EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

capscaisin
nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamide

Sponsors

Name:N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]nonanamide
CAS Number: 2444-46-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:497080-86-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:219-484-1
FDA UNII:S846B891OR
Nikkaji Web:J7.575B
Beilstein Number:2144300
MDL:MFCD00017286
CoE Number:590
XlogP3-AA:4.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:293.40679000
Formula:C17 H27 N O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1599 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamide
FLAVIS Number:16.006 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:16.006 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamide
FEMA Number:2787 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamide
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: NONANOYL 4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYBENZYLAMIDE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to pale brown crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.94600 @ 20.00 °C.
Refractive Index:1.45200 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 124.00 to 128.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 492.00 to 493.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Flash Point: 485.00 °F. TCC ( 251.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 3.202 (est)
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 dipropylene glycol
 water, slightly
 water, 7.716 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. bland odorless
Flavor Type: pungent
">pungent spicy
Taste Description: pungent burning
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Indukern F&F
CAPSAICIN SYNTHETIC
Odor Description:ALMOST ODORLESS, HERBAL
Taste Description:pungent burning
FCI SAS
NONIVAMIDE
Odor Description:Mild, warm-herbaceous
Taste Description:Burning, pungent
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Apiscent Labs
NONIVAMIDE (KOSHER)
Odor: Mild, warm-herbaceous
Apiscent Labs
NONIVAMIDE (NON-KOSHER)
Apiscent Labs
NONIVAMIDE 10 WT% SOLUTION IN BENZYL ALCOHOL
Beijing Lys Chemicals
8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-B-nonenamide
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Nonivamide >98%
Changsha Organic Herb
Red Chilli Peppers Extract
FCI SAS
NONIVAMIDE
Odor: Mild, warm-herbaceous
Flavor: Burning, pungent
Indukern F&F
CAPSAICIN SYNTHETIC
Odor: ALMOST ODORLESS, HERBAL
Jiangyin Healthway
Nonivamide?Pelargonic acid vanillylamide?
New functional food ingredients
M&U International
NONIVAMIDE
Nacalai USA
For experimental / research use only.
N-Vanillylnonanamide
Penta International
N-NONANOYL VANILLYLAMIDE CONGEALED LIQUID, Kosher
Penta International
N-NONANOYL VANILLYLAMIDE POWDER, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
N-Vanillylnonanamide
Synerzine
Capsaicin, Synthetic
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
N-Vanillylnonanamide [=Capsaicin (Synthetic)] >96.0%(N)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 25 - Toxic if swallowed.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 8 mg/kg
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Vol. 36, Pg. 2595, 1993.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents
Recommendation for capscaisin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 6.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.07 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -10.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -10.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -10.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): --
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): --
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): 10.00000300.00000
Confectionery (05.0): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): --
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): --
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, (FGE.86)[1] - Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives - Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 40: An aromatic derivative of 2-hydroxy-propionamide. Chemical group 16
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 1 (FGE.86Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 2 (FGE.86Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and arylalkyl amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):2444-46-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :2998
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2811
WGK Germany:3
N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]nonanamide
Chemidplus:0002444464
RTECS:RA5955000 for cas# 2444-46-4
 
