santalol (alpha & beta)
combination of alpha and beta isomers.
  • Fleurchem
    • Fleurchem, Inc.
      Have A Flavorful Day
      A leading global manufacturer and supplier of ingredients for Flavors, Fragrances, AromaTherapy, Foods, Beverages, Personal Care Products, and other uses.
      Operating out of the 200,000 sq. ft., former Hercules/PFW facility in Middletown, NY; Fleurchem produces a full range of natural isolates, synthetic chemicals & specialities, essential oils and flavors. Additionally, the company performs toll manufacturing, as well as custom chemical synthesis for a wide range of clients.
      Email: Information
      US Voice: 845-341-2100
      US Fax: 845-341-2121
  • Hermitage Oils
    • Hermitage Oils
      Perfumery and Aromatherapy materials since 1979
      Hermitage Oils, the true home of essential oils!
      Hermitage Oils offers a selection of Absolutes, Essential Oils, Natural Isolates, Aroma Chemicals, CO2 Extracts, Ethanol Tinctures, and Extraits by Enfleurage.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      The Vault
      Santalol Natural Isolate (Sandalwood Fractions)
      Adam Michael has this to say “This material is santalol, a prized and expensive constituent of sandalwood oils obtained from Australian sandalwood essential oil (Santalum spicatum) via various extraction processes including rectification. This is a truly exquisite all natural material that is extremely diffusive and tenacious.
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      19-08500 SANTALOL, Kosher
      19-08510 SANTALOL NATURAL, Kosher
  • Robertet
    • Robertet, Inc.
      HOME OF NATURE – natural ingredients from the source.
      Robertet is a leader in the production of natural ingredients with facilities in France, Bulgaria, Turkey, South Africa, India, China, New Caledonia, Founded in 1850, Robertet remains a family owned business (5th Generation) and one of the largest producers of aromatic extracts. Brand acquisitions include: Charabot, Sapad, Hitex.
      US Email: Customer service
      US Email: Arnaud Adrian
      Email: Flavor:
      Email: Fragrance:
      Voice: 33 4 93 40 33 66
      Fax: 33 4 93 70 68 09
      US Voice: +1.201.337.7100
      +1 212 710 4600Robertet New York Creative Center
      +1 212 245 4092Robertet New York Creative Center
      Crop Calendar
      R90684 Santalol Nat Australia
      Various extraction processes (included rectification) have been used to remove the most aldehydic phenolic notes contained in the traditional Australian santalum spicatum essential oil.
  • SRS Aromatics
    • SRS Aromatics Ltd
      For over 25 years
      Bringing flavour and fragrance into your world.
      As suppliers / distributors of ingredients to the fragrance and flavour industries, our goal is to provide high quality materials at competitive prices with an exceptional level of service. Established in 1984, SRS Aromatics Ltd is an independent family owned business which has become very well-respected within the fragrance and flavour industry as a reliable and trustworthy partner. Over the years this has allowed the company to develop strong relationships with many global manufacturers; several of whom we represent in the UK. A core aim of our business is to work extremely closely with both our suppliers and customers to maximise service levels with minimum disruption to supply.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +44 (0) 1284 704076
      Fax: +44 (0) 1284 760819
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Fragrance Demo Formulas
(7E,9E,11E,13E)-pentadeca-7,9,11,13-tetraen-1-ol (Click)
CAS Number: 11031-45-1Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 234-262-4
MDL: MFCD00046301
CoE Number: 74
XlogP3-AA: 4.60 (est)
Molecular Weight: 220.35548000
Formula: C15 H24 O
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 984  santalol (alpha & beta)
FEMA Number: 3006  santalol (alpha & beta)
FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear viscous liquid (est)
Assay: 50.00 to  70.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity: 0.96900 to 0.97700 @  20.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - est.: 8.072 to 8.139
Boiling Point: 101.00 to  103.00 °C. @ 0.10 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 302.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000002 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: > 212.00 °F. TCC ( > 100.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 4.647 (est)
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 fixed oils
 propylene glycol
 water, 4.188 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 hair spray
 non-discoloring in most media
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: woody
Odor Strength: medium
 sweet  sandalwood  woody  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
deep sweet sandalwood woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1991)
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
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Hermitage Oils
Santalol Natural Isolate (Sandalwood Fractions)
Odor: characteristic
Use: Adam Michael has this to say “This material is santalol, a prized and expensive constituent of sandalwood oils obtained from Australian sandalwood essential oil (Santalum spicatum) via various extraction processes including rectification. This is a truly exquisite all natural material that is extremely diffusive and tenacious.
