citric acid
1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-
 
Notes:
a key intermediate in metabolism. it is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. the salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability. Occurs in the free state in lemons, currants, beetroot etc. and the seeds and juices of many flowers and plants. Commercially produced by large-scale fermentation of sugars using the mould Aspergillus nigus. Constit. of fruit drinks, pharmaceutical syrups. Flavouring ingredient. Primary function as an acid, acidity regulator, antioxidant, preservative and sequestrant. One of the most widely used food additives. Its clean taste makes it applicable in soft drinks, sugar confectionery, preserves, soups and sauces Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. (Wikipedia)
  • Augustus Oils
    • Augustus Oils Ltd
      The Premier Supplier
      Augustus Oils Ltd, in harmony with nature - to present it at its best...
      A wealth of experience, expertise and knowledge has allowed Augustus to bridge the gulf in expectation and trust between growers and users of natural ingredients. The Company works in partnership with customers on the one hand, and growers, farmers and distillers on the other. Both users and producers can then focus on exactly what they do best, while skilled Augustus technicians closely monitor and control the delivered product. This ensures users can have the confidence that they will receive the best raw materials suited to their requirements. Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients. The strength of the company is built on both its comprehensive knowledge base, and extensive stocks of raw materials for both fragrance and flavour use. To complement its range of conventional and Organic Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals, Augustus also offers a steadily increasing range of its own, UK manufactured Natural Extracts, Absolutes, Resinoids and Natural Chemicals. These again are fully tested and certificated, and very tightly quality controlled. Augustus is committed to promoting the use of natural ingredients, wherever the potential lies and to provide an environment of support and trust to both our customers and suppliers.
      Email: Enquiries
      Email: Sales
      Email: web site enquiries
      Voice: +44 (0)1420 590555
      Fax: +44 (0)1420 592420
      Services
      Product(s):
      Citric Acid
       
  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
      International trading and distribution
      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL SocietÓ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Email: Trading
      Email: Maintenance
      Email: Energy
      Voice: +41 91 695 88 00
      Fax: +41 91 695 88 01
      Linkedin
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      Company Profile
      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      Citric Acid
       
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
      Linkedin
      Product(s):
      CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS
       
  • OQEMA
    • OQEMA
      With a focus on providing the highest level of service
      OQEMA has established itself at the forefront of the global chemical industry.
      The guiding principles of OQEMA have always been to establish long term relationships with customers and suppliers alike to build sustainable and profitable business for all parties. Through OQEMA’s business divisions the company tailors products and services to better support and service our customers requirements. This structure also allows the company to focus its marketing campaigns more effectively to certain industries. Over the last decade OQEMA has achieved strong growth as a result of the expansion of our business model. Going forward, the company will be expanding this business model into existing and new strategic territories.
      Email: Contact Us:
      US Email: Dean Matienzo
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Dean Matienzo - Sales Manager
      Voice: +44 1993 843081
      Fax: +44 1993 841261
      US Voice: +1 973 886 3778
      US Fax: +1 973 346 1106
      Linkedin
      Website
      Global Distribution
      Product(s):
      Citric Acid Anhydrous
       
  • Penta International
  • PerfumersWorld
    • PerfumersWorld Ltd.
      feeeel... the smell!
      The one-stop resource for the creative perfumer.
      No minimum orders. Aroma chemicals, essential oils, isolates, pheremones, absolutes, resinoids, FleuressenceTM key bases, PWx FactorTM, solubilizers, kits, creation systems, workshops, training, distance learning, The PerfumersWorld Perfumer's Studio, The Perfumer’s Formulation Bulletin, perfumery software, bespoke creation, analysis, consultancy, project counselling, trouble-shooting, unperfumed product bases, bottles, smelling strips, scales, distillation, equipment and inspiration!
      Email: Enquiries
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +66(0)2-99-800-80
      Fax: +66(0)2-99-800-80
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      Software: Perfumer's Workbook
      Product(s):
      7CR03525 Citric Acid
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
      Facebook
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W230618 Citric acid, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
      SDS
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      Facebook
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      Product(s):
      C1949 Citric Acid >98.0%(T)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 77-92-9Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 201-069-1
FDA UNII: XF417D3PSL
Nikkaji Web: J2.824J
Beilstein Number: 0782061
MDL: MFCD00011669
CoE Number: 20
XlogP3: -1.70 (est)
Molecular Weight: 192.12416000
Formula: C6 H8 O7
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: acidulants, sequestrants, antioxidant synergists, flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1033 Citric acid View-review
EU SANCO Citric acid View-review
EU SANCO Citric acid View-review
JECFA Food Flavoring: 218  citric acid
JECFA Food Additive: Citric Acid
GSFA Codex: Citric acid (330)
DG SANTE Food Additives: citric acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: citric acid
FEMA Number: 2306  citric acid
FDA Mainterm: CITRIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.111 Acidified milk.


