EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

pyrazine
1,4-diazabenzene

Supplier Sponsors

Name:pyrazine
CAS Number: 290-37-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:206-027-6
FDA UNII:2JKE371789
Nikkaji Web:J2.569K
Beilstein Number:0103905
MDL:MFCD00006122
CoE Number:11363
XlogP3:-0.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:80.08988000
Formula:C4 H4 N2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:951 pyrazine
FLAVIS Number:14.144 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:14.144 pyrazine
FEMA Number:4015 pyrazine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):290-37-9 ; PYRAZINE
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless white crystalline waxy solid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 53.00 to 56.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 115.00 to 116.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:19.740999 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 132.00 °F. TCC ( 55.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.260
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 2.181e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: nutty
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
pungent sweet corn roasted hazelnut hazelnut roasted hazelnut barley roasted barley barley roasted barley
Odor Description:at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. pungent sweet corn like roasted hazelnut barly
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Ambles Nature et Chimie
PYRAZINE
Augustus Oils
Pyrazine
Services
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Pyrazine > 95%
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Pyrazine
Ernesto Ventós
PYRAZINE
Odor: PUNGENT, SWEET, FLORAL IN DILUTION
Jinan Enlighten Chemical Technology(Wutong Aroma )
Pyrazine, Kosherk
M&U International
Nat. Pyrazine
M&U International
Pyrazine, Kosher
Penta International
PYRAZINE
Reincke & Fichtner
Pyrazine
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyrazine, ≥99%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Sunaux International
Pyrazine
Synerzine
Pyrazine
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Pyrazine >98.0%(GC)
Tengzhou Jitian Aroma Chemiclal
Pyrazine
WholeChem
Pyrazine
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 10 - Flammable.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 2730 mg/kg
Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol. 1, Pg. 542, 1965.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
Recommendation for pyrazine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.024 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.20 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 20
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 1.000005.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 0.300001.50000
beverages(alcoholic): 0.600003.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 0.600003.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 0.600003.00000
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 1.000005.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: 0.300001.50000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: 1.000005.00000
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 17 (FGE.17): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 50 (FGE.50): Consideration of pyrazine derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to pyrazine derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.17 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 1 (FGE.17Rev1): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24 - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FGE.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 50, Revision 1 (FGE.50Rev1): Consideration of pyrazine derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to pyrazine derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.17Rev2 (2010)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):290-37-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :9261
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 1325
WGK Germany:3
pyrazine
Chemidplus:0000290379
RTECS:UQ2015000 for cas# 290-37-9
 
References:
 pyrazine
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:290-37-9
Pubchem (cid):9261
Pubchem (sid):134974628
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C02018
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB34176
FooDB:FDB012468
Export Tariff Code:2933.99.9701
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
camphoreous
butyrophenone
FL/FR
chocolate
2-
methoxy-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
cocoa
2-iso
butyl-3,5-(and 3,6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
corn chip
popcorn pyrimidine
FL/FR
fruity
nonyl isovalerate
FL/FR
musty
hazelnut pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty
3-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3-ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
5-
methyl quinoxaline
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-ethoxypyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl thiazole
FL/FR
sulfurous
dimethyl sulfide
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
2-
acetyl-5-methyl pyrazine
FL
2-
acetyl-6-methyl pyrazine
FL
2-iso
butyl-3,5-(and 3,6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
butyrophenone
FL/FR
4,5-
dimethyl-2-ethyl thiazole
FL
ethyl dimethyl pyrazine
FL
2-
methyl-3-ethoxypyrazine
FL/FR
2-
methyl-3-pentenoic acid
FL/FR
nonyl isovalerate
FL/FR
2-
propionyl pyrrole
FL
pyrazinyl methyl sulfide
FL
ammoniacal
ammoniacal
2-
methyl piperidine
FL
bready
2-
propionyl thiazole
FL
corn
2-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl thiazole
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-2-thiazoline
FL
popcorn pyrimidine
FL/FR
green
2,5-
dimethyl-4-ethyl oxazole
FL
2-
propyl pyrazine
FL
malty
yeast thiazoline
FL
musty
hazelnut pyrazine
FL/FR
nutty
3-
acetyl pyridine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3-ethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2-
acetyl-3,5(or 6)-dimethyl pyrazine
FL/FR
2,5-
diethyl-3-methyl pyrazine
FL
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
european
hazelnut oleoresin
FL
2-
methoxy-3-methyl pyrazine
FL/FR
5-
methyl quinoxaline
FL/FR
nutty quinoxaline
FL/FR
2,4,5-
trimethyl thiazole
FL/FR
roasted
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
sulfurous
dimethyl sulfide
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
FLbarley
FLcorn
FLhazelnut
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 fenugreek seed
Search Trop Picture
 kohlrabi stem
Search Trop Picture
 lavender oil spike spain @ 0.002%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 rice cakes
PbMd Search PMC Picture
 
Synonyms:
1,4-diazabenzene
1,4-diazine
p-diazine
paradiazine
para-diazine
 

Articles:

 None found yet.
 
Notes:
Maillard product In the Staedel-Rugheimer pyrazine synthesis (1876) 2-chloroacetophenone is reacted with ammonia to the amino ketone, then condensed and then oxidized to a pyrazine A variation is the Gutknecht Pyrazine Synthesis (1879) also based on this selfcondensation but differing in the way the alpha-ketoamine is synthesised (the chlorine compound in the above method is a lachrymatory agent); Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound.; Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule with point group D2h. It is found in folic acid in the form of pterin. Derivatives like Phenazine are well known for their antitumor, antibiotic and diuretic activity. Pyrazine is less basic in nature than pyridine, pyridazine and pyrimidine. Tetramethylpyrazine (also known as ligustrazine) is reported to scavenge superoxide anion and decrease nitric oxide production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Tetramethylpyrazine is also a component of some herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
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