References:
 N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]nonanamide
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:2444-46-4
Pubchem (cid):2998
Pubchem (sid):134981769
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D08282
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB29846
FooDB:FDB001066
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
amber
angelica seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
anisic
bitter
fennel seed oil spain
FR
balsamic
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
copaiba balsam oil
FL/FR
hemlock western oil (tsuga heterophylla) canada
FR
tolu balsam oil
FL/FR
floral
alpha-
bisabolol
FL/FR
herbal
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
spicy
agarospirol
FR
atractylis root oil
FR
4-
carvomenthenol
FL/FR
croton eluteria bark oil
FL/FR
ethyl vinyl ketone
FL/FR
grains of paradise oil
FL/FR
myrcene
FR
black
pepper absolute
FL/FR
pepper hexanone
FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
pepper tree berry oil
FL/FR
(E,E)-
piperine
FL/FR
zvoulimba leaf oil
FR
terpenic
angelica seed oil
FL/FR
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
laevo-
limonene
FL/FR
woody
guaiacwood oil 20% in gurjun balsam oil
FR
alpha-
guaiene
FL/FR
methyl vetivate
FR
sugi wood oil
FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
alpha-
bisabolol
FL/FR
capsicum oleoresin
FL
grains of paradise oil
FL/FR
alpha-
guaiene
FL/FR
(E,E)-
piperine
FL/FR
amber
amber
angelica seed oil
FL/FR
balsamic
copaiba balsam oil
FL/FR
tolu balsam oil
FL/FR
cooling
4-
carvomenthenol
FL/FR
green
canarium luzonicum gum
FL/FR
canarium luzonicum oil
FL/FR
elemi resinoid
FL/FR
herbal
angelica seed oil CO2 extract
FL/FR
spicy
chipotle chili oleoresin
FL
croton eluteria bark oil
FL/FR
cubeb oleoresin
FL
ethyl vinyl ketone
FL/FR
jalapeno oleoresin
FL
black
pepper absolute
FL/FR
black
pepper oil
FL/FR
white
pepper oleoresin
FL
black
pepper oleoresin
FL/FR
pepper tree berry oil
FL/FR
terpenic
juniperus communis fruit oil
FL/FR
laevo-
limonene
FL/FR
woody
amyris wood oil
FL/FR
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 cayenne fruit
Search Trop Picture
 chili pepper
Search PMC Picture
 pepper bell pepper fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pepper bell pepper sap
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
pseudocapsaicin
 capsaicin synthetic
 capscaisin
 capscaisin 10% vegetable oil
N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)methyl]nonanamide
N-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl nonanamide
N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)nonanamide
N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl) nonanamide
N-((hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)4-nonanamide
N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)nonanamide
N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]nonanamide
 hydroxymethoxybenzyl pelargonamide
8-methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-b-nonenamide
 nonanamide, N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-
 nonanamide, N-[ (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-
 nonanamide, N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-
 nonanamide, N-vanillyl-
 nonanoic acid 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylamide
 nonanoic acid vanillylamide
 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzylamide
 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl amide
 nonanoyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamide
N-nonanoyl vanillyl amide
N-nonanoyl vanillylamide congealed liquid
N-nonanoyl vanillylamide powder
 nonivamide
 nonivamide (non-kosher)
 nonivamide 10 wt% solution in benzyl alcohol
 nonoyl vanillylamide
 nonylic acid vanillylamide
 nonylvanylamide
 pelargonic acid vanillyl amide
 pelargonic acid vanillylamide
 pelargonic acid, vanillylamide
 pelargonyl vanillilamide
 pelargonyl vanillyl amide
 pelargonyl vanillylamide
 vanillyl pelargonic amide
 vanillyl-N-nonyl amide
 vanillyl-N-nonylamide
N-vanillylnonamide
N-vanillylnonanamide
N-vanillylnonanoamide
N-vanillylpelargonamide
 

Articles:

