EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

laevo-glutamic acid
L-glutamic acid

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
CAS Number: 56-86-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-293-7
FDA UNII:3KX376GY7L
Nikkaji Web:J9.171E
Beilstein Number:1723801
MDL:MFCD00002634
CoE Number:10100
XlogP3:-3.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:147.13053000
Formula:C5 H9 N O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor enhancers, salt substitute
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.1045 L-Glutamic acid View-review
JECFA Food Flavoring:1420 L-glutamic acid
JECFA Food Additive: L-Glutamic Acid
GSFA Codex: L(+)-Glutamic acid (620)
DG SANTE Food Additives:L-glutamic acid
FEMA Number:3285 L-glutamic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: L-GLUTAMIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.


FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances
Sec. 182.1045 Glutamic acid.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 247.00 to 249.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 175.00 °C. @ 10.00 mm Hg
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.969 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 9.416e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 8570 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: yeasty
Odor Strength:low
yeasty bread baked
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. mild yeast baked bread
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
humectants
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
L-Glutamic Acid
Ajinomoto USA
L-Glutamic Acid
Flavor: characteristic
L-glutamic acid is classified as a nonessential amino acid.
Anhui Haibei
L-Glutamic Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-Glu-OH >98%
Carbosynth
For experimental / research use only.
L-Glutamic acid
Charkit Chemical
GLUTAMIC ACID, L-
ECSA Chemicals
L-Glutamic Acid
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-Glutamic Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Glutamic Acid
Graham Chemical
L-Glutamic Acid
H. Interdonati, Inc.
Glutamic acid Natural, Kosher
Featured Products
Penta International
L-GLUTAMIC ACID FCC BASE, Kosher
Penta International
L-GLUTAMIC ACID FCC, NATURAL, Kosher
Prinova
L-Glutamic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamic acid, 99%, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-Glutamic Acid >99.0%(T)
Zhong Ya Chemical
L-Glutamic Acid
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 30000 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 42, 1970.

oral-rabbit LD50 > 2300 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 42, 1970.

intravenous-human TDLo 117 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 214, Pg. 281, 1947.

oral-human TDLo 71 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE
Science. Vol. 163, Pg. 826, 1969.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor enhancers, salt substitute
Recommendation for laevo-glutamic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 5. Update in publication number(s): 25
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 1400.000003000.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 400.00000600.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 60.00000600.00000
breakfast cereal: 600.000003000.00000
cheese: 1400.000003000.00000
chewing gum: 100.00000500.00000
condiments / relishes: 2000.000005000.00000
confectionery froastings: 300.00000500.00000
egg products: 1000.000002000.00000
fats / oils: 200.00000600.00000
fish products: 1000.000002500.00000
frozen dairy: 1400.000003000.00000
fruit ices: 200.00000600.00000
gelatins / puddings: 200.00000500.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 1400.000003000.00000
hard candy: 200.00000600.00000
imitation dairy: 1400.000003000.00000
instant coffee / tea: 300.00000600.00000
jams / jellies: 300.00000500.00000
meat products: 1400.000003000.00000
milk products: 1400.000003000.00000
nut products: 300.000001000.00000
other grains: 300.000002000.00000
poultry: 1000.000002000.00000
processed fruits: 60.00000300.00000
processed vegetables: 300.00000500.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 200.00000400.00000
seasonings / flavors: 20000.00000250000.00000
snack foods: 2000.000005000.00000
soft candy: 200.00000600.00000
soups: 1000.000005000.00000
sugar substitutes: 200.000001000.00000
sweet sauces: 200.00000500.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety of the change in the production method of L-glutamic acid (E620), monosodium L-glutamate (E621), monopotassium L-glutamate (E622), calcium di-L-glutamate (E623), monoammonium L-glutamate (E624) and magnesium di-L-glutamate (E625)
View page or View pdf

Re-evaluation of glutamic acid (E 620), sodium glutamate (E 621), potassium glutamate (E 622), calcium glutamate (E 623), ammonium glutamate (E 624) and magnesium glutamate (E 625) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):56-86-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :33032
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Chemidplus:0000056860
RTECS:LZ9700000 for cas# 56-86-0
 
