
 phenyl acetaldehyde digeranyl acetalFR
 phenyl propyl phenyl acetateFR
 rhodinyl propionateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
 rose pyranFR
fried
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
fruity
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
green
 diphenyl methaneFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranium absoluteFL/FR
 geranium thiazoleFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl isopropyl etherFR
 phenethyl oxyacetaldehydeFR
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
herbal
 geranium cyclohexaneFR
leathery
 leather cyclohexanolFR
woody
(E)-ethyl geranateFR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
laevo-citronellolFL/FR
(E,Z)-2,4-decadienal 
 dimethyl benzyl carbinolFL/FR
 geranyl hexanoateFL/FR
 narcissus acetateFL/FR
 phenethyl formateFL/FR
 phenethyl pivalateFL/FR
aromatic
 diphenyl methaneFL/FR
citrus
 benzophenoneFL/FR
ethereal
 ethyl formateFL/FR
floral
 citronellyl acetateFL/FR
 diphenyl oxideFL/FR
 geranium oil africaFL/FR
 geranium oil egyptFL/FR
 geranyl tiglateFL/FR
 methyl citronellateFL/FR
 muguet carbinolFL/FR
laevo-rose oxideFL/FR
fruity
 citronellyl isobutyrateFL/FR
 rhodinyl propionateFL/FR
green
 dibutyl sulfideFL/FR
 geranium absoluteFL/FR
 geranium thiazoleFL/FR
 geranyl formateFL/FR
(Z)-3-hexen-1-yl phenyl acetateFL/FR
(Z)-rose oxideFL/FR
leafy
(E)-citronellyl tiglateFL/FR
sweet
 phenethyl tiglateFL/FR
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 geraniumFR
 green 
 rose 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 carrot root
Search Trop  Picture
 coal tar
Search  Picture
 corn silk
Search Trop  Picture
 lovage root
Search Trop  Picture
 potato
 tomato
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 bibenzene
 bifenyl
1,1'-biphenyl
 blinin
 carolid AL
 diphenyl
1,1'-diphenyl
 dowtherm
 fenbufen Imp. C (EP)
 lemonene
 phenador-x
 phenyl benzene
 phenylbenzene
 tetrosin LY
 xenene
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Articles:
US Patents: 3,931,166 - Certain 2,5-dimethyl-3-thiopyrazines
PubMed: Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of milk supplemented with red ginseng extract.
PubMed: Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.
PubMed: Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.
PubMed: Antioxidant activities of Korean rice wine concentrates.
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