Info:aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides
PubMed:The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: A randomized, crossover trial.
PubMed:Oil-in-Oil-Emulsions with Enhanced Substantivity for the Treatment of Chronic Skin Diseases.
PubMed:Evaluation of changes in the haemoglobin of skin and muscle tissue of the calf, as induced by topical application of a nonivamide/nicoboxil cream.
PubMed:In vitro studies on release and skin permeation of nonivamide from novel oil-in-oil-emulsions.
PubMed:Nonivamide, a capsaicin analog, increases dopamine and serotonin release in SH-SY5Y cells via a TRPV1-independent pathway.
PubMed:In vitro skin permeation and penetration of nonivamide from novel film-forming emulsions.
PubMed:[A novel method for the identification of illegal cooking oil (1): detection of three capsaicinoids with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Toxic effects of environment-friendly antifoulant nonivamide on Phaeodactylum tricornutum.
PubMed:Reactive intermediates produced from the metabolism of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids by p450 enzymes.
PubMed:Comparison of the effects of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin on human vanilloid receptors.
PubMed:New film forming emulsions containing Eudragit® NE and/or RS 30D for sustained dermal delivery of nonivamide.
PubMed:Determination and pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol in mouse plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Novel penetration enhancers for skin applications: a review.
PubMed:Contributions of TRPV1, endovanilloids, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in lung cell death in vitro and lung injury.
PubMed:Structure-activity relationship of capsaicin analogs and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-mediated human lung epithelial cell toxicity.
PubMed:Molecular dynamics at ambient and elevated pressure of the amorphous pharmaceutical: nonivamide (pelargonic acid vanillylamide).
PubMed:Synthesis, photolysis studies and in vitro photorelease of caged TRPV1 agonists and antagonists.
PubMed:Protective effect and relation structure-activity of nonivamide and iododerivatives in several models of lipid oxidation.
PubMed:A comparison of pretreatment with a topical combination of nonivamide and nicoboxil and surgical delay in a random pattern skin flap model.
PubMed:Neuroprotective effects of glyceryl nonivamide against microglia-like cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.
PubMed:Transdermal delivery of capsaicin derivative-sodium nonivamide acetate using microemulsions as vehicles.
PubMed:Evaluation of ketoprofen formulations via penetration rate and irritation in vivo study.
PubMed:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonists cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in human lung cells.
PubMed:Effect of topical application of capsaicin and its related compounds on dermal insulin-like growth factor-I levels in mice and on facial skin elasticity in humans.
PubMed:Analysis of eight capsaicinoids in peppers and pepper-containing foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.
PubMed:Electrically-assisted skin permeation of two synthetic capsaicin derivatives, sodium nonivamide acetate and sodium nonivamide propionate, via rate-controlling polyethylene membranes.
PubMed:TRPV1 antagonists elevate cell surface populations of receptor protein and exacerbate TRPV1-mediated toxicities in human lung epithelial cells.
PubMed:The taming of capsaicin. Reversal of the vanilloid activity of N-acylvanillamines by aromatic iodination.
PubMed:Local heating of human skin by millimeter waves: effect of blood flow.
PubMed:Metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 produces novel dehydrogenated metabolites and decreases cytotoxicity to lung and liver cells.
PubMed:Improved dorsal random-pattern skin flap survival in rats with a topically applied combination of nonivamide and nicoboxil.
PubMed:Effect of arvanil (N-arachidonoyl-vanillyl-amine), a nonpungent anandamide-capsaicin hybrid, on ion currents in NG108-15 neuronal cells.
PubMed:Determination of capsaicin, nonivamide, and dihydrocapsaicin in blood and tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:In vitro topical application and in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of nonivamide hydrogels using Wistar rat as an animal model.
PubMed:Transdermal iontophoresis of sodium nonivamide acetate. V. Combined effect of physical enhancement methods.
PubMed:Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by a capsaicin derivative, glyceryl nonivamide, in an experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo evaluations of topically applied capsaicin and nonivamide from hydrogels.
PubMed:Evaluation of percutaneous absorption and skin irritation of ketoprofen through rat skin: in vitro and in vivo study.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.
PubMed:Determination of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in self-defense weapons by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Capsaicin and nonivamide as novel skin permeation enhancers for indomethacin.
PubMed:The transepidermal oxygen flux from the environment is in balance with the capillary oxygen supply.
PubMed:Nitrated nonivamide displaying a drawback of proton's role in capsaicin-associated sensory and neuronal activities.
PubMed:The effect of the base on the kinetics of action of the capsaicinoid nonivamide: evaluation with a hyperemic test.
PubMed:Transdermal delivery of sodium nonivamide propionate by iontophoresis.
PubMed:Selective block by glyceryl nonivamide of inwardly rectifying K+ current in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells.
PubMed:A possible role of nitric oxide formation in the vasodilatation of rabbit ear artery induced by a topically applied Capsaicin analogue.
PubMed:The responses of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons to capsaicin and two nonpungent vanilloid receptor agonists, olvanil and glyceryl nonamide.
PubMed:Glyceryl nonivamide: a capsaicin derivative with cardiac calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing, K+ channel opening and vasorelaxant properties.
PubMed:Glyceryl nonivamide, a nonpungent analogue of capsaicin, enhances substance P release and renal function in rats.
PubMed:Development and evaluation of transdermal patches of nonivamide and sodium nonivamide acetate.
PubMed:Capsinolol: the first beta-adrenoceptor blocker with an associated calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing activity in the heart.
PubMed:Multiple sensory and functional effects of non-phenolic aminodimethylene nonivamide: an approach to capsaicin antagonist.
PubMed:Sodium nonivamide acetate: a non-pungently antinociceptive capsaicin derivative with unusual anti-inflammatory properties.
PubMed:In vitro effect of penetration enhancers on sodium nonivamide acetate in rat skin.
PubMed:Metabolism of capsaicinoids: evidence for aliphatic hydroxylation and its pharmacological implications.
PubMed:Autonomic and sensory cardiovascular activities of nonivamide: intrathecal administration of clonidine.
PubMed:Desensitizing mechanism of capsaicin and nonanoyl vanillylamide on the vascular nociceptive response in the guinea pig.
PubMed:Capsaicin: identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy.
PubMed:Cardiovascular interactions of nonivamide, glyceryl nonivamide, capsaicin analogues, and substance P antagonist in rats.
PubMed:Cardiovascular effects of nonivamide succinate.
PubMed:[The effect of nonanoyl vanillylamide on the chemically-induced nociception].
PubMed:Studies on the hypothermic response of capsaicin and its analogue in mice.
PubMed:Comparison of nonivamide and capsaicin with regard to their pharmacokinetics and effects on sensory neurons.
 
Notes:
has effect on sensory neurons. Alkaloid from Capsicum spp. Flavouring ingredient Nonivamide is an organic compound and a capsaicinoid. It is an amide of pelargonic acid and vanillylamine. It is present in chili peppers, but is commonly manufactured synthetically. It is more heat-stable than capsaicin.
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