EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol

Supplier Sponsors

Name:4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
CAS Number: 623-05-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:210-768-0
FDA UNII:1A3AH1FP1B
Nikkaji Web:J6.843H
Beilstein Number:1858967
MDL:MFCD00004658
XlogP3:0.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:124.13916000
Formula:C7 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:955 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
FLAVIS Number:02.165 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:02.165 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
FEMA Number:3987 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: 4-HYDROXYBENZYL ALCOHOL
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 114.00 to 122.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 252.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.010000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 294.00 °F. TCC ( 145.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.250
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 6700 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: fruity
Odor Strength:medium
fruity almond bitter almond sweet coconut
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. fruity bitter almond sweet coconut
Flavor Type: fruity
almond bitter almond
Taste Description: bitter almond
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
4-Hydroxy Benzyl Alcohol
Beijing Lys Chemicals
4-Hydroxy benzyl alcohol
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
4-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol 99%
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
4-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol
Parchem
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
Penta International
4-HYDROXY BENZYL ALCOHOL, Kosher
Prodasynth
para-HYDROXYBENZOIC ALCOHOL PRODASYNTH > 97
Odor: FRUITY, SWEET
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ≥98%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
4-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol >97.0%(GC)
WholeChem
4-Hydroxy benzyl alcohol
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol usage levels up to:
  0.2000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 5.20 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.06 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 20
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): 5.0000025.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 20.00000100.00000
fruit ices: 20.00000100.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: 15.0000075.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 20 (FGE.20): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 52 (FGE.52): Consideration of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 2 (FGE.20Rev2): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :125
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
Chemidplus:0000623052
 
References:
 4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):125
Pubchem (sid):134976934
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C17467
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB11724
FooDB:FDB012553
Export Tariff Code:2907.29.0500
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
almond
bitter
almond oil replacer
FL/FR
animal
costus valerolactone
FR
anisic
ortho-
acetanisole
FL/FR
ortho-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
(E)-
benzyl tiglate
FL/FR
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
caramellic
geranyl crotonate
FR
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
coconut
coconut decanone methyl
FR
coconut naphthalenone
FL/FR
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
delta-
heptalactone
FL/FR
hexahydrocoumarin
CS
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
propyl octanoate
FL/FR
tetrahydrojasmone
FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
wine lactone
FL/FR
coumarinic
phthalide
FL/FR
tonka ketone
FR
creamy
creamy lactone
FL/FR
fatty
lauric acid
FL/FR
floral
acetophenone
FL/FR
dihydrojasmone lactone
FL/FR
heliotropin
FL/FR
hexenyl cyclopentanone
FR
jasmin lactone (IFF)
FL/FR
2-
pentyl cyclopentanone
FR
rhodinyl propionate
FL/FR
fruity
bitter
almond oil
FL/FR
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
benzaldehyde
FL/FR
benzaldehyde glycrol acetal
FL/FR
2-
benzofuran carboxaldehyde
FL/FR
bread thiophene
FL/FR
cinnamyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