References:
 (2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:56-86-0
Pubchem (cid):33032
Pubchem (sid):134972924
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00025
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00148
FooDB:FDB012535
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00271
Export Tariff Code:2922.42.5000
Household Products:Search
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
bready
coffee furanone
FL/FR
furfural
FL/FR
caramellic
maltol
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
fermented
propyl nonanoate
FL/FR
floral
bitter
orangeflower concrete morocco
FR
phenethyl butyrate
FL/FR
fruity
ethyl 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoate
FR
minty
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
musty
2-
acetyl pyrrole
FL/FR
nutty
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
popcorn
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
spicy
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
woody
pinacol
FR
yeasty
2-
octen-4-one
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
propyl nonanoate
FL/FR
bready
bready
2-
propionyl thiazole
FL
brown
furfural
FL/FR
burnt
furfuryl alcohol
FL
caramellic
maltol
FL/FR
shoyu furanone
FL/FR
toffee furanone
FL/FR
cocoa
butyraldehyde
FL
coffee
diisoamyl thiomalate
FL
corn chip
2-
acetyl-2-thiazoline
FL
fruity
phenethyl butyrate
FL/FR
metallic
2,5-
dihydroxy-1,4-dithiane
FL
minty
dextro-
carvone
FL/FR
nutty
2-
acetyl pyrrole
FL/FR
coffee furanone
FL/FR
filbert pyrazine
FL/FR
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
roasted
2-
acetyl pyrazine
FL/FR
spicy
caraway seed oleoresin
FL/FR
vegetable
2-
octen-4-one
FL/FR
waxy
furfuryl octanoate
FL
 
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 bread white bread
 hair conditioning
 humectants
FLyeast
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond seed
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 apple fruit
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 apricot fruit
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 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
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 asparagus shoot
Search Trop Picture
 avocado fruit
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 banana fruit
Search Trop Picture
 barley seed
Search Trop Picture
 basil leaf
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 basswood fruit
Search Trop Picture
 bean adzuki bean seed
Search Trop Picture
 bean banner bean seed
Search Trop Picture
 bean black bean fruit
Search Trop Picture
 bean black bean seed
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 bean black bean sprout
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 bean butter bean seed
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 bean fava bean seed
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 bean green bean seed
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 bean lima bean seed
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 bean mung bean seed
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 bean mung bean sprout
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 bean winged bean leaf
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 bean winged bean seed
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 bean winged bean tuber
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 bean yam bean tuber
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 beet root
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 blueberry fruit
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 brazil nut
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 breadfruit seed
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 broadbean seed
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 buckwheat seed
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 burdock root
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 butternut seed
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 caraway seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery plant
Search Trop Picture
 celery seed
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 celery shoot
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 chayote fruit
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 chestnut sweet chestnut seed
Search Trop Picture
 chickpea seed
Search Trop Picture
 chive leaf
Search Trop Picture
 coconut endosperm
Search Trop Picture
 coconut leaf
Search Trop Picture
 coconut seed
Search Trop Picture
 coffee arabica coffee bean
Search Trop Picture
 coffee bean
Search Trop Picture
 coriander fruit
Search Trop Picture
 coriander seed
Search Trop Picture
 corn seed
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 cowpea seed
Search Trop Picture
 cucumber fruit
Search Trop Picture
 currant black currant fruit juice
Search Trop Picture
 dandelion leaf
Search Trop Picture
 date palm fruit
Search Trop Picture
 eggplant fruit
Search Trop Picture
 endive leaf
Search Trop Picture
 evening-primrose seed
Search Trop Picture
 fennel seed
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic leaf
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 ginger root
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot leaf
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 irish moss thallus
Search PMC Picture
 leek wild leek plant
Search Trop Picture
 lemon plant
Search Trop Picture
 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
Search Trop Picture
 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
Search Trop Picture
 lettuce leaf
Search Trop Picture
 lotus indian lotus rhizome
Search Trop Picture
 lotus indian lotus seed
Search Trop Picture
 lupin white lupin seed
Search Trop Picture
 lupine white lupine seed
Search Trop Picture
 macadamia nut
Search Trop Picture
 mallow jew's mallow leaf
Search Trop Picture
 mandarin fruit
Search Trop Picture
 mango fruit
Search Trop Picture
 marango shoot
Search Trop Picture
 melon bitter melon fruit
Search Trop Picture
 melon bitter melon seed
Search Trop Picture
 moringa shoot
Search Trop Picture
 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
Search PMC Picture
 mustard white mustard seed
Search Trop Picture
 oat plant
Search Trop Picture
 oat seed
Search Trop Picture
 okra fruit
Search Trop Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop Picture
 papaya fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pea
Search Trop Picture
 pea black-eyed pea seed
Search Trop Picture
 pea fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pea pigeon pea seed
Search Trop Picture
 pea seed
Search Trop Picture
 pea shoot
Search Trop Picture
 peach fruit
Search Trop Picture
 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pepper bell pepper fruit
Search Trop Picture
 peppermint leaf
Search Trop Picture
 pigweed leaf
Search Trop Picture
 pine pinyon pine seed
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pistachio nut
Search Trop Picture
 plum fruit
Search Trop Picture
 poppy opium poppy seed
Search Trop Picture
 potato sweet potato root
Search Trop Picture
 potato tuber
Search Trop Picture
 purslane herb
Search Trop Picture
 radish root
Search Trop Picture
 rice hay
Search Trop Picture
 rosemary leaf
Search Trop Picture
 rye seed
Search Trop Picture
 saffron bulb
Search Trop Picture
 sesame seed
Search Trop Picture
 sorrel west african sorrel leaf
Search Trop Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop Picture
 soybean shoot
Search Trop Picture
 spearmint leaf
Search Trop Picture
 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 strawberry guava fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 taro root
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 tarragon leaf
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon root
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
Search Trop Picture
 walnut black walnut nut
Search Trop Picture
 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
Search Trop Picture
 watermelon fruit
Search Trop Picture
 watermelon seed
Search Trop Picture
 wheat seed
Search Trop Picture
 yam mountain yam root
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
(S)-2-aminoglutaric acid
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
(S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
(S)-(+)-glutamic acid
L-glutamic acid
L-(+)-glutamic acid
L-glutamic acid fcc base
L-glutamic acid FCC, natural
 glutamic acid, (S)-
 glutamic acid, L-
 

