gamma-aminobutyric acid
4-aminobutyric acid
 
Notes:
the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. gamma-Aminobutyric acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. [Wikipedia]
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve and our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Personal care ingredients now include a substantial array of luxury and exotic components. Substantial inroads have been made in the nutraceutical and resins markets, with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. And we continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions.
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 203-299-3220
      Fax: 203-299-1355
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      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, GAMMA-
       
  • Jiangyin Healthway
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      01-24350 4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, Kosher
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
4-aminobutanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 56-12-2Picture of molecule
Other: 3131-86-0
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-258-6
FDA UNII: 2ACZ6IPC6I
Nikkaji Web: J1.375G
Beilstein Number: 0906818
MDL: MFCD00008226
XlogP3: -3.20 (est)
Molecular Weight: 103.12113000
Formula: C4 H9 N O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: (Flavour Industry, 2006a).
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 257 gamma-Amino butyric acid View-notice PDF
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1771  4-aminobutyric acid
Flavis Number: 17.035 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.035  4-aminobutyric acid
FEMA Number: 4288  4-aminobutyric acid
FDA Mainterm: 4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 100.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 200.00 to  201.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 248.00 to  249.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.008000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 218.00 °F. TCC ( 103.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): -3.170
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 1.30E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: meaty
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
 savory  meaty  
Odor Description:
at 1.00 % in propylene glycol. 
savory meaty
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: hair conditioning
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Suppliers:
Aceto
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
AIDP
GABA gamma amino butyric acid 99% min.
American International Chemical
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
Atlantic Chemicals
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Charkit Chemical
AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, GAMMA-
Connect Chemicals
Gamma-Amino Butyrric Acid (GABA)
George Uhe Company
g-Aminobutyric Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
4-Aminobutyric Acid
Jiangyin Healthway
G-aminobutyric Acid(gaba)
New functional food ingredients
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid Natural
Jiangyin Healthway
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Maypro Industries
gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
Penta International
4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, Kosher
Prinova
G-Aminobutyric Acid
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid ≥99%
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50  12680 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 85, Pg. 463, 1965.

intravenous-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
United States Patent Document. Vol. #3380887

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  5400 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  2400 mg/kg
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-mouse LD50  2748 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 233, 1963.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  4950 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. Vol. 13, Pg. 70, 1965.

intravenous-cat LD50  5000 mg/kg
Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 47, Pg. 205, 1984.

unreported-mouse LD50  7230 mg/kg
Bitamin. Vol. 25, Pg. 297, 1962.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 9210 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 85, Pg. 463, 1965.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
Recommendation for gamma-aminobutyric acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.12 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.10 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 18000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 23
Click here to view publication 23
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 50.00000300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 20.00000100.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 30.00000200.00000
breakfast cereal: 30.00000100.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: 100.00000500.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 30.00000100.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: 30.00000100.00000
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: 20.00000100.00000
gelatins / puddings: 20.00000100.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 40.00000300.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: 20.00000100.00000
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 20.00000200.00000
milk products: 30.00000100.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: 10.00000100.00000
soft candy: 20.00000200.00000
soups: 30.00000200.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 30.00000100.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 30.00000100.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 20.00000100.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 30.00000100.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 30.00000100.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 50.00000300.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 20.00000200.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 30.00000200.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 30.00000200.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 40.00000300.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 30.00000100.00000
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94: Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in addendum to the JECFA group aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides by JECFA
View page or View pdf
(FGE.94Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA (68th meeting)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94, Revision 2 (FGE.94Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by the JECFA (68th meeting)
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 56-12-2
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 119
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 4-aminobutanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000056122
RTECS: ES6300000 for cas# 56-12-2
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References:
 4-aminobutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 56-12-2
Pubchem (cid): 119
Pubchem (sid): 134972453
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00334
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00112
FooDB: FDB008937
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00335
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4050
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
alliaceous
 dimethyl trisulfideFL/FR
 ferula assa-foetida gum oilFL/FR
coffee
 coffee difuranFL/FR
2-methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
 meaty dithianeFL/FR
2-mercapto-3-pentanone 
4-methyl nonanoic acidFL/FR
 sulfuryl acetateFL/FR
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
4,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazolineFL/FR
2-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
 benzothiazoleFL/FR
 ethyl 3-mercaptopropionateFL/FR
 fish thiolFL/FR
2-mercaptopropionic acidFL/FR
4-methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solutionFL/FR
3-thiohexanolFL/FR
tobacco
 methyl benzoxoleFL/FR
 