FDA PART 131 -- MILK AND CREAM
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.112 Cultured milk.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.129 Dry curd cottage cheese.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.173 Pasteurized process cheese food.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.


FDA PART 145 -- CANNED FRUITS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.134 Canned preserved figs.


FDA PART 145 -- CANNED FRUITS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.145 Canned grapefruit.


FDA PART 146 -- CANNED FRUIT JUICES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages
Sec. 146.187 Canned prune juice.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.130 Canned corn.


FDA PART 161 -- FISH AND SHELLFISH
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish
Sec. 161.190 Canned tuna.


FDA PART 163 -- CACAO PRODUCTS


FDA PART 163 -- CACAO PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.110 Cacao nibs.


FDA PART 163 -- CACAO PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.112 Breakfast cocoa.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.115 French dressing.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.140 Mayonnaise.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.150 Salad dressing.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart H--Other Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 172.755 Stearyl monoglyceridyl citrate.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart B--Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms
Sec. 173.160 Candida guilliermondii.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart B--Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms
Sec. 173.165 Candida lipolytica.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart C--Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 173.280 Solvent extraction process for citric acid.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.


FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1033 Citric acid.


FDA PART 73 -- LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.85 Caramel.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystals (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 152.00 to  154.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 309.00 to  310.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.640 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 592000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: odorless
 
