EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

dextro-limonene
D-limonene

Sponsors

Fragrance Demo Formulas
Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
CAS Number: 5989-27-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:7705-13-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:227-813-5
FDA UNII:GFD7C86Q1W
Nikkaji Web:J2.532A
MDL:MFCD00062991
CoE Number:491
XlogP3-AA:3.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:136.23752000
Formula:C10 H16
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Name:(4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
CAS Number: 58555-74-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
FDA UNII:GFD7C86Q1W
Nikkaji Web:J9.591E
XlogP3-AA:3.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:136.23752000
Formula:C10 H16
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
According to the JECFA: Min. assay value is 96 % (sum of d/l isomers) and Compounds present above 0.5 %: linalool, myrcene. Composition of mixture to be specified. According to the JECFA: Min. assay value is 96 % (sum of d/l isomers) and Compounds present above 0.5 %: linalool, myrcene. In commerce d-Limonene is defined as 90-93 % d-isomer and 2-6 % l-iso
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1326 D-limonene
FLAVIS Number:01.045 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:01.045 D-limonene
FEMA Number:2633 D-limonene
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: D-LIMONENE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.60 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:0.83800 to 0.84300 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 6.973 to 7.015
Specific Gravity:0.83700 to 0.84500 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - est.: 6.965 to 7.031
Refractive Index:1.47100 to 1.47700 @ 20.00 °C.
Optical Rotation:+87.00 to +102.00
Melting Point: -96.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 175.00 to 177.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 5.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure:0.198000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density:4.7 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 117.00 °F. TCC ( 47.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): 4.570
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light. store under nitrogen.
Storage:store under nitrogen.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 fixed oils
 kerosene
 paraffin oil
 water, 13.8 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 propylene glycol
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: citrus
Odor Strength:medium
Substantivity:4 hour(s) at 100.00 %
citrus orange fresh sweet
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. citrus orange fresh sweet
Luebke, William tgsc, (1988)
Odor sample from: CA Aromatics Company Inc.
sweet citrus peely
Odor Description:Sweet, citrus and peely
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 3, 51, (1994)
Flavor Type: citrus
sweet orange citrus terpenic
Taste Description: at 30.00 ppm. Sweet, orange, citrus and terpy
Mosciano, Gerard P&F 19, No. 3, 51, (1994)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Symrise
Limonene D pure
Odor Description:citric, lively, nuances of tangerine, celery and lemon oil
Taste Description:citrus, fruity, orange, berry flavor, tar-like
Useful in: mint, savory vegetable, savory spices, fruity citrus, fruity red, fruity yellow, fruity tropical, sweet others.
PerfumersWorld
D-Limonene
Odor Description:harsh terpene citrusy fruity orange berry tarty Fresh light and sweet citrusy odor with strong resemblance to Orange peel oil
Blends-well-with - Citrus-notes Gums
Prodasynth
DISTILLED ORANGE LIMONENE > 93; MYRCENE > 0,5
Odor Description:ORANGE, FRESH, SWEET, CITRIC
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
perfuming agents
 