Articles:

PubMed:Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
PubMed:Production and optimization of L-glutaminase enzyme from Hypocrea jecorina pure culture.
PubMed:Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii.
PubMed:II. Glutamine and glutamate.
PubMed:Glutamate and the flavor of foods.
PubMed:Improved Production of Poly-gamma-Glutamic Acid by Bacillus subtilis D7 Isolated from Doenjang, a Korean Traditional Fermented Food, and Its Antioxidant Activity.
PubMed:Enzymatic production of alpha-ketoglutaric acid from l-glutamic acid via l-glutamate oxidase.
PubMed:Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile.
PubMed:The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.
PubMed:CuInS(2) quantum dots/poly((L)-glutamic acid)-drug conjugates for drug delivery and cell imaging.
PubMed:pH-Sensitive nano-systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy.
PubMed:Ingestion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits peripheral taste responses to sucrose in mice.
PubMed:Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.
PubMed:Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
PubMed:Effect of metformin on the urinary metabolites of diet-induced-obese mice studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS).
PubMed:Recombinant expression, purification and characterisation of the native glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus plantarum NC8.
PubMed:Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses.
PubMed:Novel synthesis of steryl esters from phytosterols and amino Acid.
PubMed:Folate analysis in foods by UPLC-MS/MS: development and validation of a novel, high throughput quantitative assay; folate levels determined in Australian fortified breads.
PubMed:Antiadhesion as a functional concept for prevention of pathogens: N-Phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides as inhibitors of the Helicobacter pylori BabA outer membrane protein.
PubMed:Twofold pH and temperature stimuli-responsive behaviour in block copolypeptide-decorated single wall carbon nanotubes.
PubMed:The influence of monoacylglycerol and L-glutamic acid on the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour dough and sensory characteristics of French loaf product.
PubMed:Comparison of genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 and 9c strains isolated during three outbreaks associated with raw almonds.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of theanine from glutamic acid ╬│-methyl ester and ethylamine by immobilized Escherichia coli cells with ╬│-glutamyltranspeptidase activity.
PubMed:Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array.
PubMed:Sensory-directed identification of beta-alanyl dipeptides as contributors to the thick-sour and white-meaty orosensation induced by chicken broth.
PubMed:History of glutamate production.
PubMed:Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii.
PubMed:Odor detection thresholds and enantiomeric distributions of several 4-alkyl substituted gamma-lactones in Australian red wine.
PubMed:Enhanced production of poly (gamma-glutamic acid) from Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2324 by using metabolic precursors.
PubMed:Effects of cultivation conditions on the production of gamma-PGA with Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7.
PubMed:Absorption of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in healthy humans by oral administration of cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
PubMed:Mechanism of the suppression against D-galactosamine-induced hepatic injury by dietary amino acids in rats.
PubMed:Microstructure of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) produced by Bacillus subtilis consisting of clusters of D- and L-glutamic acid repeating units.
PubMed:Luteimonas composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from food waste.
PubMed:High-throughput microplate enzymatic assays for fast sugar and acid quantification in apple and tomato.
PubMed:The influence of extrusion on loss and racemization of amino acids.
PubMed:Antimicrobial polypeptide multilayer nanocoatings.
PubMed:Characterization of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase produced by Bacillus sp. isolated from Thai Thua-nao.
PubMed:Terminal nerve-derived neuropeptide y modulates physiological responses in the olfactory epithelium of hungry axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).
PubMed:Efficient production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7.
PubMed:Quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed:Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a developmental neurotoxicity test.
