EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

gamma-aminobutyric acid
4-aminobutyric acid

Sponsors

Name:4-aminobutanoic acid
CAS Number: 56-12-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:3131-86-0
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-258-6
FDA UNII:2ACZ6IPC6I
Nikkaji Web:J1.375G
Beilstein Number:0906818
MDL:MFCD00008226
XlogP3:-3.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:103.12113000
Formula:C4 H9 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
(Flavour Industry, 2006a).
Category:cosmetic and flavor agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 257 gamma-Amino butyric acid View-notice PDF
GRN 595 gamma-aminobutyric acid View-notice PDF
JECFA Food Flavoring:1771 4-aminobutyric acid
FLAVIS Number:17.035 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.035 4-aminobutyric acid
FEMA Number:4288 4-aminobutyric acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: 4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay:100.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 200.00 to 201.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 248.00 to 249.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.008000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 218.00 °F. TCC ( 103.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): -3.170
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 1.30E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: meaty
Odor Strength:medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
savory meaty
Odor Description:at 1.00 % in propylene glycol. savory meaty
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: hair conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
AIDP
GABA gamma amino butyric acid 99% min.
Atlantic Chemicals
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Vigabatrin EP Impurity D
Odor: characteristic
Use: Vigabatrin EP Impurity D (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian central nervous system. It shows an effect of reducing neuronal excitability and regulating muscle tone.
Charkit Chemical
AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, GAMMA-
Connect Chemicals
Gamma-Amino Butyrric Acid (GABA)
George Uhe Company
g-Aminobutyric Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
4-Aminobutyric Acid
Jiangyin Healthway
G-aminobutyric Acid(gaba)
New functional food ingredients
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid Natural
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Maypro Industries
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
Penta International
4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, Kosher
Prinova
G-Aminobutyric Acid
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid ≥99%
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
4-Aminobutyric Acid >99.0%(T)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 12680 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 85, Pg. 463, 1965.

intravenous-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
United States Patent Document. Vol. #3380887

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 5400 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 2400 mg/kg
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-mouse LD50 2748 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 233, 1963.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 4950 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-cat LD50 5000 mg/kg
Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 47, Pg. 205, 1984.

unreported-mouse LD50 7230 mg/kg
Bitamin. Vol. 25, Pg. 297, 1962.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 9210 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 85, Pg. 463, 1965.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
Recommendation for gamma-aminobutyric acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.12 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.10 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 18000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 23
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 50.00000300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 20.00000100.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 30.00000200.00000
breakfast cereal: 30.00000100.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: 100.00000500.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 30.00000100.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: 30.00000100.00000
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: 20.00000100.00000
gelatins / puddings: 20.00000100.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 40.00000300.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: 20.00000100.00000
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 20.00000200.00000
milk products: 30.00000100.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: 10.00000100.00000
soft candy: 20.00000200.00000
soups: 30.00000200.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 30.00000100.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 30.00000100.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 20.00000100.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 30.00000100.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 30.00000100.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 50.00000300.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 20.00000200.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 30.00000200.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 30.00000200.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 40.00000300.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 30.00000100.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94: Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in addendum to the JECFA group aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides by JECFA
View page or View pdf

(FGE.94Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA (68th meeting)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94, Revision 2 (FGE.94Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA (68th meeting)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):56-12-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :119
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
4-aminobutanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000056122
RTECS:ES6300000 for cas# 56-12-2
 