Suppliers:
Aroma Aromatics & Flavours
D-Limonene
Artiste
D’Limonene Natural
Astral Extracts
D-Limonene
Augustus Oils
D Limonene Deodourised
Services
Augustus Oils
D Limonene Redistilled
Augustus Oils
D Limonene
Aurochemicals
D-LIMONENE, Natural
Berjé
D’Limonene Redistilled
Happening at Berje
Berjé
D’Limonene
CG Herbals
D-Limonene
Charkit Chemical
D-LIMONENE
Citrus and Allied Essences
D'Limonene (high purity, low odor)
Market Report
Citrus and Allied Essences
D'Limonene
Creatingperfume.com
Limonen Dextro Re distilled 50%
Diffusions Aromatiques
D LIMONENE RECTIFIE
Diffusions Aromatiques
D LIMONENE
ECSA Chemicals
D-Limonene, Natural
Company Profile
Elixens America
D-Limonene (Orange Distilled) Brazil
100% Pure and Natural
Ernesto Ventós
LIMONENE-D NATURAL
Odor: ORANGE, FRESH, SWEET, CITRIC
Ernesto Ventós
LIMONENE-D RECTIFIED NATURAL
Odor: CITRUS, SMOOTH
Excellentia International
d-Limonene
Excellentia International
Limonene; D-
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
R-(+)-Limonene (GC) ≥99% (sum of enantiomers)
EZClean
Orange D'Limonene Food Grade 1
EZClean
Orange D'Limonene Food Grade 5
EZClean
Orange D'limonene Food Grade 55
EZClean
Orange D'Limonene High Purity 1
EZClean
Orange D'limonene High Purity 5
EZClean
Orange D'limonene High Purity 55
EZClean
Orange D'Limonene Technical Grade
Fleurchem
dextro-limonene natural
Fleurchem
dextro-limonene
Florida Chemical
d-Limonene
Technical Grade, Food Grade, Lemon-Lime Grade, Ultra High Purity Food Grade (low odor)
Fuzhou Farwell
D-Limonene
George Uhe Company
D'Limonene
Available in FCC and from Various Origins
Global Essence
d-Limonene (97% Distilled Limonene)
Global Essence
d-Limonene High Purity Stabilized/Protected
Graham Chemical
D-Limonene
Indenta Group
D-Limonene
Indukern F&F
D-LIMONENE EX-LEMON NATURAL
Indukern F&F
D-LIMONENE RECTIFIED NATURAL
Odor: CITRUS, SWEET, ORANGE
Indukern F&F
D-LIMONENE
Jiangyin Healthway
D-limonene
New functional food ingredients
Lluch Essence
LIMONENE DEXTRO
Mentha & Allied Products
D-Limonene Food Grade
Minerva Flavours and Fragrances
Limonene Dextro
Nectar Lifesciences
Dextro-limonene
Nippon Terpene Chemicals
d-Limonene 93% up
OQEMA
d-Limonene
Penta International
D-LIMONENE HIGH PURITY LOW ODOR, Kosher
Penta International
D-LIMONENE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
D-LIMONENE, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
D-Limonene
Odor: harsh terpene citrusy fruity orange berry tarty Fresh light and sweet citrusy odor with strong resemblance to Orange peel oil
Use: Blends-well-with - Citrus-notes Gums
Perfumery Laboratory
D-limonene / orange terpene (D-LIMONENE)
Odor: orange peel
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Limonene, D-
Prodasynth
D-LIMONENE > 98
Odor: CITRUS, SMOOTH
Prodasynth
DISTILLED ORANGE
LIMONENE > 93; MYRCENE > 0,5
Odor: ORANGE, FRESH, SWEET, CITRIC
Reincke & Fichtner
D-Limonene natural
Reincke & Fichtner
D=Limonene
Renessenz (Symris)
D-Limonene 99% Min.
Odor: Citrus, Fruity
Use: Used in a wide variety of flavor and fragrance applications.
Sigma-Aldrich
(R)-(+)-Limonene, ≥93%
Odor: lemon; orange; citrus; sweet
Certified Food Grade Products
SRS Aromatics
D-LIMONENE P&F FCC
Symrise
Limonene D pure
Odor: citric, lively, nuances of tangerine, celery and lemon oil
Flavor: citrus, fruity, orange, berry flavor, tar-like
Useful in: mint, savory vegetable, savory spices, fruity citrus, fruity red, fruity yellow, fruity tropical, sweet others.
Taytonn
D-Limonene
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
(+)-Limonene >99.0%(GC)
The Good Scents Company
dextro-limonene
Odor: citrus orange fresh sweet
The John D. Walsh Company
D’Limonene
The Lermond Company
D'Limonene, P & F
The Perfumers Apprentice
Limonene D
Odor: citrus orange fresh sweet
Use: Used in citrus fragrances to give lift and freshness. Combines very well with any other citrus notes.
Treatt
D-Limonene Natural
Vigon International
Limonene Dextro Redistilled (99%)
Zanos
D-Limonene
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi N - Irritant, Dangerous for the environment.
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R 65 - Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Flammable liquids (Category 3), H226
Aspiration hazard (Category 1), H304
Skin irritation (Category 2), H315
Skin sensitisation (Category 1), H317
Acute aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H400
Chronic aquatic toxicity (Category 1), H410
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramexploding-bomb.jpgexclamation-mark.jpghealth-hazard.jpgenvironment.jpg
 