PubMed:[Media optimization for the novel antimicrobial peptide by Bacillus sp. fmbJ224].
PubMed:Atopococcus tabaci gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped bacterium isolated from tobacco.
PubMed:Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
PubMed:Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) and structure determination of taste-active polyphenols.
PubMed:Activity-guided identification of (S)-malic acid 1-O-D-glucopyranoside (morelid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid as contributors to umami taste and mouth-drying oral sensation of morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed:Glutathione: a review on biotechnological production.
PubMed:Bioprocess monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy.
PubMed:Low molecular weight compounds responsible for savory taste of Indonesian soy sauce.
PubMed:Application of stepwise discriminant analysis to classify commercial orange juices using chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence data of amino acids.
PubMed:Effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in an airlift reactor.
PubMed:Monohydroxamates of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibit antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.
PubMed:Discrimination between arabica and robusta coffee species on the basis of their amino acid enantiomers.
PubMed:Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed:Synthesis and sensory characterization of novel umami-tasting glutamate glycoconjugates.
PubMed:Reaction of folic acid with reducing sugars and sugar degradation products.
PubMed:Changes in nitrogen compounds in must and wine during fermentation and biological aging by flor yeasts.
PubMed:Long-term zinc deficiency decreases taste sensitivity in rats.
PubMed:Formation of Pentylpyridines in an Oil Medium.
PubMed:Glutamate and the flavor of foods.
PubMed:Metabolism of theanine, gamma-glutamylethylamide, in rats.
PubMed:Pullulan production from deproteinized whey by Aureobasidium pullulans.
PubMed:High-throughput flow-injection analysis of glucose and glutamate in food and biological samples by using enzyme/polyion complex-bilayer membrane-based electrodes as the detectors.
PubMed:Aspartate dehydrogenase in vitamin B12-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 13541.
PubMed:Effect of glutamic acid on broilers given submarginal crude protein with adequate essential amino acids using feeds high and low in potassium.
PubMed:Mitigating the effects of halofuginone on skin strength by feeding L-proline to broiler chickens.
PubMed:The addition of glutamic acid or protein to a threonine-deficient diet differentially affects growth performance and threonine dehydrogenase activity in fattening pigs.
PubMed:The significance of apical K+ channels in mudpuppy feeding behavior.
PubMed:Nutritional profile and antimicrobial spectrum of the spice Aframomum danielli K. Schum.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary levels of tryptophan and protein on voluntary feed intake and growth performance in pigs, in relation to plasma free amino acids and hypothalamic serotonin.
PubMed:Enzymatic determination of free glutamic acid in dried soups and in minced sausages: NMKL collaborative study.
PubMed:Glutamic acid-induced shoot differentiation in tobacco callus tissues and changes in nicotine content and in activities of aminotransferases, ornithine transcarbamylase, and arginase.
PubMed:Effects of l-glutamic acid diethyl ester on discrimination learning in rats.
PubMed:Two proglumide analogues are equipotent antagonists of the inhibition of food intake by CCK-8.
PubMed:[Toxicological characteristics of disodium salt of N-lauroyl-L-glutamic acid--a surface-active agent used in the food processing industry].
PubMed:Effect of diets supplemented with amino acids on intestinal sucrase and leucine aminopeptidase activities in rats.
 
Notes:
a non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the l-form. glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Obt. from acid hydrol. of proteins. Since 1965 the industrial source of glutamic acid for MSG production has been bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate sources such as molasses and corn starch hydrolysate in the presence of a nitrogen source such as ammonium salts or urea. Annual production approx. 350000t worldwide in 1988. Seasoning additive in food manuf. (as Na, K and NH4 salts). Dietary supplement, nutrient Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is a non-essential amino acid. (Wikipedia)
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