References:
 4-aminobutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:56-12-2
Pubchem (cid):119
Pubchem (sid):134972453
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00334
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00112
FooDB:FDB008937
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00335
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.4950
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
alliaceous
dimethyl trisulfide
FL/FR
ferula assa-foetida gum oil
FL/FR
coffee
coffee difuran
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazine
FL/FR
meaty
meaty dithiane
FL/FR
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
sulfuryl acetate
FL/FR
musty
hazelnut pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazoline
FL/FR
2-
methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazine
FL/FR
sulfurous
benzothiazole
FL/FR
ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
fish thiol
FL/FR
2-
mercaptopropionic acid
FL/FR
4-
methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solution
FL/FR
3-
thiohexanol
FL/FR
tobacco
methyl benzoxole
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
4-
acetyl-2-methyl pyrimidine
FL
amyl mercaptan
FL
1,2-
butane dithiol
FL
2-(2-
butyl)-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiazoline
FL
cyclopropyl (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienamide
FL
2,5-
diethyl thiazole
FL
dimethyl tetrasulfide
FL
2,6-
dimethyl-3-((2-methyl-3-furyl)thio)-4-heptanone
FL
bis(2,5-
dimethyl-3-furyl) disulfide
FL
(Z+E)-2,5-
dimethyl-3-tetrahydrofuran thiol
FL
(Z+E)-2,5-
dimethyl-3-thioacetoxytetrahydrofuran
FL
2,5-
dimethyl-3-thiofuroyl furan
FL
ethyl (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienamide
FL
S-
ethyl 2-acetyl aminoethane thioate
FL
ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate
FL/FR
ethyl 4-(acetyl thio) butyrate
FL
(Z+E)-5-
ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-butyl) thiazoline
FL
(Z+E)-5-
ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl) thiazoline
FL
massoia bark oil
FL
4-
methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solution
FL/FR
methyl dihydrofuran thiol
FL
2-
methyl thiazolidine
FL
2-(
methyl thio) ethanol
FL
2-
methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-furyl tetrasulfide
FL
3-((2-
methyl-3-furyl)thio)-4-heptanone
FL
4-((2-
methyl-3-furyl)thio)-5-nonanone
FL
1,9-
nonane dithiol
FL
peanut dithiazine
FL
1-
phenethyl mercaptan
FL
1,3-
propane dithiol
FL
3-iso
propenyl pentane dioic acid
FL
propyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide
FL
iso
propyl disulfide
FL
3-
thienyl mercaptan
FL
N-(2-(3,4-
dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)-3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid amide
FL
3,7-
dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl cyclopropyl carboxamide
FL
4-
mercapto-2-pentanone 1% in acetoin
FL
2-
methyl-1-methyl thio-2-butene
FL
pyrrolidino-(1,2E)-4H-2,4-dimethyl-1,3,5-dithiazine
FL
1-(2-
thienyl) butanone
FL
alliaceous
alliaceous
1,3-
butane dithiol
FL
dimethyl trisulfide
FL/FR
ferula assa-foetida gum oil
FL/FR
3-
tetrahydrothiophenone
FL
burnt
bacon dithiazine
FL
1,6-
hexane dithiol
FL
chemical
2,5-
dimethyl furan
FL
cocoa
butyraldehyde
FL
coffee
coffee difuran
FL/FR
earthy
difurfuryl sulfide
FL
1,8-
octane dithiol
FL
eggy
iso
propyl mercaptan
FL
fatty
(E,E)-2,4-
decadienal
FL
4-
methyl nonanoic acid
FL/FR
green
4-
penten-1-yl acetate
FL
meaty
4-
allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol
FL
benzothiazole
FL/FR
2,6-
dimethyl thiophenol
FL
2,5-
dimethyl-3-furan thiol
FL
1,1-
ethane dithiol 1% in ethanol 94.5% / ethyl acetate 4%
FL
4-
furfuryl thio-2-pentanone
FL
meaty dithiane
FL/FR
(R,S)-2-
mercapto-3-butanol
FL
2-
mercaptomethyl pyrazine
FL
2-
mercaptopropionic acid
FL/FR
2-
methyl 3-(methyl thio) furan
FL
12-
methyl tridecanal
FL
bis(2-
methyl-3-furyl) disulfide
FL
S-(2-
methyl-3-furyl) ethane thioate
FL
2-
methyl-3-tetrahydrofuran thiol
FL
propyl 2-mercaptopropionate
FL
pyrazinyl ethane thiol
FL
2-
pyridinyl methane thiol
FL
sulfuryl acetate
FL/FR
ortho-
thiocresol
FL
ortho-
thioguaiacol
FL
metallic
2,5-
dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane
FL
musty
2-
ethoxythiazole
FL
hazelnut pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty
3,5-
diethyl-2-methyl pyrazine
FL
2,5-
diethyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazoline
FL/FR
methyl benzoxole
FL/FR
2-
methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty thiazole
FL
onion
furfuryl isopropyl sulfide
FL
methionol
FL
2-
methyl-1,3-dithiolane
FL
popcorn
2-
propionyl-2-thiazoline
FL
roasted
hexyl mercaptan
FL
savory
N-(2,4-
dimethoxybenzyl)-N2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamide
FL
N-(
heptan-4-yl)benzo(D)(1,3)dioxole-5-carboxamide
FL
N1-(2-
methoxy-4-methyl benzyl)-N2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamide
FL
N1-(2-
methoxy-4-methyl benzyl)-N2-2(2-(5-methyl pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamide
FL
sulfurous
2,3-
butane dithiol
FL
S-
ethyl thioacetate
FL
fish thiol
FL/FR
furfuryl thiopropionate
FL
methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide
FL
3-
methyl-2-butane thiol
FL
2-
naphthyl mercaptan
FL
roasted butanol
FL
3-
thiohexanol
FL/FR
2,4,6-
trithiaheptane 10% in triacetin
FL
vegetable
tyramine
FL
 