Signal word Danger
Hazard statement(s)
H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour
H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
H315 - Causes skin irritation
H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction
H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life
H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
P210 - Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 - Keep container tightly closed.
P240 - Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 - Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P242 - Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 - Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P261 - Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P272 - Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P310 - IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303 + P361 + P353 - IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P331 - Do NOT induce vomiting.
P333 + P313 - IF SKIN irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P362 - Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
P370 + P378 - In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction.
P391 - Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P403 + P235 - Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P405 - Store locked up.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Human Experience:
4 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: M] > 5000 mg/kg
Identity of compound not stated as other than code number
(Moreno, 1972m)

oral-rat LD50 [sex: M,F] M:4400 F:5100 mg/kg
Study is on dogs, rats not mentioned in English text. Study in Japanese
(Tsuji et al., 1975a)

oral-mouse LD50 [sex: M,F] M:5600 F:6600 mg/kg
Study is on dogs, mice not mentioned in English text. Study in Japanese
(Tsuji et al., 1975a)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 600 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 8, Pg. 1439, 1974.

oral-mouse LD50 5600 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 9, Pg. 387, 1975.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 3600 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 9, Pg. 387, 1975.

intravenous-rat LD50 110 mg/kg
SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 9, Pg. 387, 1975.

oral-rat LD50 4400 mg/kg
SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 9, Pg. 387, 1975.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, Pg. 825, 1975.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 3170 mg/kg
PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE
Sapporo Igaku Zasshi. Sapporo Medical Journal. Vol. 3, Pg. 73, 1952.

skin-mammal (species unspecified) LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 703, 1974.

subcutaneous-rat LDLo 30200 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 9, Pg. 387, 1975.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
IFRA Critical Effect: Sensitization
IFRA Other Specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 d-, l-and dl-Limonene and natural products containing substantial amounts of it, should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practical level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production. Such products should have a peroxide value of less than 20 millimoles peroxides per liter, determined according to the FMA method, which can be downloaded from the IFRA website (see Analytical Methods).
IFRA: View Standard
Recommendation for dextro-limonene usage levels up to:
  20.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 34000.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 12726.00 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -120.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -31.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -2300.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -68.00000
fruit ices: -68.00000
gelatins / puddings: 48.00000400.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -49.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, (FGE.25)[1] - Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25Rev1: Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf

Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf

Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance terpenoid blend QRD-460
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (chemical group 31) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev3
View page or View pdf

Outcome of the consultation with Member States, the applicant and EFSA on the pesticide risk assessment for orange oil in light of confirmatory data
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
EPA-Iris:IRIS
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):5989-27-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :22311
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
SCCNFP:opinion
WISER:UN 2319
WGK Germany:2
1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
Chemidplus:0005989275
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:5989-27-5
(4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
Chemidplus:0058555741
 