iso
propyl octanoate
FL/FR
prunus amygdalus amara seed extract
FL/FR
para-
tolualdehyde
FL/FR
tolualdehyde glyceryl acetal
FL/FR
tolualdehydes (mixed o,m,p)
FL/FR
green
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
tiglaldehyde
FL/FR
naphthyl
2,4-
dimethyl benzaldehyde
FL/FR
nutty
nutty cyclohexenone
FL/FR
phenolic
methyl benzoate
FL/FR
soapy
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
spicy
methyl heptadienone
FL/FR
tonka
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
7-
methyl coumarin
CS
mint lactone
FL/FR
whiskey lactone
FL/FR
tropical
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
waxy
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
myristyl alcohol
FL/FR
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
coconut naphthalenone
FL/FR
alpha-
decalactone
FL/FR
dimethyl benzofuranone
FL
delta-2-
dodecenolactone
FL/FR
jasmin lactone (IFF)
FL/FR
lauric acid
FL/FR
massoia bark oil
FL
myristyl alcohol
FL/FR
4-
octen-3-one
FL
propyl octanoate
FL/FR
tolualdehyde glyceryl acetal
FL/FR
(R)-
tonka furanone
FL
wine lactone
FL/FR
almond extract
FL
almond
almond
bitter
almond oil replacer
FL/FR
anisic
ortho-
anisaldehyde
FL/FR
balsamic
(E)-
benzyl tiglate
FL/FR
caramellic
almond toffee crunch flavor
FL
almond toffee flavor
FL
cheesy
2-
heptanone
FL/FR
cherry
heliotropin
FL/FR
thenaldehyde
FL
chocolate
chocolate almond fudge flavor
FL
chocolate toffee almond flavor
FL
mocha almond fudge flavor
FL
coconut
delta-
decalactone
FL/FR
(R)-
massoia lactone
FL
6-
methyl coumarin
FL
gamma-
nonalactone (aldehyde C-18 (so-called))
FL/FR
delta-
octalactone
FL/FR
cookie
almond
cookie flavor
FL
coumarinic
phthalide
FL/FR
creamy
6-
amyl-alpha-pyrone
FL/FR
creamy lactone
FL/FR
5,5-
dibutyl dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
FL
delta-
dodecalactone
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydecanoate
FL/FR
glyceryl 5-hydroxydodecanoate
FL/FR
gamma-
hexalactone
FL/FR
mint lactone
FL/FR
delta-
nonalactone
FL/FR
delta-
undecalactone
FL/FR
dairy
methyl (Z)-5-octenoate
FL/FR
fatty
2-
tridecanone
FL/FR
fruity
bitter
almond flavor
FL
bitter
almond oil
FL/FR
amaretto flavor
FL
amyl heptanoate
FL/FR
iso
amyl octanoate
FL/FR
benzaldehyde
FL/FR
benzaldehyde glycrol acetal
FL/FR
bread thiophene
FL/FR
maraschino
cherry flavor
FL
cherry pit flavor
FL
cinnamyl isobutyrate
FL/FR
gamma-
decalactone
FL/FR
ethyl methyl-para-tolyl glycidate
FL/FR
iso
propyl octanoate
FL/FR
rhodinyl propionate
FL/FR
tiglaldehyde
FL/FR
tolualdehydes (mixed o,m,p)
FL/FR
green
benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal
FL/FR
methyl heptadienone
FL/FR
lactonic
delta-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
heptalactone
FL/FR
gamma-
octalactone
FL/FR
naphthyl
2,4-
dimethyl benzaldehyde
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl furan
FL/FR
3-
acetyl-2,5-dimethyl thiophene
FL
almond distillates
FL
roasted
almond distillates
FL
almond flavor
FL
almond hazelnut flavor
FL
almond isolates
FL
2-
benzofuran carboxaldehyde
FL/FR
roasted
chestnut almond flavor
FL
coffee furanone
FL/FR
nutty cyclohexenone
FL/FR
prunus amygdalus amara seed extract
FL/FR
phenolic
methyl benzoate
FL/FR
powdery
ortho-
acetanisole
FL/FR
acetophenone
FL/FR
soapy
1-
dodecanol
FL/FR
spicy
para-
tolualdehyde
FL/FR
waxy
dihydrojasmone lactone
FL/FR
ethyl undecanoate
FL/FR
methyl laurate
FL/FR
undecanoic acid
FL/FR
woody
whiskey lactone
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FRamber
 fruit tropical fruit
FRmoss
FRpina colada
FRtonka bean
FLtropical
FRtuberose
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 muskmelon
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 benzenemethanol, 4-hydroxy-
 benzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-
 benzyl alcohol, p-hydroxy-
4-hydroxy benzyl alcohol
p-hydroxy benzyl alcohol
4-hydroxy-benzyl-alcohol
alpha-hydroxy-p-cresol
alpha-hydroxy-para-cresol
4-hydroxybenzenemethanol
p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
para-hydroxybenzyl alcohol
4-hydroxybenzylalcohol
(hydroxymethyl) phenol
4-(hydroxymethyl) phenol
4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
p-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanol
4-methylol phenol
p-methylol phenol
para-methylol phenol
4-methylolphenol
p-methylolphenol
para-methylolphenol
 

Articles:

PubMed:Analysis and pharmacokinetics studies of gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in dogs using ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.