For Flavor
 
No flavor group found for these
4-acetyl-2-methyl pyrimidineFL
 amyl mercaptanFL
1,2-butane dithiolFL
2-(2-butyl)-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiazolineFL
 cyclopropyl (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienamideFL
2,5-diethyl thiazoleFL
 dimethyl tetrasulfideFL
2,6-dimethyl-3-((2-methyl-3-furyl)thio)-4-heptanoneFL
bis(2,5-dimethyl-3-furyl) disulfideFL
(Z+E)-2,5-dimethyl-3-tetrahydrofuran thiolFL
(Z+E)-2,5-dimethyl-3-thioacetoxytetrahydrofuranFL
2,5-dimethyl-3-thiofuroyl furanFL
 ethyl (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienamideFL
S-ethyl 2-acetyl aminoethane thioateFL
 ethyl 3-mercaptopropionateFL/FR
 ethyl 4-(acetyl thio) butyrateFL
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-butyl) thiazolineFL
(Z+E)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methyl propyl) thiazolineFL
 massoia bark oilFL
2-mercapto-3-pentanone 
4-methyl 4-mercaptopentan-2-one 1% solutionFL/FR
 methyl benzoxoleFL/FR
 methyl dihydrofuran thiolFL
2-methyl thiazolidineFL
2-(methyl thio) ethanolFL
2-methyl-3-,5 or 6-(furfuryl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-(methyl thio) pyrazineFL/FR
2-methyl-3-furyl tetrasulfideFL
3-((2-methyl-3-furyl)thio)-4-heptanoneFL
4-((2-methyl-3-furyl)thio)-5-nonanoneFL
1,9-nonane dithiolFL
 peanut dithiazineFL
1-phenethyl mercaptanFL
1,3-propane dithiolFL
3-isopropenyl pentane dioic acidFL
 propyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfideFL
isopropyl disulfideFL
3-thienyl mercaptanFL
N-(2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)-3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid amideFL
3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl cyclopropyl carboxamideFL
4-mercapto-2-pentanone 1% in acetoinFL
2-methyl-1-methyl thio-2-buteneFL
 pyrrolidino-(1,2E)-4H-2,4-dimethyl-1,3,5-dithiazineFL
1-(2-thienyl) butanoneFL
alliaceous
1,3-butane dithiolFL
 dimethyl trisulfideFL/FR
 ferula assa-foetida gum oilFL/FR
3-tetrahydrothiophenoneFL
burnt
 bacon dithiazineFL
1,6-hexane dithiolFL
chemical
2,5-dimethyl furanFL
cocoa
 butyraldehydeFL
coffee
 coffee difuranFL/FR
earthy
 difurfuryl sulfideFL
1,8-octane dithiolFL
eggy
isopropyl mercaptanFL
fatty
(E,E)-2,4-decadienalFL
4-methyl nonanoic acidFL/FR
green
4-penten-1-yl acetateFL
meaty
4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenolFL
 benzothiazoleFL/FR
2,6-dimethyl thiophenolFL
2,5-dimethyl-3-furan thiolFL
1,1-ethane dithiol 1% in ethanol 94.5% / ethyl acetate 4%FL
4-furfuryl thio-2-pentanoneFL
 meaty dithianeFL/FR
(R,S)-2-mercapto-3-butanolFL
2-mercaptomethyl pyrazineFL
2-mercaptopropionic acidFL/FR
2-methyl 3-(methyl thio) furanFL
12-methyl tridecanalFL
bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfideFL
S-(2-methyl-3-furyl) ethane thioateFL
2-methyl-3-tetrahydrofuran thiolFL
 propyl 2-mercaptopropionateFL
 pyrazinyl ethane thiolFL
2-pyridinyl methane thiolFL
 sulfuryl acetateFL/FR
ortho-thiocresolFL
ortho-thioguaiacolFL
metallic
2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dithianeFL
musty
2-ethoxythiazoleFL
 hazelnut pyrazineFL/FR
nutty
3,5-diethyl-2-methyl pyrazineFL
2,5-diethyl-3-methyl pyrazineFL
4,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-thiazolineFL/FR
2-methyl pyrazineFL/FR
 nutty thiazoleFL
onion
 furfuryl isopropyl sulfideFL
 methionolFL
2-methyl-1,3-dithiolaneFL
popcorn
2-propionyl-2-thiazolineFL
roasted
 hexyl mercaptanFL
savory
N-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-N2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamideFL
N-(heptan-4-yl)benzo(D)(1,3)dioxole-5-carboxamideFL
N1-(2-methoxy-4-methyl benzyl)-N2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamideFL
N1-(2-methoxy-4-methyl benzyl)-N2-2(2-(5-methyl pyridin-2-yl)ethyl) oxalamideFL
sulfurous
2,3-butane dithiolFL
S-ethyl thioacetateFL
 fish thiolFL/FR
 furfuryl thiopropionateFL
 methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfideFL
3-methyl-2-butane thiolFL
2-naphthyl mercaptanFL
 roasted butanolFL
3-thiohexanolFL/FR
2,4,6-trithiaheptane 10% in triacetinFL
vegetable
 tyramineFL
 