References:
Leffingwell:Chirality or Article
 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:5989-27-5
Pubchem (cid):22311
Pubchem (sid):135017143
Flavornet:5989-27-5
Pherobase:View
 (4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:58555-74-1
Pubchem (cid):440917
Pubchem (sid):135192466
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C06078
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB04321
FooDB:FDB014297
Export Tariff Code:2902.19.0050
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•equine leg paint contains 1.0% wtvol turpentine: a medium strength solution for use when counterirritant-stimulant action falling between stimulating liniment and blistering ointment is desired. •typical composition from usa southern pine: from 1) gum - 60 to 65% alpha-pinene, 25-35% beta-pinene, and 5-8% other terpenes; 2) wood- 75 to 80% alpha-pinene, 0-2% beta-pinene, 4-8% camphene, and 15-20% other terpenes; 3) sulfate- 60 to 70% alpha-pinene, 20-25% beta-pinene, and 6-12% other terpenes. •turpentine includes mainly c10-terpenes, especially alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, and is typical of the volatile oil portions of various oleoresins.
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
aldehydic
citrus carbaldehyde
FR
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
3-
methyl-4-heptyl oxybutyraldehyde
FR
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
balsamic
fir needle oil siberia
FL/FR
camphoreous
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citrus paradisi peel extract
FL/FR
citrus reticulata blanco var. tangerine oil
FL/FR
(Z)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
(E)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
4-
decenal
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
dodecane nitrile
FR
grapefruit oil c.p. california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded florida
FL/FR
grapefruit pentanol
FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
lemongrass oil terpenes
FL/FR
lime oil distilled folded
FL/FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
lime oil expressed folded
FL/FR
lime oil expressed furanocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
litsea cubeba fruit oil
FL/FR
clementine
mandarin fragrance
FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
ocimene quintoxide
FL/FR
octanal glycol acetal
FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
bitter
orange peel oil brazil
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
alpha-
sinensal
FL/FR
beta-
sinensal
FL/FR
tangerine oil america
FL/FR
tangerine oil california
FL/FR
tetrahydromyrcenol
FR
valencene
FL/FR
fatty
decanol
FL/FR
floral
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
floral pyranol
FR
geraniol
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
ho leaf oil
FR
hyacinth ether
FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
allyl amyl glycolate
FR
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
allyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl acetate
FL/FR
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
iso
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
ethyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
green acetate
FR
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
green
galbanum oil
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
(Z)-
leaf acetal
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
herbal
cardamom liquid resin
FR
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
(E)-2-
dodecenal
FL/FR
eucalyptus globulus oil
FL/FR
hop oil
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
nopyl acetate
FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
minty
wintergreen oil
FL/FR
powdery
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
spicy
ginger root oil china
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
terpenic
cypress leaf oil
FR
frankincense oil
FL/FR
alpha-
phellandrene
FL/FR
gamma-
terpinene
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
waxy
3-
decanone
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
octanol
FL/FR
woody
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
woody acetate
FR
(Z)-
woody amylene
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
3-
decanone
FL/FR
4-
decenal
FL/FR
beta-
sinensal
FL/FR
alpha-
sinensal
FL/FR
aldehydic
aldehydic
nonanal (aldehyde C-9)
FL/FR
octanal (aldehyde C-8)
FL/FR
balsamic
fir needle oil siberia
FL/FR
berry
heptyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
camphoreous
camphor tree bark oil
FL/FR
citrus
bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italy
FL/FR
citral
FL/FR
citrus enhancer
FL
citrus paradisi peel extract
FL/FR
citrus reticulata blanco var. tangerine oil
FL/FR
curacao flavor
FL
(Z)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
grapefruit oil c.p. california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded california
FL/FR
grapefruit oil folded florida
FL/FR
lemon oil c.p. california
FL/FR
lemongrass oil
FL/FR
lemongrass oil terpenes
FL/FR
lime oil distilled folded
FL/FR
lime oil distilled mexico
FL/FR
lime oil expressed folded
FL/FR
lime oil expressed furanocoumarin reduced
FL/FR
laevo-
linalool
FL/FR
linalool
FL/FR
litsea cubeba fruit oil
FL/FR
mandarin oil
FL/FR
nerol
FL/FR
(+)-
nootkatone
FL/FR
blood
orange oil italy
FL/FR
sweet
orange peel oil c.p. brazil
FL/FR
petitgrain oil paraguay
FL/FR
tangerine oil america
FL/FR
tangerine oil california
FL/FR
alpha-
terpineol
FL/FR
valencene
FL/FR
verbena oil france
FL
estery
ethyl acetoacetate
FL/FR
fatty
2,4-
decadienal
FL
floral
citronellyl acetate
FL/FR
geraniol
FL/FR
linalyl acetate
FL/FR
linalyl anthranilate
FL/FR
methyl dihydrojasmonate
FL/FR
beta-
naphthyl methyl ketone
FL/FR