Potential Uses:
 additives
 hair conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple custard apple fruit
Search Trop Picture
 banana fruit
Search Trop Picture
 bean black bean seed
Search Trop Picture
 bean field bean seed
Search Trop Picture
 beet root
Search Trop Picture
 burdock root
Search Trop Picture
 chayote fruit
Search Trop Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 coconut seed
Search Trop Picture
 date palm fruit
Search Trop Picture
 eggplant fruit
Search Trop Picture
 fenugreek plant
Search Trop Picture
 ginger root
Search Trop Picture
 ginkgo biloba seed
Search Trop Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop Picture
 mandarin fruit
Search Trop Picture
 mango fruit
Search Trop Picture
 melon bitter melon fruit
Search Trop Picture
 melon bitter melon seed
Search Trop Picture
 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
Search PMC Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pea shoot
Search Trop Picture
 peanut plant
Search Trop Picture
 pepper black pepper fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pepper black pepper seed
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop Picture
 soursop plant
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon leaf
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon root
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon shoot
Search Trop Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 zingiber officinale root oil china @ 0.06%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
4-amino butyric acid
gamma-amino butyric acid
gamma-amino butyric acid natural
4-amino-butanoic acid
4-amino-butyric acid
g-amino-N-butyric acid
gamma-amino-N-butyric acid
4-aminobutanoic acid
gamma-aminobutanoic acid
4-aminobutyric acid
g-aminobutyric acid
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
 butanoic acid, 4-amino-
3-carboxypropylamine
 GABA
 GABA gamma amino butyric acid
 gaballon
 gamarex
 piperidic acid
 piperidinic acid
 

Articles:

Google Patents:Flavor-improving method
PubMed:Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.
J-Stage:Optimal Reaction Conditions for the Production of ?-Aminobutyric Acid by the Marine Yeast Isolate Pichia anomala MR-1 Strain
PubMed:Central mechanisms of menthol-induced analgesia.
PubMed:Effect of timing and duration of salt treatment during growth of a fragrant rice variety on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, proline, and GABA Levels.
PubMed:Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of wheat-germinated brown rice bread during storage time.
PubMed:Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.
PubMed:Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.
PubMed:Bioactivities and sensory evaluation of Pu-erh teas made from three tea leaves in an improved pile fermentation process.
PubMed:Effect of microbial fermentation on content of statin, GABA, and polyphenols in Pu-Erh tea.
PubMed:Effects of beer and hop on ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.
 
Notes:
the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. gamma-Aminobutyric acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. [Wikipedia]
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