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Potential Uses:
 additives 
 hair conditioning 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 apple custard apple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 banana fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 bean black bean seed
Search Trop  Picture
 bean field bean seed
Search Trop  Picture
 beet root
Search Trop  Picture
 burdock root
Search Trop  Picture
 chayote fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut seed
Search Trop  Picture
 date palm fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 eggplant fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fenugreek plant
Search Trop  Picture
 ginger root
Search Trop  Picture
 ginkgo biloba seed
Search Trop  Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 mandarin fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 mango fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 melon bitter melon fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 melon bitter melon seed
Search Trop  Picture
 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
Search  PMC Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pea shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 peanut plant
Search Trop  Picture
 pepper black pepper fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pepper black pepper seed
Search Trop  Picture
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop  Picture
 soursop plant
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon root
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
4-amino butyric acid
gamma-amino butyric acid
gamma-amino butyric acid natural
4-amino-butanoic acid
4-amino-butyric acid
g-amino-N-butyric acid
gamma-amino-N-butyric acid
4-aminobutanoic acid
gamma-aminobutanoic acid
4-aminobutyric acid
g-aminobutyric acid
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
 butanoic acid, 4-amino-
3-carboxypropylamine
 GABA
 GABA gamma amino butyric acid
 gaballon
 gamarex
 piperidic acid
 piperidinic acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
Google Patents: Flavor-improving method
PubMed: Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.
J-Stage: Optimal Reaction Conditions for the Production of ?-Aminobutyric Acid by the Marine Yeast Isolate Pichia anomala MR-1 Strain
PubMed: Central mechanisms of menthol-induced analgesia.
PubMed: Effect of timing and duration of salt treatment during growth of a fragrant rice variety on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, proline, and GABA Levels.
PubMed: Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed: Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of wheat-germinated brown rice bread during storage time.
PubMed: Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.
PubMed: Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.
PubMed: Bioactivities and sensory evaluation of Pu-erh teas made from three tea leaves in an improved pile fermentation process.
PubMed: Effect of microbial fermentation on content of statin, GABA, and polyphenols in Pu-Erh tea.
PubMed: Effects of beer and hop on ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.
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