The Vault
Odor: Sandalwood heart. Warm milky smooth and sweet woody character
Penta International
Penta International
Perfumer Supply House
Natural Santalol (ex santalum album)
Odor: Sandalwood heart. Warm milky smooth and sweet woody character
Reincke & Fichtner
Santalol (alpha + beta)
Santalol Nat Australia
Odor: Very clean, lactonic product which can be used as such to reconstitute an Indian sandalwood compound
Use: Various extraction processes (included rectification) have been used to remove the most aldehydic phenolic notes contained in the traditional Australian santalum spicatum essential oil.
SRS Aromatics
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Human Experience:
20 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Recommendation for santalol usage levels up to:
  8.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 1.000008.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 0.060002.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -0.20000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 0.350002.00000
fruit ices: 0.350002.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 1.0000010.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) reference(s):
The FEMA GRAS assessment of alicyclic substances used as flavor ingredients.View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 11031-45-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 24832101
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
Chemidplus: 0011031451
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 11031-45-1
Pubchem (cid): 24832101
Pubchem (sid): 135018040
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
FooDB: FDB010229
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
No odor group found for these
 ammoniacum gum 
 cistus ladaniferus resinoidFR
 copaiba balsam oilFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
 peru balsam oilFL/FR
 tolu balsamFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 lilac pentanolFL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgariaFL/FR
 rose carboxylateFR
 tuberose absolute (from pommade)FL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 castoreum absoluteFL/FR
 watermelon ketoneFR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 musk indanoneFR
 methyl benzoateFL/FR
 cinnamyl acetateFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 ginger root oil chinaFL/FR
 mace oilFL/FR
 nutmeg oilFL/FR
 frankincense oilFL/FR
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
 agarwood oilFR
 cedarwood oil virginiaFR
2-decalinyl formateFR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
 ammoniacum gum 
 elecampane root absoluteFL
 rose absolute (rosa damascena) bulgariaFL/FR
 copaiba balsam oilFL/FR
 myrrh oilFL/FR
 opoponax oil (balsamodendron kafal)FL/FR
 peru balsam oilFL/FR
 tolu balsamFL/FR
 heliotropyl acetoneFL/FR
 bergamot oil bergaptene reduced italyFL/FR
 geranium oil bourbonFL/FR
 phenethyl alcoholFL/FR
 tuberose absolute (from pommade)FL/FR
 boronia absoluteFL/FR
 citronellyl formateFL/FR
 lilac pentanolFL/FR
 oakmoss absoluteFL/FR
 clary sage oil franceFL/FR
 coriander seed oilFL/FR
 lavender absolute bulgariaFL/FR
 castoreum absoluteFL/FR
 costus root oilFL
 methyl benzoateFL/FR
 cassie absoluteFL/FR
 cinnamyl acetateFL/FR
 clove bud oilFL/FR
 ginger root oil chinaFL/FR
 mace oilFL/FR
 nutmeg oilFL/FR
 orris rhizome absolute (iris pallida)FL/FR
 juniperus communis fruit oilFL/FR
 frankincense oilFL/FR
 patchouli oilFL/FR
 vetiver oil haitiFL/FR
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Potential Uses:
 oakmoss mousse de chene mossFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 celery seed
Search Trop  Picture
Search Trop  Picture
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5-(2,3-dimethyl tricyclo(,6))hept-3-yl)-2-methyl-2-penten-1-ol
 santalol (alpha & beta)
 santalol nat australia (Robertet)
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PubMed: Biocatalyst mediated regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation and epoxidation of (Z)-α-santalol.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F cytochromes P450 produce santalols and bergamotol.
PubMed: Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Cytokine/Chemokine Production in Skin Cells by Sandalwood Oils and Purified α-santalol and β-santalol.
PubMed: α-santalol inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of human prostate tumor growth by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway.
PubMed: Structural factors in the odor of alpha-santalol derivatives.
PubMed: Chemopreventive effects of combination of honokiol and magnolol with α-santalol on skin cancer developments.
PubMed: Molecular regulation of santalol biosynthesis in Santalum album L.
PubMed: TLC-bioautographic evaluation of in vitro anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase potentials of sandalwood oil.
PubMed: α-Santalol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent with potential to target various pathways involved in photocarcinogenesis.
PubMed: Antineoplastic effects of α-santalol on estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis.
PubMed: Evaluation of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil.
PubMed: Preparative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols using silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel medium pressure liquid chromatography and analysis of sandalwood oil.
PubMed: Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).
PubMed: Determination of the absolute stereochemistry of limonene and alpha-santalol by Raman optical activity spectroscopy.