PubMed:Identification and analysis of gastrodin and its five metabolites using ultra fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to investigate influence of multiple-dose and food.
PubMed:Lipase catalyzed inclusion of gastrodigenin for the evolution of blue light emitting peptide nanofibers.
PubMed:[Study on the chemical constituents of Gastrodia elata].
PubMed:Rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of modular fluorogenic substrates with high affinity and selectivity for PTP1B.
PubMed:Genetic characterization of 4-cresol catabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed:[Study on effect of combined application on distribution of gastrodigenin in rats].
PubMed:Expression profiles of key phenylpropanoid genes during Vanilla planifolia pod development reveal a positive correlation between PAL gene expression and vanillin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Hydrogen peroxide-responsive copolyoxalate nanoparticles for detection and therapy of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of the quinone methide of butylated hydroxytoluene in aqueous solutions.
PubMed:4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol: a novel inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and growth.
PubMed:4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol confers neuroprotection through up-regulation of antioxidant protein expression.
PubMed:Application parameters of laccase-mediator systems for treatment of sulfonamide antibiotics.
PubMed:New anthraquinone derivatives from Geosmithia lavendula.
PubMed:An improved fluorogenic substrate for the detection of alkaline phosphatase activity.
PubMed:Gastrodin production from p-2-hydroxybenzyl alcohol through biotransformation by cultured cells of Aspergillus foetidus and Penicillium cyclopium.
PubMed:Experimental analysis on the main contents of Rhizoma gastrodiae extract and inter-transformation throughout the fermentation process of Grifola frondosa.
PubMed:Exploration of Vanilla pompona from the Peruvian Amazon as a potential source of vanilla essence: quantification of phenolics by HPLC-DAD.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents from Hypericum perforatum].
PubMed:[Intestinal absorption characteristics of gastrodigenin in rats].
PubMed:The implication of mediators for enhancement of laccase oxidation of sulfonamide antibiotics.
PubMed:Gastrodia elata Blume and its pure compounds protect BV-2 microglial-derived cell lines against β-amyloid: the involvement of GRP78 and CHOP.
PubMed:Modulation of LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia by Gastrodia elata: 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is the bioactive candidate.
PubMed:[One new lignan glycoside from whole plants of Senecio chrysanthemoides].
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anti-angiogenic actions of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol.
PubMed:p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol prevents brain injury and behavioral impairment by activating Nrf2, PDI, and neurotrophic factor genes in a rat model of brain ischemia.
PubMed:[Constituents of Gymnadenia conopsea].
PubMed:Reduction of oxidative stress by p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol-containing biodegradable polyoxalate nanoparticulate antioxidant.
PubMed:Predicting the substrate specificity of a glycosyltransferase implicated in the production of phenolic volatiles in tomato fruit.
PubMed:4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol ameliorates cerebral injury in rats by antioxidant action.
PubMed:Linking NE1545 gene expression with cell volume changes in Nitrosomonas europaea cells exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons.
PubMed:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroxybenzyl alcohol releasing biodegradable polyoxalate nanoparticles.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid chromatography of myrosinase reaction products in ground yellow mustard seed oil.
PubMed:Secondary metabolites of the phytopathogen Peronophythora litchii.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of four components in Gastrodia elata by RP-HPLC].
PubMed:Metabolites from endophytic fungus S20 of Cephalotaxus hainanensis.
PubMed:A cascade biodegradable polymer based on alternating cyclization and elimination reactions.
PubMed:Neuroprotective effect of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol against transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-apoptosis in rats.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.
PubMed:Experimental stroke protection induced by 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is cancelled by bacitracin.
PubMed:Microfluidic synthesis and catalytic application of PVP-stabilized, approximately 1 nm gold clusters.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of gastrodin and its metabolite p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in rat blood, brain and bile by microdialysis coupled to LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of active-site components of the putative p-cresol methylhydroxylase membrane complex from Geobacter metallireducens.
PubMed:Phenolic glucosides from the leaves of Pieris japonica.