Odor Strength: none
 
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
 
 
Flavor Type: acidic
 
 acidic  
Taste Description:
strong acidic
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
chelating agents
masking agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Aceto
Citric Acid
ADM
CITRIC ACID - TECHNICAL GRAD
Odor: odorless
Use: Citric acid anhydrous is produced as translucent crystals and as white crystalline powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Storage in tight containers away from heat and humidity (75oF and 55% RH) is recommended. Citric acid is widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries to impart a clean, refreshing tartness. Its prime use is as an acidulant, but it is also used as sequestrant of metal ions to give protection from the development of off-flavors and off-odors in certain foodstuffs. A major industrial use of citric acid is in the manufacture of ecologically compatible detergents. It is also used in chemical cleaning, concrete admixtures, plasticizers, and a range of other applications.
ADM
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS FINE GRANULAR
Odor: odorless
Use: Citric acid anhydrous is produced as translucent crystals and as white crystalline powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Storage in tight containers away from heat and humidity (75oF and 55% RH) is recommended. Citric acid is widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries to impart a clean, refreshing tartness. Its prime use is as an acidulant, but it is also used as sequestrant of metal ions to give protection from the development of off-flavors and off-odors in certain foodstuffs. A major industrial use of citric acid is in the manufacture of ecologically compatible detergents. It is also used in chemical cleaning, concrete admixtures, plasticizers, and a range of other applications.
ADM
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS GRANULAR
Odor: odorless
Use: Citric acid anhydrous is produced as translucent crystals and as white crystalline powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Storage in tight containers away from heat and humidity (75oF and 55% RH) is recommended. Citric acid is widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries to impart a clean, refreshing tartness. Its prime use is as an acidulant, but it is also used as sequestrant of metal ions to give protection from the development of off-flavors and off-odors in certain foodstuffs. A major industrial use of citric acid is in the manufacture of ecologically compatible detergents. It is also used in chemical cleaning, concrete admixtures, plasticizers, and a range of other applications.
ADM
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS POWDER
Odor: odorless
Use: Citric acid anhydrous is produced as translucent crystals and as white crystalline powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. Citric acid anhydrous is very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Storage in tight containers away from heat and humidity (75oF and 55% RH) is recommended. Citric acid is widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries to impart a clean, refreshing tartness. Its prime use is as an acidulant, but it is also used as sequestrant of metal ions to give protection from the development of off-flavors and off-odors in certain foodstuffs. A major industrial use of citric acid is in the manufacture of ecologically compatible detergents. It is also used in chemical cleaning, concrete admixtures, plasticizers, and a range of other applications.
ADM
CITROSOL® 502
Odor: odorless
Use: ADM Citrosol® 502 is industrial grade 50% aqueous citric acid solutions (anhydrous basis), suitable for use in industrial applications which do not require USP or FCC grade citric acid. Citrosol 502 is the highest quality product, for use where low color properties are required.
ADM
CITROSOL® 503
Odor: odorless
Use: ADM Citrosol® 503 is industrial grade 50% aqueous citric acid solutions (anhydrous basis), suitable for use in industrial applications which do not require USP or FCC grade citric acid. Citrosol 503 is the highest quality product, for use where low color properties are required.
Allan Chemical
Citric Acid
Anhui Haibei
Anhydrous citric acid
Anhui Haibei
Citric Acid
APAC Chemical
Citric Acid
Atlantic Chemicals
Citric Acid
Augustus Oils
Citric Acid
Services
BBFY Industrial
Citric Acid Anhydrous
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Citric Acid >98%
Bristol Botanicals
Citric acid crystals
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Citric acid, Bulk
Odor: characteristic
Use: Citric acid is the main ingredient in "fizzy bath bombs", the type one throws into a filled bathtub and the "bomb" begins fizzing once it hits the water. Dry Ingredients: 1 cup baking soda,1/2 cup citric acid,1/2 cup corn starch. Sieve dry ingredients til you get a nice smooth blend. (Optional: add 1/3 cup Epsom salts or coarse sea salt after sieving). Spray the dry mixture with witch hazel until it is the texture of sand like you would make a sand castle with, THEN add your citric acid and mix it in with your hands. Wet Ingredients:2-1/2 T. sunflower or other light oil, 3/4 T. water, 1 to 2 teaspoons essential oils or fragrance oils, vegetable or other natural colorant (optional). Combine wet ingredients in a jar. Cover tightly and shake vigorously. Drizzle onto dry ingredients and blend thoroughly. Pack tightly into molds and set out to dry overnight. They should release easily!
Cargill, Inc.
Citric acid (Anhydrous, liquid)
Covalent Chemical
Citric Acid Anhydrous
ECSA Chemicals
Citric Acid
Company Profile
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Citric Acid
Farbest-Tallman Foods
Citric Acid Solution
Foodchem International
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Galaxy Surfactants North America
Citric Acid
George Uhe Company
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Graham Chemical
Citric Acid
Indenta Group
Citric Acid
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
Citric Acid
Flavor: sour
Citric acid is a naturally occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. Citric acid is the most widely used organic acidulant and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
LIQUINAT® - Liquid Citric Acid
Kraft Chemical
Citric Acid
Liberty Natural Products
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS FCC USP USA
Lluch Essence
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS
Mission flavors & fragrances
Citric Acid Solution
Northwestern Extract
Citric Acid FCC Anhydrous
OQEMA
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Penta International
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS GRANULAR FCC, Kosher
Penta International
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS GRANULAR USP, Kosher, Halal
Penta International
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS GRANULAR, NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS POWDER, Kosher
Penta International
CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS USP/EP/JP, Kosher, Halal
PerfumersWorld
Citric Acid
Prinova
Citric Acid
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Citric Acid
Rung International
Citric Acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Citric Acid, Anhydrous >99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Citric Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent. It is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic or sour taste to foods and drinks.
Tate & Lyle
Citric Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Citric Acid >98.0%(T)
The Ingredient House
Citric Acid
Viachem
Citric Acid
Flavor: sour
Citric acid, C6H8O7, is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. It can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent.
Zhong Ya Chemical
Citric Acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  3000 mg/kg
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 43, Pg. 561, 1992.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  903 mg/kg
Toxicology. Vol. 62, Pg. 203, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50  42 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 94, Pg. 65, 1948.

oral-mouse LD50  5040 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.

intravenous-rabbit LD50  330 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 94, Pg. 65, 1948.