neryl acetate
FL/FR
ocean propanal
FL/FR
tetrahydrolinalool
FL/FR
fruity
allyl cyclohexyl propionate
FL/FR
allyl hexanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl acetate
FL/FR
para-
anisyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl acetate
FL/FR
benzyl propionate
FL/FR
diethyl malonate
FL/FR
ethyl butyrate
FL/FR
ethyl heptanoate
FL/FR
bitter
orange peel oil brazil
FL/FR
styralyl acetate
FL/FR
green
iso
amyl isovalerate
FL/FR
dihydromyrcenol
FL/FR
galbanum oil
FL/FR
geranyl acetate
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-ol
FL/FR
(Z)-3-
hexen-1-yl acetate
FL/FR
hexyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2,4-
ivy carbaldehyde
FL/FR
(Z)-
leaf acetal
FL/FR
linalool oxide
FL/FR
methyl heptenone
FL/FR
ocimene quintoxide
FL/FR
herbal
clary sage oil france
FL/FR
coriander seed oil
FL/FR
eucalyptus globulus oil
FL/FR
hop oil
FL/FR
honey
phenethyl acetate
FL/FR
minty
wintergreen oil
FL/FR
ripe
(E)-4-
decenal
FL/FR
soapy
dodecanal (aldehyde C-12 lauric)
FL/FR
spicy
ginger root oil china
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
terpenic
alpha-
phellandrene
FL/FR
gamma-
terpinene
FL/FR
waxy
iso
amyl butyrate
FL/FR
decanal (aldehyde C-10)
FL/FR
decanol
FL/FR
(E)-2-
dodecenal
FL/FR
2-
nonanol
FL/FR
nonanol
FL/FR
octanol
FL/FR
undecanal
FL/FR
woody
frankincense oil
FL/FR
spruce needle oil canada
FL/FR
alpha-
terpinyl acetate
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRbanana
FRbergamot
FRbubble gum
FL/FRcaraway seed
FLcarrot
FRcelery
FRcherry
FRcitrus
FRcoffee
FLcola
FL/FRdill weed
FRelemi
 erigeron
FRevergreen
FRfloral
FRfruit juicy fruit
FRgrapefruit
FLgrenadine
FRherbal
FRlemon
FRlime
FRlotus
FRmandarin
FRmint
FRneroli
FRnutmeg
FRorange
FL/FRpetitgrain lemon petitgrain
FRpineapple
FRraspberry
FRsassafras
FRspearmint
FRspice
FL/FRvalerian
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 anise star anise fruit
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 anise star anise seed
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 bay laurel leaf oil
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 bergamot oil @ 26.0%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 caraway seed oil
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 cardamom fruit oil
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 cardamom root oil
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 cardamom seed oil
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 celery oil
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 celery seed
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 celery seed oil
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 celery shoot
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 dill
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 dill oil
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 dill seed
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 dill seed oil
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 fennel seed
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 grapefruit
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 guava oil
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 hyssop shoot
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 lemon leaf oil
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 lemon oil
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 lemon pericarp
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 lemon pericarp oil
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 lime
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 nutmeg seed
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 nutmeg seed oil
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 orange fruit
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 orange fruit juice
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 parsley seed oil
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 pepper black pepper fruit
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 pepper black pepper oil
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 pepper black pepper seed oil
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 peppermint leaf
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 petitgrain lemon oil
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 rosemary oil
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 rosemary plant
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 tea tree oil australia @ 0.51%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 carvene
D-citrene
(+)-limonene
(+)-(4R)-limonene
(+)-alpha-limonene
(+)-R-limonene
(4R)-(+)-limonene
(R)-(+)-limonene
citrus D-limonene
D-limonene
D'limonene
D’limonene
D'limonene (high purity, low odor)
D-limonene citreatt
 limonene D pure
 limonene dextro redistilled
D-limonene high purity low odor
D-limonene natural
D’limonene natural
dextro-limonene natural
D-limonene P&F
 limonene R+ SP natural
 limonene R+ ST
D-limonene Rectified
dextro-limonene redistilled
(+)-p-mentha-1,8-diene
(+)-para-mentha-1,8-diene
(R)-(+)-para-mentha-1,8-diene
D-para-mentha-1,8-diene
dextro-para-mentha-1,8-diene
(+)-1,8-para-menthadiene
1,8 9-p-menthadiene
1,8 9-para-menthadiene
(R)-1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl) cyclohexene
(R)-1-methyl-4-(1-methyl vinyl) cyclohexene
(R)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene
(R)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene
(R)-1-methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene
(4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene
(+)-4-isopropenyl-1-methyl cyclohexene
4-isopropenyl-1-methyl cyclohexene
(+)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene
4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene
 