PubMed:[Brain targeting of gastrodin nasal in situ gel].
PubMed:Determination and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzylalcohol after oral administration of Gastrodia elata Bl. extract in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method.
PubMed:Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of 4-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, an antioxidant isolated from Origanum vulgare.
PubMed:The photo-Favorskii reaction of p-hydroxyphenacyl compounds is initiated by water-assisted, adiabatic extrusion of a triplet biradical.
PubMed:Effect of borneol on the distribution of gastrodin to the brain in mice via oral administration.
PubMed:Distribution and metabolism of gastrodin in rat brain.
PubMed:Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol prevent hippocampal CA1 cell death following global ischemia.
PubMed:Anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol.
PubMed:Studies on the antioxidant activities of natural vanilla extract and its constituent compounds through in vitro models.
PubMed:[Evaluation of the quality of Gastrodia elata Bl. by HPLC-DAD/MS].
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol on tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis.
PubMed:Genes, enzymes, and regulation of para-cresol metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens.
PubMed:Phenolic constituents from the rhizomes of Gastrodia elata.
PubMed:Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in Vanilla planifolia.
PubMed:[The production of gastrodin through biotransformation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde by cell suspension culture of Datura stramonium].
PubMed:A new citryl glycoside from Gastrodia elata and its inhibitory activity on GABA transaminase.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory action of phenolic compounds from Gastrodia elata root.
PubMed:[Production of gastrodin through biotransformation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde by cell suspension cultures of Datura tatula L].
PubMed:Chemical fingerprint analysis of rhizomes of Gymnadenia conopsea by HPLC-DAD-MSn.
PubMed:Anxiolytic-like effects of Gastrodia elata and its phenolic constituents in mice.
PubMed:Colorimetric evaluation of phenolic content and GC-MS characterization of phenolic composition of alimentary and cosmetic argan oil and press cake.
PubMed:Gastrodia elata blume and an active component, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol reduce focal ischemic brain injury through antioxidant related gene expressions.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents from the rhizoma of Arundina graminifolia].
PubMed:New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.
PubMed:Metabolism of gallic acid and catechin by Lactobacillus hilgardii from wine.
PubMed:Chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Coeloglossum viride var. bracteatum.
PubMed:4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol accumulates in flowers and developing fruits of carrot and inhibits seed formation.
PubMed:Substituent effects on carbocation stability: the pK(R) for p-quinone methide.
PubMed:Vanillin.
PubMed:Metabolism of benzyl alcohol via catechol ortho-pathway in methylnaphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida CSV86.
PubMed:Polymer-supported reagents for methylphosphorylation and phosphorylation of carbohydrates.
PubMed:Flash photolytic generation and study of p-quinone methide in aqueous solution. An estimate of rate and equilibrium constants for heterolysis of the carbon-bromine bond in p-hydroxybenzyl bromide.
PubMed:4-Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, an enzyme of phenylpropanoid cleavage from Pseudomonas, causes formation of C(6)-C(1) acid and alcohol glucose conjugates when expressed in hairy roots of Datura stramonium L.
PubMed:Evidence of a new biotransformation pathway of p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.
PubMed:In vitro effects of hydroxybenzaldehydes from Gastrodia elata and their analogues on GABAergic neurotransmission, and a structure-activity correlation.
PubMed:A germacranolide and three hydroxybenzyl alcohol derivatives from Hieracium murorum and Crepis bocconi.
PubMed:Determination of the active ingredients in Gastrodia rhizoma by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Studies on the reaction of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and hydroxyl radicals.
PubMed:Identification of novel polyphenol oxidase inhibitors by enzymatic one-pot synthesis and deconvolution of combinatorial libraries.
PubMed:4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol accumulates in suspension-cell cultures and inhibits somatic embryogenesis in carrot.
PubMed:Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.
PubMed:Rerouting the plant phenylpropanoid pathway by expression of a novel bacterial enoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase enzyme function.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl alcohol, and sugars in Gastrodia elata blume measured as their acetylated derivatives by GC-MS.
PubMed:Effects of noncovalent and covalent FAD binding on the redox and catalytic properties of p-cresol methylhydroxylase.