oral-rabbit LDLo  7000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 15, Pg. 628, 1923.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  290 mg/kg
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (5), Pg. 9, 1994.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 5500 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 2700 mg/kg
MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: acidulants, sequestrants, antioxidant synergists, flavoring agents
Recommendation for citric acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -1200.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -2500.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -3600.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -1600.00000
fruit ices: -1600.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -4300.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of citric acid when used as a technological additive (acidity regulator) for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of citric acid when used as a technological additive (preservative) for all animal species
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Safety assessment of the active substances citric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate for use in active food contact materials
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EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 77-92-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 311
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Chemidplus: 0000077929
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 77-92-9
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References:
 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 77-92-9
Pubchem (cid): 311
Pubchem (sid): 134972805
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00158
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00094
FooDB: FDB012586
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00086
Export Tariff Code: 2918.14.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
FAO: CITRIC ACID
FAO: Citric acid
Formulations/Preparations:
•anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution, citric acid syrup, & effervescent salts. •grades of purity: usp; reagent; monohydrate grade. •grades: both hydrous (hydrated) and anhydrous, technical, chemically pure, united states pharmacopeia, food chemical codex. •citric acid for pharmaceutical use: not <99.5% anhydrous citric acid; not >5% water; not >0.05% ash; not >0.001% heavy metals; not > 0.0003% as. hydrous citric acid may contain up to 8.8% water •liquid citric acid is commercially available in a variety of concentrations with 50% ww being most common. grades are available that vary in appearance, purity, and color.
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
For Odor
acidic
2-ethyl butyric acidFL/FR
2-methyl butyric acidFL/FR
2-methyl-2-pentenoic acidFL/FR
caramellic
 levulinic acidFL/FR
cheesy
 butyric acidFL/FR
 valeric acidFL/FR
fruity
(E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
 
For Flavor
 
acidic
2-ethyl butyric acidFL/FR
2-furoic acidFL
(E)-2-hexenoic acidFL
 levulinic acidFL/FR
 propionic acidFL
 valeric acidFL/FR
fruity
(E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetateFL/FR
2-methyl butyric acidFL/FR
 tamarind flavorFL
 tamarindus indica extractFL
fusel
 methyl butyrateFL/FR
malty
 malt distillatesFL
sour
 acetic acidFL
 butyric acidFL/FR
2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic acidFL
3-methyl valeric acidFL
2-methyl-2-pentenoic acidFL/FR
winey
5-ethyl-2-methyl pyridineFL
 