PubMed: α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation.
PubMed: Chemical composition of volatile oils from the pericarps of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) by different extraction methods.
PubMed: α-Santalol derivatives from Santalum album and their cytotoxic activities.
PubMed: Structure-odor relationships of α-santalol derivatives with modified side chains.
PubMed: In vitro anti-viral effect of β-santalol against influenza viral replication.
PubMed: Acaricidal and oviposition deterring effects of santalol identified in sandalwood oil against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).
PubMed: The synthesis of (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols by the selective 1,4-hydrogenation of dienol esters: improved synthesis of (-)-β-santalol.
PubMed: Skin cancer chemoprevention by α-santalol.
PubMed: Application of a multidimensional gas chromatography system with simultaneous mass spectrometric and flame ionization detection to the analysis of sandalwood oil.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis of a new campholene derivative.
PubMed: Geographic and phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters in natural populations of Santalum austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu.
PubMed: Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells.
PubMed: Transcriptional upregulation of Nrf2-dependent phase II detoxification genes in the involved epidermis of vitiligo vulgaris.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of endemic Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa.
PubMed: Synthesis of new exo- and endo-3,8-dihydro-beta-santalols and other norbornyl-derived alcohols.
PubMed: Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-beta-santalol by a copper-catalyzed enynol cyclization-fragmentation reaction.
PubMed: Synthesis and olfactory evaluation of bulky moiety-modified analogues to the sandalwood odorant Polysantol.
PubMed: (13)C-NMR spectra of santalol derivatives: a comparison of DFT-based calculations and database-oriented prediction techniques.
PubMed: Essential oil composition of three Peperomia species from the Amazon, Brazil.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on alpha-santalol.
PubMed: Fragrance material review on santalol.
PubMed: Recent developments in the chemistry of sandalwood odorants.
PubMed: Effects of alpha-santalol on proapoptotic caspases and p53 expression in UVB irradiated mouse skin.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: total synthesis and fragrance properties of cyclopropano-beta-santalol.
PubMed: Safety assessment of sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.).
PubMed: [Effect of santalol on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats].
PubMed: Chemoprevention by alpha-santalol on UVB radiation-induced skin tumor development in mice.
PubMed: Comparative molecular and phytochemical study of the tree species Santalum austrocaledonicum (Santalaceae) distributed in the New-Caledonian archipelago.
PubMed: Composition, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of essential oils from Aristolochia mollissima.
PubMed: Biotransformation of terpenoids by mammals, microorganisms, and plant-cultured cells.
PubMed: In the quest for a virtual pseudo receptor for sandalwood-like odorants. Part I: The empirical approach.
PubMed: Broad activation of the glomerular layer enhances subsequent olfactory responses.
PubMed: East Indian Sandalwood and alpha-santalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in humans.
PubMed: Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice.
PubMed: Syntheses and odor of "bulky group"-modified sandalwood odorants: isophorono-beta-santalol analogues.
PubMed: Chemopreventive effects of various concentrations of alpha-santalol on skin cancer development in CD-1 mice.
PubMed: Anti-Helicobacter pylori compounds from Santalum album.
PubMed: 6-Substituted indanoyl isoleucine conjugate induces tobacco plant responses in secondary metabolites.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odor of tricyclo beta-santalol.
PubMed: Skin cancer chemopreventive agent, {alpha}-santalol, induces apoptotic death of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release.
PubMed: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection: qualitative and quantitative analysis of West Australian sandalwood oil.
PubMed: Chemical composition of the essential oils of Clausena lansium from Hainan Island, China.
PubMed: Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Evaluation of the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol on humans after transdermal absorption.
PubMed: Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on skin tumor development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice.
PubMed: [The influence of external stimulation on content and quality of volatile oil in Lignun Santali albi].
PubMed: Synthesis and olfactoric activity of side-chain modified beta-santalol analogues.
PubMed: Effects of sesquiterpenoids from "Oriental incenses" on acetic acid-induced writhing and D2 and 5-HT2A receptors in rat brain.
PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odour of methyl-beta-santalol.
PubMed: Effect of α-santalol and β-santalol from sandalwood on the central nervous system in mice.
PubMed: Analysis of fragrance compounds in blood samples of mice by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, GC/FTIR and GC/AES after inhalation of sandalwood oil.
PubMed: Depigmented contact dermatitis due to incense.
PubMed: [Preparation of santalol by centrifugal-thin layer chromatographic method].
PubMed: Microbiological transformations of terpenes. III. Transformations of some mono- and sesqui-terpenes.
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