PubMed:Free and bound volatile composition and characterization of some glucoconjugates as aroma precursors in melón de olor fruit pulp (Sicana odorifera).
PubMed:4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid chromatography as a method of analysis for the determination of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate degradation products.
PubMed:Action mechanism of tyrosinase on meta- and para-hydroxylated monophenols.
PubMed:Purification from conditioned medium and chemical identification of a factor that inhibits somatic embryogenesis in carrot.
PubMed:Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems.
PubMed:Structures of the flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase and its enzyme-substrate complex: gated substrate entry and proton relays support the proposed catalytic mechanism.
PubMed:Properties of p-cresol methylhydroxylase flavoprotein overproduced by Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Synthesis and folding of native collagen III model peptides.
PubMed:Cresol metabolism by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum sp. strain Groll.
PubMed:areABC genes determine the catabolism of aryl esters in Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1.
PubMed:Isolation of 3-O-(4'-hydroxybenzyl)-beta-sitosterol and 4-[4'-(4"-hydroxybenzyloxy)benzyloxy]benzyl methyl ether from fresh tubers of Gastrodia elata.
PubMed:Biotransformation of the major fungal metabolite 3,5-dichloro- p-anisyl alcohol under anaerobic conditions and its role in formation of Bis(3,5-dichloro-4-Hydroxyphenyl)methane.
PubMed:Ameliorating effect of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol on cycloheximide-induced impairment of passive avoidance response in rats: interactions with compounds acting at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.
PubMed:Gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol facilitate memory consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, on the passive avoidance task in rats.
PubMed:Melanogenesis-targeted anti-melanoma pro-drug development: effect of side-chain variations on the cytotoxicity of tyrosinase-generated ortho-quinones in a model screening system.
PubMed:Effects of Gastrodia elata and its active constituents on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.
PubMed:Potent inhibition of spontaneous rhythmic contraction by a novel beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, HSR-81, in pregnant rat uterus.
PubMed:p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol attenuates learning deficits in the inhibitory avoidance task: involvement of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.
PubMed:[Biodistribution and metabolism of 3H-gastrodigenin and 3H-gastrodin in mice].
PubMed:Regulation of chloro- and methylphenol degradation in Comamonas testosteroni JH5.
PubMed:[125I-alpha-sec-butyl-p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol receptor competitive binding assays in animal body].
PubMed:Cresol isomers: comparison of toxic potency in rat liver slices.
PubMed:[Identification of the metabolites of T-018 in the urine in female rats].
PubMed:New Phenolic Derivatives from Galeola faberi.
PubMed:Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and vanillin: effects on free radicals, brain peroxidation and degradation of benzoate, deoxyribose, amino acids and DNA.
PubMed:Metabolism of p-Cresol by the Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.
PubMed:[Studies on the phenolic derivatives from Galeola faberi Rolfe].
PubMed:Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. A novel aromatic alcohol oxidase containing covalently bound FAD.
PubMed:The acute toxicity of pulse-dosed, para-substituted phenols to larval American flagfish (Jordanella floridae): a comparison with toxicity to photoluminescent bacteria and predicted toxicity using log Kow.
PubMed:[Study of the mechanism of gastrodin and derivatives of gastrodigenin].
PubMed:p-cresol methylhydroxylase from a denitrifying bacterium involved in anaerobic degradation of p-cresol.
PubMed:[A trial of utilizing TDP (specific electromagnetic wave) in cultivating Gastrodia elata Bl].
PubMed:Biotransformations of aromatic aldehydes by acetogenic bacteria.
PubMed:Anaerobic oxidation of p-cresol mediated by a partially purified methylhydroxylase from a denitrifying bacterium.
PubMed:[The distribution of 3H-alpha-sec-butyl-p hydroxybenzyl alcohol in mice].
PubMed:Formation of oedema and accumulation of eosinophils in the guinea pig lung. Inhibition by inhaled beta-stimulants.
PubMed:[Determination of gastrodin in biological specimens and in pharmacokinetics].
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of gastrodin and its metabolite by HPLC.
PubMed:Anaerobic oxidation of p-cresol by a denitrifying bacterium.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of mandelonitrile lyase from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.