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Potential Uses:
 buffering agents 
 chelating agents 
 citrusFL
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 apple custard apple plant
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 apple fruit
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 apple mamey apple fruit
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 apple plant
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 apricot fruit
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 banana fruit
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 bean fava bean fruit
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 beet root
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 bilberry fruit
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 bilberry leaf
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 broadbean seed
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli plant
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckthorn sea buckthorn fruit
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 buckwheat leaf
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 cantaloupe leaf
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 caper plant
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 carrot root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery root
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
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 chicory plant
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 chive leaf
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 coconut seed
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 coffee arabica coffee bean
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 coffee bean
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 cranberry fruit
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 currant black currant fruit
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 currant fruit
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 currant red currant fruit
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 elder black elder fruit
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 fennel seed
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 fig fruit
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 ginkgo biloba pollen
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 gooseberry fruit
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 grape fruit
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 grape leaf
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 guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 lemon
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 lemon fruit
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 lemon fruit juice
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 lettuce leaf
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 lime fruit
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 loquat leaf
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 lupin white lupin seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 mamey fruit
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 mangosteen fruit
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 oat hull husk
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 onion bulb
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 onion leaf
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 parsley root
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 passion fruit fruit
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 pea
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 pea seed
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 peach fruit
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 pineapple fruit
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 plum fruit
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 pomegranate fruit juice
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 poppy opium poppy latex
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 potato tuber
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 purslane plant
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rhubarb plant
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 rose hips fruit
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 roselle flower
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 roselle fruit
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 soursop plant
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 soybean seed
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 spinach leaf
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 tamarind fruit
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 tomatillo fruit
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 tomato fruit
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 walnut english walnut fruit
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Synonyms:
3-carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid
 citretten
 citric acid - technical grade
 citric acid (anhydrous, liquid)
 citric acid >98.0%(T)
 citric acid anhydrous fine granular
 citric acid anhydrous granular
 citric acid anhydrous granular FCC
 citric acid anhydrous granular USP
 citric acid anhydrous granular, natural
 citric acid anhydrous powder
 citric acid anhydrous USP/EP/JP
 citric acid FCC anhydrous
 citric acid solution
 citrosol 502
 citrosol 503
2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid
2-hydroxypropane tricarboxylic acid
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
2-hydroxytricarballylic acid
beta-hydroxytricarboxylic acid
1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-
1,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Effect of pretreatments on extraction of pigment from marigold flower.
PubMed: Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.
PubMed: Acidic Organic Compounds in Beverage, Food, and Feed Production.
PubMed: Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.
PubMed: Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.
PubMed: Taste loss in hospitalized multimorbid elderly subjects.
PubMed: New insights into Lactococcus lactis diacetyl- and acetoin-producing strains isolated from diverse origins.
PubMed: Genetic analysis of chemosensory traits in human twins.
PubMed: Elucidating the formation pathway of the off-flavor compound 6-propylbenzofuran-7-ol.
PubMed: The effectiveness of antibrowning dip treatments to reduce after-cooking darkening in potatoes.
PubMed: Identification and analysis of the metabolic functions of a high-salt-tolerant halophilic aromatic yeast Candida etchellsii for soy sauce production.
PubMed: Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).
PubMed: The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species.
PubMed: Identification and characterization of genes related to the production of organic acids in yeast.
PubMed: Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.
PubMed: Identification of the medicinal off-flavor compound formed from ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal.
PubMed: Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "P├ęrola").
PubMed: Citrate uptake in exchange with intermediates in the citrate metabolic pathway in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.
PubMed: Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.
PubMed: Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis.
PubMed: Evaluation of natural antimicrobials on typical meat spoilage bacteria in vitro and in vacuum-packed pork meat.
PubMed: Chitosan coating improves retention and redispersibility of freeze-dried flavor oil emulsions.
PubMed: The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 on neural responses to acids by the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal and superior laryngeal nerves in mice.
PubMed: Evaluation of the effect of upper complete denture on gustatory and olfactory senses.
PubMed: Taste disorders and oral evaluation in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.
PubMed: High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.
PubMed: Effect of tenderizers combined with organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 thermal resistance in non-intact beef.
PubMed: Production of fresh Cheddar cheese curds with controlled postacidification and enhanced flavor.
PubMed: Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds.
PubMed: Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.
PubMed: Potentiation of taste and extract stimuli in conditioned flavor preference learning.
PubMed: The sensory interactions of organic acids and various flavors in ramen soup systems.
PubMed: Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.
PubMed: Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of amino acid auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32.
PubMed: Food color, flavor, and conditioned avoidance among red-winged blackbirds.
PubMed: Elementary mode analysis to study the preculturing effect on the metabolic state of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during growth on mixed substrates.
PubMed: Effect of citric acid and glycine addition on acrylamide and flavor in a potato model system.
PubMed: Sweetener/sweetness-induced changes in flavor perception and flavor release of fruity and green character in beverages.
PubMed: On-line MS/MS monitoring of acrylamide generation in potato- and cereal-based systems.
PubMed: Chemesthesis and taste: evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity.
PubMed: Descriptive sensory analysis of broiler breast fillets marinated in phosphate, salt, and acid solutions.
PubMed: Quantitative taste evaluation of total enteral nutrients.
PubMed: Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli.
PubMed: 'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor.
PubMed: Severe hypotension during hemofiltration in an uremic patient with metabolic alkalosis.
PubMed: Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of strawberry (Cv. Cigaline) during maturation.
PubMed: Age-associated increases in intensity discrimination for taste.
PubMed: Conditioned acceptance and preference but not altered taste reactivity responses to bitter and sour flavors paired with intragastric glucose infusion.
PubMed: The relation between saliva flow after different stimulations and the perception of flavor and texture attributes in custard desserts.
PubMed: II. Glutamine and glutamate.
PubMed: Sweet and sour preferences during childhood: role of early experiences.
PubMed: Ethanol flavor preference conditioned by intragastric carbohydrate in rats.
PubMed: Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed: Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229.
PubMed: An opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, does not alter taste and smell responses in humans.
PubMed: Organic acids and volatile flavor components evolved during refrigerated storage of kefir.
PubMed: Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
PubMed: Factors affecting the perception of naturalness and flavor strength in citrus drinks.
PubMed: Control of flavor development in wine during and after malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.
PubMed: Increased flavor acceptance and preference conditioned by the postingestive actions of glucose.
PubMed: Relation between saliva flow and flavor release from chewing gum.
PubMed: Kinetic analysis of yeast inactivation by high pressure treatment at low temperatures.
PubMed: Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric infusions of dilute polycose solutions.
PubMed: Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals.
PubMed: Flavor preference produced by intragastric polycose infusions in rats using a concurrent conditioning procedure.
PubMed: Clinical evaluation of a citric acid inhaler for smoking cessation.
PubMed: Changes in taste and flavor in aging.
PubMed: Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
PubMed: Parabrachial gustatory neural responses to monosodium glutamate ingested by awake rats.
PubMed: Development of a citric acid aerosol as a smoking cessation aid.
PubMed: Influence of the sense of taste on broiler chick feed consumption.
PubMed: Flavor preferences in malnourished Mexican infants.
PubMed: [Intermediate moisture foods: polysaccharide and protein gels].
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