Articles:

Info:Limonene
PubMed:Stability of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) essential oil in microcapsules made of whey protein isolate, guar gum, and carrageenan.
PubMed:Biogas production from citrus waste by membrane bioreactor.
PubMed:Performance of semi-continuous membrane bioreactor in biogas production from toxic feedstock containing D-Limonene.
PubMed:Preparation and stabilization of D-limonene Pickering emulsions by cellulose nanocrystals.
PubMed:Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803.
PubMed:Comparison of lipids, fatty acids and volatile compounds of various kumquat species using HS/GC/MS/FID techniques.
PubMed:Effect of second cooling on the chemical components of essential oils from orange peel (Citrus sinensis).
PubMed:Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods.
PubMed:Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion.
PubMed:Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation.
PubMed:A high-performance recycling solution for polystyrene achieved by the synthesis of renewable poly(thioether) networks derived from D-limonene.
PubMed:Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).
PubMed:Emulsification properties of a novel hydrocolloid (Angum gum) for d-limonene droplets compared with Arabic gum.
PubMed:Antimicrobial Potential and Chemical Characterization of Serbian Liverwort (Porella arboris-vitae): SEM and TEM Observations.
PubMed:Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.
PubMed:Release behavior and stability of encapsulated D-limonene from emulsion-based edible films.
PubMed:Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs.
PubMed:Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.
PubMed:High-oil-load encapsulation of medium-chain triglycerides and D-limonene mixture in modified starch by spray drying.
PubMed:Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects.
PubMed:Process optimization and stability of D-limonene-in-water nanoemulsions prepared by ultrasonic emulsification using response surface methodology.
PubMed:NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of beta-myrcene (CAS No. 123-35-3) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (Gavage studies).
PubMed:Optimization of the RNA extraction method for transcriptome studies of Salmonella inoculated on commercial raw chicken breast samples.
PubMed:Toxicity of Schizonpeta multifida essential oil and its constituent compounds towards two grain storage insects.
PubMed:Adipose tissue accumulation of d-limonene with the consumption of a lemonade preparation rich in d-limonene content.
PubMed:Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.
PubMed:Effect of feed liquid temperature on the structural morphologies of d-limonene microencapsulated powder and its preservation.
PubMed:An attempt towards simultaneous biobased solvent based extraction of proteins and enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials from distiller's grains and solubles.
PubMed:Ciprofloxacin-sensitive and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni are equally susceptible to natural orange oil-based antimicrobials.
PubMed:Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.
PubMed:Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.
PubMed:Insulin secretagogue bioactivity of finger citron fruit (Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis Hort, Rutaceae).
PubMed:Orange essential oils antimicrobial activities against Salmonella spp.
PubMed:Campylobacter and Arcobacter species sensitivity to commercial orange oil fractions.
PubMed:Bioequivalence evaluation of two D-limonene capsule formulations in healthy Chinese volunteers.
PubMed:Odour of limonene affects feeding behaviour in the blowfly, Phormia regina.
PubMed:Influence of different extraction parameters on a solid-phase dynamic extraction for the gas chromatographic determination of d-limonene degradation products by using a fractional factorial design.
PubMed:D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications.
PubMed:Experiential effects of appetitive and nonappetitive odors on feeding behavior in the blowfly, Phormia regina: a putative role for tyramine in appetite regulation.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Cv. Rio Red) respond differently to postharvest irradiation, storage, and freeze drying.
PubMed:Study on the transfer of components of Aetheroleum carvi and Aetheroleum foeniculi oils.
PubMed:An overview of polylactides as packaging materials.