PubMed:Sensitizing capacity of 2-methylol phenol, 4-methylol phenol and 2,4,6-trimethylol phenol in the guinea pig.
PubMed:p-Cresol methylhydroxylase. Assay and general properties.
PubMed:Mutagenicity studies of p-substituted benzyl derivatives in the Ames Salmonella plate-incorporation assay.
PubMed:Metabolism of a new cardiotonic agent, (-)-alpha-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethylaminomethyl)-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (TA-064), in man. O-demethylation and ring hydroxylation.
PubMed:Evaluation of models for the mechanism of action of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase.
PubMed:The choleretic mechanism of coumarin compounds and phenolic compounds.
PubMed:New bromoperoxidases of marine origin: partial purification and characterization.
PubMed:4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol. A metabolite produced during the biosynthesis of thiamine in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:The aromatic alcohol dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B. 9869 grown on 3,5-xylenol and p-cresol.
PubMed:P-cresol and 3,5-xylenol methylhydroxylases in Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B. 9896.
PubMed:Incorporation of [18O]water in the formation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by the p-cresol methylhydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida.
PubMed:The purification and properties of p-cresol-(acceptor) oxidoreductase (hydroxylating), a flavocytochrome from Pseudomonas putida.
PubMed:Diazotization of catecholamines and their analogs and metabolites for urinary screening tests: chemical aspects.
PubMed:Ageing of Neurospora crassa. III. Induction of cellular death and clonal senescence of an inositol-less mutant by inositol starvation and the protective effect of dietary antioxidants.
PubMed:The Sulphation of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and related compounds by the rat liver cytosol.
PubMed:Simple brominated phenols in the bluegreen alga Calothrix brevissima West.
PubMed:[Formation of an ascorbigen-like product from p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and L-ascorbic acid].
PubMed:Bromophenols from red algae.
 
Notes:
the aglycone of gastrodin. Constit. of muskmelon (Cucurbita moschata) 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is the cleavage product produced during the biosynthesis of the thiazole moiety of thiamine from tyrosine as part of the thiamine biosynthesis pathway. It is a derivative of benzyl alcohol which is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with Lidocaine injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in perfumery and flavoring. Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent. Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid, which reacts with glycine and excreted as hippuric acid in the human body. Acceptable daily intakes were established by the World Health Organization at 5 mg/kg for Benzyl Alcohol. No adverse effects of benzyl alcohol have been seen in chronic exposure animal studies using rats and mice. Effects of Benzyl Alcohol in chronic exposure animal studies are limited to reduced feed intake and reduced growth. Some differences have been noted in one reproductive toxicity study using mice, but these were limited to lower maternal body weights and decreased mean litter weights. Another study also noted that fetal weight was decreased compared to controls, but a third study showed no differences between control and benzyl alcohol-treated groups. Benzyl Alcohol has been associated with an increased number of resorptions and malformations in hamsters, but there have been no reproductive or developmental toxicity findings in studies using mice and rats. Genotoxicity tests for benzyl alcohol are mostly negative, but there were some assays that were positive. Carcinogenicity studies, however, were negative. Clinical data indicates that benzyl alcohol can produce nonimmunologic contact urticaria and nonimmunologic immediate contact reactions, characterized by the appearance of wheals, erythema, and pruritis. 5% benzyl alcohol can elicit a reaction. Benzyl Alcohol is not a sensitizer at 10%. Benzyl Alcohol could be used safely at concentrations up to 5%, but that manufacturers should consider the nonimmunologic phenomena when using benzyl alcohol in cosmetic formulations designed for infants and children. Additionally, Benzyl Alcohol is considered safe up to 10% for use in hair dyes. The limited body exposure, the duration of use, and the frequency of use are considered in concluding that the nonimmunologic reactions would not be a concern. Because of the wide variety of product types in which benzyl alcohol may be used, it is likely that inhalation may be a route of exposure. The available safety tests are not considered sufficient to support the safety of benzyl alcohol in formulations where inhalation is a route of exposure. Inhalation toxicity data are needed to complete the safety assessment of benzyl alcohol where inhalation can occur. (PMID: 11766131)
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