PubMed:Studies of the isoprenoid-mediated inhibition of mevalonate synthesis applied to cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention.
PubMed:Differences in the volatile components and their odor characteristics of green and ripe fruits and dried pericarp of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.).
PubMed:Effect of water activity on the release characteristics and oxidative stability of D-limonene encapsulated by spray drying.
PubMed:Effect of d-limonene on three stored-product beetles.
PubMed:Composition, quality control, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of long-time stored dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seeds from Bulgaria.
PubMed:Release characteristics of flavor from spray-dried powder in boiling water and during rice cooking.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of terpene chlorohydrins found in cold-pressed orange oil.
PubMed:Development of a questionnaire and a database for assessing dietary d-limonene intake.
PubMed:Effects of pulsed electric field processing and storage on the quality and stability of single-strength orange juice.
PubMed:Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from newly hybrid citrus, dekopon (Shiranuhi mandarin Suppl. J.).
PubMed:Weight-loss drugs and supplements: are there safer alternatives?
PubMed:Food aroma partition between packaging materials and fatty food simulants.
PubMed:Permeation of oxygen, water vapor, and limonene through printed and unprinted biaxially oriented polypropylene films.
PubMed:Volatile composition of some Brazilian fruits: umbu-caja (Spondias citherea), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), AraƧa-boi (Eugenia stipitata), and CupuaƧu (Theobroma grandiflorum).
PubMed:Effect of sorbed oil on food aroma loss through packaging materials.
PubMed:Evaluation of potential disinfectants for preslaughter broiler crop decontamination.
PubMed:Estimation of toxicity of chemical mixtures through modeling of chemical interactions.
PubMed:Effects of dietary anticarcinogens on rat gastrointestinal glutathione S-transferase theta 1-1 levels.
PubMed:Effects of dietary anticarcinogens on rat gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase activity.
PubMed:Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.
PubMed:In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by beta-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds.
PubMed:Toxicity of mixtures of nephrotoxicants with similar or dissimilar mode of action.
PubMed:Epigenetic carcinogens: evaluation and risk assessment.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of active drug metabolites after oral administration of perillyl alcohol, an investigational antineoplastic agent, to the dog.
PubMed:Risk assessment of d-limonene: an example of male rat-specific renal tumorigens.
PubMed:Effects of D-limonene on hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity and paracetamol-induced glutathione depletion in mouse.
PubMed:Subacute (4-wk) oral toxicity of a combination of four nephrotoxins in rats: comparison with the toxicity of the individual compounds.
PubMed:d-Limonene.
PubMed:Acute (24 hr) toxicity of a combination of four nephrotoxicants in rats compared with the toxicity of the individual compounds.
PubMed:Benzaldehyde, citral, and d-limonene flavor perception in the presence of casein and whey proteins.
PubMed:The human relevance of the renal tumor-inducing potential of d-limonene in male rats: implications for risk assessment.
PubMed:Assessment of the subchronic oral toxicity of d-limonene in dogs.
PubMed:Inhibition of carcinogenesis by minor anutrient constituents of the diet.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Limonene (CAS No. 5989-27-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed:Acute and subchronic nephrotoxicity of d-limonene in Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed:Review of kidney sections from a subchronic d-limonene oral dosing study conducted by the National Cancer Institute.
PubMed:Comparison of short-term renal effects due to oral administration of decalin or d-limonene in young adult male Fischer-344 rats.
PubMed:Modulation of immune responses in mice by d-limonene.
 
Notes:
Major constit. of oil of orange rind, dill oil, oil of cumin, bergamot, caraway, lemon balm and lemon. Obt. comly. from orange oil on a large scale (ca. 50000 T/a). Flavouring agent. Nutriceutical with anticancer props.
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